Friday, September 23, 2016

EVANGELINE


ACTICAL AI 



LITERATURE 



Nujnber Two 



V \:^-^^ 




EVANGELINE I 



ARRANGf^n. -WITH NOTES BY 
ARTHUR t.. HAMILTON 






PUBLISHED BY 
THE WHITAKER ^. RAY CO^ 

EDUCATIONAL PUBLSHER3, 
, ; \SAN JFRANaSGO 



VANGELINE 



BY 



Henry W. L.ongfeli.ow 



.RRANGED WITH NOTES AND SUGGESTIONS FOR USE AS A BASIS 
IN ELEMENTARY ENGLISH WORKS 



ARTHUR L. HAMILTON 




San Francisco 

The "VVhitaker & Rat Co. 

(incorporated) 

1904 



^c, 



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, ^\^ 

CONGRESS. 
Onf Copv Recrivpt. i 

OCT. ? !5ft4J 
' COPY lr 






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EVANGELINE 



The Method of Work in this Study and the 
Results to be Obtained 



Longfellow's choice poem is presented in this lorm that the pupil 
may be led by way of an interesting road into the desire to study 
good English and into the ability to write it. 

The pupil should be trained to see clearly the pictured scenes por- 
trayed by words or contained in figures of speech. He should be 
able to describe these with exactness, in good, strong, English 
sentences of his own making. His composition book should contain 
written work on the suggestions for every selection herein. If but 
a sentence is asked for, it should be written out fully and be made 
to convey exactly the thought required by that upon which it is 
based. 

All work must be neatly done and therefore worthy of preserva- 
tion. It should bear the imprint of the teacher's judgment at regular 
intervals. It should grow better in thought and arrangement as the 
work progresses. Combined with a good text book in English 
Grammar, this may profitably be carried through an entire year. 

The words selected should be carefully studied. Their spelling 
and pronunciation should be mastered ; their meaning and derivation 
understood. Very interesting discussions may be had upon their 
analyses and derivations ; upon comparisons with their synonyms ; 
or upon their peculiar uses and shades of meaning. The forms are 
given as used in the poem, and definition should be made to fit the 
particular form given. For instance, if the word is plural, possessive, 
that fact should be noted and its proper definition given. 

The pupil can not really enlarge his vocabulary merely by study- 
ing definitions of words. He must be able to recognize prefixes, 
sufiixes, radicals or stems, if he would make the words his own. 
The pupil who is able thus to analyze words, knows the definition. 



4 EVANGELINE. 

Word-building should occupy much of the pupil's time in the years 
preceding the High School. What better opportunity is afforded 
than in the English work. A few good books for reference will whet 
the appetite for word collecting. The following are good : "A Stem 
Dictionary," by John Kennedy; also "What Words Say," by the 
same author; "Trench on the Study of Words;" "Short Stories 
from the Dictionary," by Oilman; "Forgotten Meanings," by 
Waites; "Rambles among Words," Swinton; "Folk-Etymology," 
Palmer; also a little book, "The Problem of Elementary Com- 
position," by Elizabeth H. Spalding, will be found to contain helpful 
suggestions for the teacher in the general English work of the 
earlier years. 

Frequent illustrated work is suggested. This may be done in 
amount as desired. To be able to rapidly make simple cuts is a 
pleasant, and in these days, often a profitable accomplishment. A 
dormant germ of talent in this line may be aroused. 

The memory work is important. Only those parts which seem 
most worthy of memorizing have been selected. These should be 
carefully memorized for- two reasons : first, young folks need training 
in the ability to accurately remember. They obtain the ability by 
exercising that faculty ; second, the desire to make a really meritor- 
ious passage their own, by storing it in the memory, should be 
cultivated. 

The ability to make good topical outlines in the study of English, 
is so important that no opportunity for practice should be neglected. 
The analysis of any selection demands of the student the power to 
see the symmetrical arrangement, and to have at his command the 
art of outlining. 

The object to be attained in this study is the development of 
the student, not merely to know the poem. Do not allow a multitude 
of things to crowd the time in which this work is done. 

A year of careful discussion of this poem and of conscientious 
work done as outlined will bring to the student a greatly increased 
ability to write English which shall contain good thought, expressed 
in well-constructed sentences, and will prove to be a year most 
delightfully and profitably spent. The student will find also that 
he has acquired much added ability to read the thought contained in 
the standard authors which follow in his English course, and will 
certainly appreciate their worth as he could not before. 

May all enjoy the work on this poem as much as did we of the 
Garfield Grammar School. 

A. L. H. 
Pasadena, Cal.. 1902. 



EVANGELINE. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF LONGFELLOW 



HENRY WADSWORTH LONGFELLOW, the author of the 
poem here presented for study, was born in the beautiful "Forest 
City," Portland, Maine, February 27, 1807. 

Near the end of the same year in a plain Quaker farmhouse in 
the valley of the Merrimac, near the little tov^^n of Haverhill, Mas- 
sachusetts, the poet Whittier was born. Thomas Jefferson was 
Hearing the end of his second term as President of the United States ; 
and the Embargo Acts were that year laid on commerce. Robert 
Fulton also made that year famous by the voyage on the Hudson of 
the first steamboat in the world, the Clermont. Nathaniel Haw- 
thorne was three years old, living over in Salem town, and Emerson 
a little lad of four in the city of Boston. Bryant was thirteen and 
already surprising people with products of his literary precocity. 
Holmes, Motley and Lowell had not yet been born. 

Longfellow was a quiet boy, loving books, and caring little for 
the games of schoolmates. In Portland Academy, or the sylvan 
shades of Deering's Woods, or among the picturesque islands of 
beautiful Casco Bay, 

"islands that were the Hesperides 
Of all my boyish dreams," 

he was thinking the "long, long thoughts of youth." He enjoyed 
summer vacation trips to the farm of his grandfather. Judge Long- 
fellow, a few miles from Portland, or to that of his grandfather, 
General Wadsworth, at Hiram, farther away. These visits gave 
him a taste of country life and its pleasures. In after years he wrote 
of these pleasant hours and the old clock on the stairs : 

"O precious hours ! O golden prime, 
And afifluence of love and time ! 
Even as a miser counts his gold, 
Those hours the ancient timepiece told." 

His mother was of a gentle, loving disposition. During her 
latter years she was an invalid, but always patient and cheerful, — a 



6 EVANGELINE. 

devoted Christian woman. The training she gave her son was of 
the best. She was a Wadsworth, and a descendant of John Alden 
and Priscilla. His father was kind, but strict, a graduate of Har- 
vard College, and a successful lawyer. 

Longfellow was sent to Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine, at 
the age of fifteen, and after four years of faithful work was gradu- 
ated in 1825. Nathaniel Hawthorne was a classmate. 

In September of that year, Longfellow received the appointment 
as Professor of Modern Languages in Bowdoin College, with the 
understanding that he should first spend some time in Europe fitting 
himself for the position. A winter passage of the stormy Atlantic 
in a sailing vessel was not inviting. (This was twelve years before 
the first steamer crossed the Atlantic.) He, therefore, spent the 
winter at home in Portland writing and studying law in his father's 
office. During the winter he wrote the "Burial of the Minnisink," 
"Autumn," — the one beginning "With what a glory comes and goes 
the year !"— the "Song of the Birds," "Musings," and "Song." 

In April he left for Europe, running over to Philadelphia from 
New York while waiting for the vessel. It is said that during a 
morning stroll here, he passed the Pennsylvania Hospital, the picture 
of which he had in mind when he portrayed the final meeting of 
Evangeline and Gabriel. 

While in Europe he studied the modern languages in France, 
Spain, Italy and Germany, spending three years thus, and returning, 
assumed his duties at Bowdoin at the age of twenty-two. 

In 1 83 1, about two years after entering upon his college work, 
he was united in marriage with Miss Mary Stover Potter. 

In 1834 he received the offer of the Smith Professorship of 
Modern Languages in Harvard University. He accepted and 
immediately left for Europe to still further fit himself for the duties 
of that place. The time was devoted to Northern Europe — Norway, 
Sweden, Holland, Denmark, Germany, Tyrol and Switzerland. While 
in Holland his wife died, leaving him to continue his studies in sor- 
row. He calls her to mind, the "Being Beauteous," as he writes the 
"Footsteps of Angels," in 1839. 

Before leaving for Europe this time, 1835, he had put "Outre 
Mer" in the hands of the publishers. 

He began his Harvard work in December, 1836, later taking up 
his residence in the historic Craigie House, once the headquarters of 
Washington. 

When Charles Dickens, then thirty years of age, visited this 
country, early in 1842, Mr. Longfellow entertained him at breakfast 
at the Craigie House. This visit was soon returned, for Mr. Long- 
fellow spent nearly all the remainder of 1842 in Europe, on leave 
of absence, for his health. He then had the pleasure of visiting 
Dickens at his home in London. 

In 1839 he wove into Hyperion a love-story in which the 



EVANGELINE. 7 

description of its heroine was that of Miss Appleton, a lady whom 
he had met while in Switzerland and who in 1843 became his wife. 
This happy union continued till 1861 when Mrs. Longfellow was 
accidentally burned so severely that death resulted. This was a sad 
blow to Mr. Longfellow, who did not cease to mourn her death 
through his remaining years. 

In 1854 he had resigned his Harvard professorship in order to 
devote himself to literary Avork, which he did up to his death, 
March 24, 1882. 



LONGFELLOW'S WRITINGS 

Longfellow was truly America's poet. His life has been a 
benediction to many a home. George William Curtis thus writes : 
'Among the great poetic names of the century in English literature, 
Burns, in a general way, is the poet of love ; Wordsworth, of lofty 
contemplation of nature; Byron, of passion; Shelley, of aspiration; 
Keats, of romance ; Scott, of heroic legend ; and not less, and quite 
as distinctively, Longfellow, of the domestic affections. He is the 
poet of the household, of the fireside, of the universal home feeling. 
The infinite tenderness and patience, the pathos and the beauty of 
daily life, of familiar emotion, and the common scene, — these are 
the significance of that verse whose beautiful and simple melody, 
softly murmuring for more than forty years, made the singer the 
most widely beloved of living men." 

Though his sympathies were world-wide, and he sought all 
countries and ages for material of which to weave his golden product, 
yet "Evangeline," "The Song of Hiawatha," and the "Courtship of 
Miles Standish" proclaim him America's poet. 

In 1835 he published "Outre Mer," — pleasantly told sketches of 
his European travel, and in 1839, Hyperion, a Romance, also upon 
European life. "Voices of the Night" appeared in 1839 ^"d brought 
him fame. In several of these lovely songs the poet speaks from 
his own heart's experiences, breathing love and sorrow, comfort, 
patience and trusting faith. Notably of these are the "Footsteps of 
Angels", the "Hymn to the Night", "The Light of Stars", "Psalm 
of Life", and "The Beleaguered City." 

Longfellow drew much of his inspiration from books and from 
the spirit of romance enkindled in foreign lands. He brought to 
American literature the flavor of old world learning. His trans- 



8 EVANGELINE. 

lations are exquisite renderings of the originals, and his own produc- 
tions breathe the essence of European poetry transformed in a way 
to touch the hearts of all his countrymen. 

Ballads and Other Poems, 1842, contained translations from 
the German and Scandanavian languages. Notably among the 
original pieces were "The Skeleton in Armor," suggested by the 
digging up of a mail-clad skeleton at Fall River, and "The Wreck 
of the Hesperus," written one night between midnight and three. 
"The Belfry of Bruges," in 1846, and "The Seaside and the Fire- 
side," 1850, were also collections of translations, and very beautiful 
original poems. Among the latter are "Seaweed," "The Old Clock 
on the Stairs," "The Building of the Ship," "The Occultation of 
Orion," "The Fire of Drift Wood," "The Bridge," "Resignation" 
and "The Day is Done," all reflecting tender feeling, and teaching 
pure, sweet morality. 

In 1847 Evangeline was published; in 1851, "The Golden 
Legend;" in 1855, "Hiawatha," and to crown his labors, the great 
translation of Dante's "Divina Commedia," 1867-1870. 



THE CREATION OF THE POEM 



Sometime about the year 1845, Nathaniel Hawthorne and Rev. 
H. L. Conolly were dining at the Craigie House with Mr. Long- 
fellow, when the clergyman remarked that he had vainly tried to 
interest Mr. Hawthorne in a pathetic incident which had been told 
him by one of his parishioners, and one which he believed would 
make the basis for an admirable romance, but Mr. Hawthorne did 
not care to use it. He then narrated the history of a young Acadian 
girl who had been carried from her home when her people were 
banished, and cruelly separated from her lover, whom she sought 
through long years, finally finding him, old and dying in a hospital. 
Mr. Longfellow said to Hawthorne, "If you really do not want this 
incident for a tale, let me have it for a poem." And thus it came 
about that Mr. Longfellow began the writing of what Dr. Holmes 
selects as his masterpiece. 

In Mr. Longfellow's diary he remarks on November 28, 1845, 
"Set about Gabrielle my idyll in hexameters, in earnest," adding that 
while others were doubtful of the measure, to him it seemed the only 
one for such a poem. 

On December 7, he was musing on what to call it, "Gabrielle," 
or "Celestine," or "Evangeline." On January 8, he was, mourning 



EVANGELINE. 9 

that he must be so often interrupted, and January 12, two cantos 
had been finished. During the spring ana summer, he records his 
neglect in writing upon his "dearly loved Evangeline," saying, "The 
cares of the world choke the good seed." December 10, commenced 
the second part. Half sick with a cold, he says he felt all day 
wretched enough to give it the somber tone of coloring that belongs 
to the theme. On December 17, he finished the first canto of part 
second, and on December 19, went to see a moving diorama of 
the Mississippi, in which, he says, "one seems to be sailing down the 
great stream, and sees the boats and the sand-banks, crested with 
Cottonwood, and the bayous by moonlight." 

On January 14, 1847, ^^ records the last canto finished, but 
with three intermediate ones yet to write. On January 26, he fin- 
ished second Canto of Part II, and February ist saw Canto third of 
Part II nearly done. On February 17, he records the ground cov- 
ered with snow, and that he that day wrote the description of the 
prairies. 

On February 27, his fortieth birthday, the last line was written 
and Evangeline ended, and in April he was reading proof sheets. 
The poem came from the press October 30, 1847, ^'^^ quite two years 
from its beginning. 

Mr. Longfellow never visited Nova Scotia, nor the scenes of 
the Mississippi River and the great West. He did not aim to write 
a historical account, yet his statements with reference to the expul- 
sion of the Acadians agree substantially with the facts, and his 
descriptions of scenery are remarkably true. He speaks in his diary 
of having obtained for consultation, "Watson's Annals of Philadel- 
phia," the "Historical Collections of Pennsylvania" and "Darby's 
Geographical Description of Louisiana." He probably, among other 
works, also consulted Haliburton's "Historical and Statistical Ac- 
count of Nova Scotia," besides studying such graphic representa- 
tions as scenes from Bauvard's diorama. 



THE ACADIAN TRAGEDY 

Seventeen hundred fifty-five is a memorable year in the annals 
of Nova Scotia. For forty-two years the province had been under 
English rule. In 171 3 it came into the hands of the English by the 
treaty of Utrecht (Utrekt), and the French Acadians took the oath 
of allegiance to England, but only on condition that they be exempt 
from taking up arms against their native land, — France. They were 
therefore termed "French Neutrals." 

In 1749 the English began to plant settlements, founding Hali- 



lO EVANGELINE. 

fax that year, and to spread themselves over the fertile lands about. 
They and their French neighbors did not live peaceably together. 
The mother countries were enemies. Fraiice incited the Indians to 
annoy the English settlers, it is ^^aid. The boundaries between the 
English and French provinces were in dispute. These and other 
things deepened the feeling of enmity between them. 

While the Acadians were a gentle, peaceful people, as a rule, 
who loved to live quietly amid their rural scenes, yet there were 
young men over-zealous in behalf of their own country, and embit- 
tered old ones who added fuel to the strife. The boundary trouble 
culminated in the building of two forts (Beau Sejour, or Fort Cum- 
berland, and Fort Lawrence) by the French on the isthmus between 
New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. These forts interfered with land 
communication between New England and Nova Scotia, and annoyed 
the English settlers very much. Three thousand soldiers were sent 
from Massachusetts and the forts were captured. Several hundred 
French neutrals were found within the fortifications. The English 
therefore classed all Acadians as enemies to the English government. 
A council of four English authorities in the province was held, and 
it was resolved that the entire Acadian population should be removed 
from their homes and from the country. It was decided also that 
in the removal they should be scattered among the English colonists 
along the Atlantic coast in such a manner as to prevent their return. 

Governor Lawrence, who was a member of the council, issued 
a proclamation, dated September 2nd, 1755, ordering all the men, 
and the boys over ten years of age, to assemble at the church of 
Grand Pre on Friday, September 5th, on pain of forfeiture of prop- 
erty in case of refusal. On the appointed day four hundred eighteen 
men and boys met in the church and there found themselves pris- 
oners under guard of soldiers. The fatal order was read. The 
church was made their prison while the soldiers gathered the women 
and children, with such household stuflf as they could hastily get 
together to carry with them. Over a thousand people from Grand 
Pre were thus collected upon the shore, the men and boys being 
brought from the church under guard of soldiers with fixed bayonets. 
The men were loaded upon vessels, the women and children upon 
separate ones, and all were thus transported to the English colonies 
along the Atlantic, where they were discharged at intervals from 
Massachusetts to Carolina, families separated, unprotected, and with- 
out means of support. 

The poem deals with these facts of history, and follows the 
wanderings of its heroine, Evangeline, in her life-long quest for 
her lover, from whom she was separated on their betrothal day. 



EVANGELINE. 1 I 

VERSE=MAKING 

To assist the pupil in understanding the measure in which 
Evangehne is written, it seems best to refer in a general way to the 
laws of versification, at least in so far as these laws may be studied 
in this poem. Writing poetry means more than merely making lines 
rhyme. 

The pleasing and rhythmic cadence of poetry is produced by 
dividing the line into measures as in music. Poetry may be said 
to be written in double or triple time, and you may beat time for it 
as for music. The accented beat must fall upon an accented syllable. 

Accent in poetry, is of two kinds, — the dictionary, or word 
accent, in words of more than one syllable, and the metrical accent, 
that placed upon words of one syllable only. 

The meter of a line is the number of measures, or feet, into 
which the line is divided. Each measure is made up of either two 
or three syllables, or beats. The long or accented syllable is usually 
denoted by - and the unaccented, or short syllable, by ^^ . 

The two-syllable foot is called a Trochee when the accent is on 
the first syllable, as in tro'chee, mourn'ful, and an Iambus when the 
accent is on the second, as in re main', en dure'. 

The three-syllable foot is called a Dactyl when the accent is on 
the first syllable, as in tur'bulent, mourn'fully, and an Anapaest when 
the accent is on the last, as in interfere', ambuscade'. 

Dactylic and trochaic feet may easily be used in the same line, 
as the accent falls upon the first beat in each. The time, however, 
for the two short beats in the dactyl will be the same as for the one 
short beat in the trochee. Take for example the lines: 
Over the joyous feast the sudden darkness descended 
All was silent without, and illuming the landscape with silver, 



or 



i> 



I*- 



r-«»-|0- -»- -e- 



r 



rr 



The number of feet in a line gives the line its name. Lines of 
one, two, three, four, five, six, seven and eight feet are named re- 
spectively, monometer, dimeter, trimeter, tetrameter, pentameter, 
hexameter, heptameter, and octameter. 

Evangeline is written with six measures in each line, and as 
dactyls predominate the measure is known as dactylic haxameter. 



12 



EVANGELINE. 



The two-syllable foot, as it appears in dactylic hexameter, 
should more properly consist of two long, or equally accented sylla- 
bles, and be called a Spondee instead of a Trochee. 

A difficult piece will be most easily scanned by first marking 
the word accent in all words of more than one syllable, — a very 
easy thing to do. The monosyllable words can then be marked 
with but little uncertainty. 

Certain pauses occur which will be found to correspond to 
rests in music and which give emphasis or otherwise add to the sense 
or beauty of the production. For example, after the word strong, 
in the following : 

Patience ; accomplish thy labor ; accomplish thy work of affection. 
Sorrow and silence are strong and patient endurance is godlike. 



or 



"■ \_-/ 1:hings. 

Thus to the Gaspereau's mouth they hurried; and there on the 
sea-beach 
Piled in confusion lay the household goods of the peasants. 
535 All day long between the shore and the ships did the boats ply; 
All day long the wains came laboring down from the village. 
Late in the afternoon, when the sun was near to his setting, 
Echoed far o'er the fields came the roll of drums from the church- 
yard. 
Thither the women and children thronged. On a sudden the church- 
doors 
540 Opened, and forth came the guard, and marching in gloomy pro- 
cession 
Followed the long-imprisoned, but patient, Acadian farmers. 
Even as pilgrims, who journey afar from their homes and their 

country, 
Sing as they go, and in singing forget they are weary and wayworn. 
So with songs on their lips the Acadian peasants descended 
545 Down from the church to the shore, amid their wives and their 
daughters. 
Foremost the young men came ; and, raising together their voices, 
Sang with tremulous lips a chant of the Catholic Missions : — 
"Sacred heart of the Saviour! O inexhaustible fountain! 
Fill our hearts this day with strength and submission and patience !" 
550 Then the old men, as they marched, and the women that stood by 
the wayside 
Joined in the sacred psalm, and the birds in the sunshine above them 
Mingled their notes therewith, like the voices of spirits departed. 

Half-way down to the shore Evangeline waited in silence, 
Not overcome with grief, but strong in the hour of affliction, — 



38 EVANGELINE. 

555 Calmly and sadly she waited, until the procession approached her, 

And .she beheld the face of Gabriel pale with emotion. 

Tears then filled her eyes, and, eagerly running to meet him, 

Clasped she his hands, and laid her head on his shoulder, and whis- 
pered, — 

"Gabriel! be of good cheer! for if we love one another 
560 Nothing, in truth, can harm us, whatever mischances may happen!" 

Smiling she spake these words; then suddenly paused, for her father 

Saw she, slowly advancing. Alas! how changed was his aspect! 

Gone was the glow from his cheek, and the fire from his eye, and 
his footstep 

Heavier seemed with the weight of the heavy heart in his bosom. 
565 But with a smile and a sigh, she clasped his neck and embraced him. 

Speaking words of endearment w^here words of comfort availed not. 

Thus to the Gaspereau's mouth moved on that mournful procession. 

There disorder prevailed, and the tumult and stir of embarking. 

Busily plied the freighted boats; and in the confusion 
570 Wives were torn from their husbands, and mothers, too late, saw 
their children 

Left on the land, extending their arms, with wildest entreaties. 

So unto separate ships were Basil and Gabriel carried, 

While in despair on the .shore Evangeline stood with her father. 

Half the task was not done when the sun went down and the twi- 
light 
575 Deepened and darkened around; and in haste the refluent ocean 

Fled away from the shore, and left the line of the sand-beach 

Covered with waifs of the tide, with kelp and the slippery sea-weed. 

Farther back in the midst of the household goods and the wagons, 

Like to a gypsy camp or a leaguer after a battle, 
580 All escape cut off" by the sea, and the sentinels near them, 

Lay encamped for the night the houseless Acadian farmers. 

Back to its nethermost caves retreated the bellowing ocean, 

Dragging adown the beach the rattling pebbles, and leaving 

Inland and far up the shore the stranded boats of the sailors. 



FOR STUDY 

WORDS Study the following words: ponderous, select synonyms. Look 
up deriviation and meaning ior ply, {or prevailed and for iuntult. 
Look up Gaspereau^s. Define inexhaustible, tnischances and freighted. Note 
the following: refluent , ebbing, receding; leaguer, — an army camp; nether- 
most, — lowest, deepest; waifs, — things without an owner, uncared-for bits 
tossed up by the sea; kelp, — a sea-weed of several kinds. It has various uses. 
Look them up. Pronounce: Gaspereau (Gas-pu-ro'). 

SUGGESTIONS ^' ^^^ ^^^ pathetic picture in lines 526-532. Write a 

FOR SPECIAL description of it. 2. Line 541, who "followed?" 3. De- 

yj^QPj^ scribe the march to the shore. 4. Describe the singing 

of the song and notice what they sang. 5. In lines 
559-560 what did Evangeline mean? This is an important statement in 



EVAl^GELINE. 39 

this poem. Study it. 6. Note and list figures of speech in lines 542, 548,552 
564,570,575,579,582. 7. Make a topical outline. 8. Compile several reasons 
for reproduction work, — oral and written, — setting forth the benefits to be 
obtained from its practice. These opinions should be sifted in class and 
arranged in order of worth for the benefit of all. 9. Reproduce orally from 
your outline. 10. Commit to memorj' lines 542-552. 

An outline : Add sub-topics. 

1. Duration of imprisonment. 

2. The transfer from homes to shore. 

3. Appearances on shore during day. 

4. Release of prisoners from church. 

5. Evangeline and Gabriel. 

6. Evangeline and her father. 

7. Incidents of the embarcation. 

8. Arrangements for the night. 

NOTES 5^9'575- Some years later in a petition to the King of England, 

from some of the exiled Acadians, the following statement is 
made: "Parents were separated from children and husbands from wives, 
some of whom have not to this day met again ; and we were so crowded in 
the transport vessels that we had not even room to lie down, and consequently 
were prevented from carrying with us proper necessaries, especially for the 
support and comfort of the aged and weak, many of whom quickly ended 
their lives." 



SELECTION XII 

Lines 5S5 to 665 
THE NIGHT ON THE SHORE 



585 Then, as the night descended, the herds returned from their pastures; 
Sweet was the moist still air with the odor of milk from their udders; 
Lowing they waited, and long, at the well-known bars of the farm- 
yard, — 
Waited and looked in vain for the voice and the hand of the milk- 
maid. 
Silence reigned in the streets; from the church no Angelus sounded, 
590 Rose no smoke from the roofs, and gleamed no lights from the 
windows. 

But on the shores meanwhile the evening fires had been kindled, 
Built of the drift-wood thrown on the sands from wrecks in the 

tempest. 
Round them shapes of gloom and sorrowful faces were gathered, 
Voices of women were heard, and of men, and the crying of children. 
595 Onward from fire to fire, as from hearth to hearth in his parish. 

Wandered the faithful priest, consoling and blessing and cheering. 
Like unto shipwrecked Paul on Melita's desolate seashore. 
Thus he approached the place where Evangeline sat with her father, 
And in the flickering light beheld the face of the old man, 
600 Haggard and hollow and wan, and without either thought or emo- 
tion, 



40 EVANGELINE. 

E'en as the face of a clock from which the hands have been taken. 

Vainly Evangeline strove with words and caresses to cheer him, 

Vainly offered him food ; yet he moved not, he looked not, he spake 
not, 

But, with a vacant stare, ever gazed at the flickering fire-light. 
605 "Benedicite!" murmured the priest, in tones of compassion. 

More he fain would have said, but his heart was full, and his accents 

Faltered and paused on his lips, as the feet of a child on a threshold, 

Hushed by the scene he beholds, and the awful presence of sorrov/. 

Silently, therefore, he laid his hand on the head of the maiden, 
610 Raising his tearful eyes to the silent stars that above them 

Moved on their way, unperturbed by the wrongs and sorrows of 
mortals. 

Then sat he down at her side, and they wept together in silence. 

Suddenly rose from the south a light, as in autumn the blood-red 

Moon climbs the crystal walls of heaven, and o'er the horizon 
615 Titan-like stretches its hundred hands upon mountain and meadow, 

Seizing the rocks and the rivers, and piling huge shadows together. 

Broader and ever broader it gleamed on the roofs of the village. 

Gleamed on the sky and the sea, and the ships that lay in the road- 
stead. 

Columns of shining smoke uprose, and flashes of flame were 
620 Thrust through their folds and withdrawn, like the quivering hands 
of a martyr. 

Then as the wind seized the gleeds and the burning thatch, and, 
uplifting, 

Whirled them aloft through the air, at once from a hundred house- 
tops 

Started the sheeted smoke with flashes of flame intermingled. 

These things beheld in dismay the crowd on the shore and on 
shipboard. 
625 Speechless at first they stood, then cried aloud in their anguish, 

"We shall behold no more our homes in the village of Grand-Pre !" 
Loud on a sudden the cocks began to crow in the farm-yards. 
Thinking the day had dawned ; and anon the lowing of cattle 
Came on the evening breeze, by the barking of dogs interrupted. 
630 Then rose a sound of dread, such as startles the sleeping encamp- 
ments 
Far in the western prairies of forests that skirt the Nebraska, 
When the wild horses affrighted sweep by with the speed of the 

whirlwind, 
Or the loud bellowing herds of buffaloes rush to the river. 
Such was the sound that arose on the night, as the herds and the 
horses 



EVANGELINE. 4I 

635 Broke through their folds and fences, and madly rushed o'er the 
meadows. 

Overwhelmed with the sight, yet speechless, the priest and the 
maiden 
Gazed on the scene of terror that reddened and widened before them ; 
And as they turned at length to speak to their silent companion, 
Lo ! from his seat he had fallen, and stretched abroad on the sea- 
shore 

640 Motionless lay his form, from which the soul had departed. 
Slowly the priest uplifted the lifeless head, and the maiden 
Knelt at her father's side, and wailed aloud in her terror. 
Then in a swoon she sank, and lay with her head on his bosom. 
Through the long night she lay in deep, oblivious slumber; 

645 And when she woke from the trance, she beheld a multitude near 
her. 
Faces of friends she beheld, that were mournfully gazing upon her, 
Pallid, with tearful eyes, and looks of saddest compassion. 
Still the blaze of the burning village illumined the landscape. 
Reddened the sky overhead, and gleamed on the faces around her, 

650 And like the day of doom it seemed to her wavering senses. 
Then a familiar voice she heard, as it said to the people, — 
"Let us bury him here by the sea. When a happier season 
Brings us again to our homes from the unknown land of our exile, 
Then shall his sacred dust be piously laid in the churchyard." 

655 Such were the words of the priest. And there in haste by the sea- 
side. 
Having the glare of the burning village for funeral torches. 
But without bell or book, they buried the farmer of Grand-Pre. 
And as the voice of the priest repeated the service of sorrow, 
Lo! with a mournful sound like the voice of a vast congregation, 

"660 Solemnly answered the sea, and mingled its roar with the dirges. 
'T was the returning tide, that afar from the waste of the ocean. 
With the first dawn of the day, came heaving and hurrying land- 
ward. 
Then recommenced once more the stir and noise of embarking; 
And with the ebb of the tide the ships sailed out of the harbor, 

^65 Leaving behind them the dead on the shore, and the villae:e in ruins. 



FOR STUDY 

WORDS Define: multitude, horison, anguish, swoon, oblivious, pallid. 
Look up the words crystal, road-stead, prairies, buffaloes, trance. 
Analyze and define: consoling, unperturbed, exile (ek'sil). Notice: bene- 
dicite (ben-e-dis'i-te), — an invocation of a blessing; gleeds, — glowing coals, 
flames ; martyr, — one who in the face of persecution bears testimony to his 
faith, even to suffering death or great loss on behalf of it. 



42 EVANGELINE. 

SUGGESTIONS ^" -^^^^ ^ topical outline for this selection. 2. Write 
FOR SPECIAL ^" account of the incident in Paul's voyage referred to 

^QDj^ in lines 595-597, and make as many comparisons as you 

can between this and that. 3. Contrast the description 
of Benedict in lines 62-64 and those of him in lines 561-564, 600-604. and 
638-640. 4. Study and describe the scene as pictured in the figure in lines 
613-616, and that of lines 619-620. 5. In line 620, "folds" of what? 6. What 
does the clause in lines 621-622 modify? Diagram or otherwise analyze the 
sentence. 7. State the use in the sentence of "pallid," "with tearful eyes," 
and "looks" in line 647. Diagram or otherwise analyze the sentence. 8. Name 
the verbs, predicate of "blaze," in line 648. 9. Make a description of all that 
you might have seen from the deck of one of the English vessels that night. 
Describe it as though it were a painting before you, your subject, — "A Burn- 
ing Village," time, — night. Make no statements, however, which you do not 
find authority for in the poem. 10. Make a character sketch of Benedict, tak- 
ing note of every reference to him in preceding pages. 11. Prepare for mak- 
ing an oral reproduction of this selection from your outline. 

An outline : 

1. The deserted village. 

2. Appearance on shore after nightfall. 

3. The priest, Evangeline, and Benedict. 

4. The burning village. 

5. Effect of the burning village, — 

a. on people, b. on animals, c. on Benedict. 

6. Evangeline's unconsciousness and awakening. 

7. The burial of Benedict. 

8. The departure. 

597. For account of Paul's shipwreck see the twenty-seventh and 
first part of the twenty-eighth chapters of Acts. Melita (mel'- 
i-ta), the ancient name of Malta, an island south of Sicily in the Mediter- 
ranean. It possesses one of the finest harbors in the world. 

615. The Titans were a family of giant gods in Greek mythology who 
were defeated in their war against Saturn by Jupiter and the Olympian 
deities and driven into the under-world, Jupiter, the son of Saturn, hurling 
thunder-bolts after them. The parents of the Titans were Caelus and Terra 
(Heaven and Earth). Braireus (bri'ah-re-us) was a giant of the same par- 
entage, having a hundred hands and fifty heads, who aided the giants in their 
war. 

626. The English Governor had instructed Colonel Winslow in the fol- 
lowing words : "You must proceed by the most vigorous measures possible, 
not only in compelling them to embark, but in depriving those who shall 
escape of all means of shelter or support by burning their houses, and by 
destroying everything that may afford them the means of subsistence in the 
country." 

657. The burial of Benedict was without the more formal rites of the 
Roman Catholic church, — the tolling of the usual funeral bell, and without 
the book used in burial services. 

660. Dirges. Mournful songs or tunes. The word is derived from the 
opening words of the funeral service in Latin, — Dirige, Domine rtos, "Direct 
us, O Lord." This word would seem particularly appropriate to use just 
here. 



NOTES. 



EVANGELINE. 43 



SELECTION XIII 

Lines 66G to T40 
PRELUDE TO EVANGELINE'S WANDERINGS 



Part the Second 



Many a weary year had passed since the burning of Grand-Pre, 

When on the falling tide the freighted vessels departed, 

Bearing a nation, with all its household gods, into exile, 

Exile without an end, and without an example in story. 

Far asunder, on separate coasts, the Acadians landed; 

Scattered were they, like flakes of snow, when the wind from 

the northeast 
Strikes aslant through the fogs that darken the Banks of Newfound- 
land. 
Friendless, homeless, hopeless, they wandered from city to city, 
From the cold lakes of the North to sultry Southern savannas, — 
From the bleak shores of the sea to the lands where the Father of 

Waters 
Seizes the hills in his hands, and drags them down to the ocean. 
Deep in their sands to bury the scattered bones of the mammoth. 
Friends they sought and homes ; and many, despairing, heart-broken, 
Asked of the earth but a grave, and no longer a friend nor a fireside. 
Written their history stands on tablets of stone in the churchyards. 
Long among them was seen a maiden who waited and wandered, 
Lowly and meek in spirit, and patiently suffering all things. 
Fair was she and young ; but, alas ! before her extended, 
Dreary and vast and silent, the desert of life, with its pathway 
Marked by the graves of those who had sorrowed and suffered before 

her. 
Passions long extinguished, and hopes long dead and abandoned. 
As the emigrant's way o'er the Western desert is marked by 
Camp-fired long consumed, and bones that bleach in the sunshine. 
Something there was in her life incomplete, imperfect, unfinished ; 
As if a morning of June, with all its music and sunshine, 
Suddenly paused in the sky, and, fading, slowly descended 
Into the east again, from whence it late had arisen. 
Sometimes she lingered in towns, till, urged by the fever within her, 
Urged by a restless longing, the hunger and thirst of the spirit. 
She would commence again her endless search and endeavor; 
Sometimes in churchyards strayed, and gazed on the crosses and 

tombstones,. 
Sat by some nameless grave, and thought that perhaps in its bosom 
He was already at rest, and she longed to slumber beside him. 



44 EVANGELINE. 

Sometimes a rumor, a hearsay, an inarticulate whisper, 
700 Came with its airy hand to point and beckon her forward. 

Sometimes she spake with those who had seen her beloved and known 
him, 

But it was long ago, in some far-off place or forgotten. 

"Gabriel Lajeunesse!" they said; "Oh, yes! we have seen him. 

He v/as with Basil the blacksmith, and both have gone to the 
prairies ; 
705 Coureurs-des-bois are they, and famous hunters and trappers." 

"Gabriel Lajeunesse!" said others; "Oh, yes! we have seen him. 

He is a voyageur in the lowlands of Louisiana." 

Then would they say, "Dear child! why dream and wait for him 
longer? 

Are there not other youths as fair as Gabriel ? others 
710 Who have hearts as tender and true, and spirits as loyal? 

Here is Baptiste Leblanc, the notary's son, who has loved thee 

Many a tedious year ; come, give him thy hand and be happy ! 

Thou art too fair to be left to braid St. Catherine's tresses." 

Then would Evangeline answer, serenely but sadly, "I cannot! 
7^5 Whither my heart has gone, there follows my hand, and not else- 
where. 

For when the heart goes before, like a lamp, and illumines the path- 
way. 

Many things are made clear, that else lie hidden in darkness." 

Thereupon the priest, her friend and father confessor. 

Said, with a smile, "O daughter ! thy God thus speaketh within thee ! 
720 Talk not of wasted afi'ection, affection never was wasted ; 

If it enrich not the heart of another, its waters, returning 

Back to their springs, like the rain, shall fill them full of refresh- 
ment ; 

That which the fountain sends forth returns again to the fountain. 

Patience ; accomplish thy labor ; accomplish thy work of affection ! 
725 Sorrow and silence are strong, and patient endurance is godlike. 

Therefore accomplish thy labor of love, till the heart is made godlike, 

Purified, strengthened, perfected, and rendered more worthy of 
heaven !" 

Cheered by the good man's words, Evangeline labored and waited. 

Still in her heart she heard the funeral dirge of the ocean, 
730 But with its sound there was mingled a voice that whispered, "De- 
spair not !" 

Thus did that poor soul wander in want and cheerless discomfort, 

Bleeding, barefooted, over the shards and thorns of existence. 

Let me essay, O Muse ! to follow the wanderer's footsteps ; — 

Not through each devious path, each changeful year of existence ; 
735 But as a traveller follows a streamlet's course through the valley: 

Far from its margin at times, and seeing the gleam of its water 

Here and there, in some open space, and at intervals only ; 



EVANGELINE. 45 

Then drawing nearer its banks, through sylvan glooms that con- 
ceal it, 
Though he behold it not, he can hear its continuous murmur; 
740 Happy, at length, if he find a spot where it reaches an outlet. 



FOR STUDY 

WORDS. Look up derivations and define: sultry, mammoth. Analyze and 
define : inarticulate, devious, sylvan. Define : savannas, hearsay. 
Notice : essay, — try ; shards, — broken bits of crockery or other brittle sub- 
stances; coureurs-des-bois (koo-rur-da-bwa'), — see note, 705; voyageur (vwa- 
ya-zhur, — see note 707. 

SUGGESTIONS ^" Locate and describe the banks of Newfoundland; 

FOR SPECIAL ^^^^ ^^ their fogs, — causes, etc., and make in your own 

Y^QPI^ words the application made by the author. 2. What were 

their, household gods? 3. In line 673 why are the first 
three words arranged as they are? What is such an arrangement called? 
Scan this line. 4. Write out the meaning of the figure after line 675. 5. Ex- 
plain the metaphor in lines 683-688. 6. Explain simile in lines 689-692. 7. 
Note language introductory to "airy hand." 8. Explain how aflfection never 
is wasted. 9. Give the priest's opinion as to the value of sorrow and silence, 
and patient endurance. 10. How can sorrow and silence be strong? li. 
Study lines 720-725, together with lines 559-560, and write what you would 
infer from them to be the lesson of the poem. 12. Why use the words 
"bleeding, barefooted" ? 13. May line 381 have any application in this selec- 
tion? If so, how? 14. Trace the parallel between our following her wander- 
ings and the traveler following the stream. 15. Commit to memory lines 
666-680, 689-692, 720-727. 16. Prepare for an oral reproduction of this selec- 
tion from an outline, your own, or the following properly filled out with 
suitable sub-headings : 
An outline: 

1. The exiled and scattered nation. 

2. The wandering maiden and her path\yay. 

3. Her life as an unfinished June morning. 

4. How she searched. 

c Advice of friends, — her answer. 
oT Father Felician's opinion. 
7. How we follow her. 

NOTES ^^^' ^ re-reading of the bit of history, "The Acadian Tragedy," 
on page 9, will perhaps be a proper review at this point. 

675. The term, "Father of Waters," refers to the Mississippi river, — 
Mississippi being an Indian word meaning "great waters" or "father of 
waters." 

678-679. The petition of the exiled Acadians_ to the King says : "We 
have already seen in this province of Pennsylvania, two hundred and fifty 
of our people, which is more than half the number that were landed here, 
perish through misery and various diseases." 

705. The coureiir-dcs-hois were French and Canadian hunters and trad- 
ers who rendered service in traversing the thick forest regions. The name 
means, literally, "runners of the forests." Although they themselves were 
quite lawless, like the Indians with whom they associated, yet they rendered 
much valuable service to the settlers during the Indian wars. 

707. Kingsford, in his history of Canada speaks of the term "voyageur" 
as having (about 1727) come into use to take the place of the term "coureurs- 
des-bois," which term had become disreputable on account of the character 
of those who bore it. The voyageurs were generally French and Canadian 



46 



EVANGELINE. 



1 <.oc r.f ih^ ^4nr1=;on Bav and Other fur-trading companies, who were, 
i^Se'carVdays engfgeS in carrying men and supplies, furs etc. by canoes 
nnonthriakes and rivers between the various tradmg-posts of he Northwest, 
upon he ll^^es ^^^ ^j^J ^f Alexandria was one of the patron samts of virgms. 
J ^}^' Z^^rnr^u l:,vme amone the French, of one who remamed unmar- 

?i"d:'th"arshVwronelYsf cXfine's attendants, or one .0 dress the tresses 



of St. Catherine. 



SELECTION XIV 

Unes 741 to 887 
THE VOYAGE DOWN THE MISSISSIPPI 



II. 



It was the month of May. Far down the Beautiful River, 
Past the Ohio shore and past the mouth of the Wabash, 
Into the golden stream of the broad and swift Mississippi, 
Floated a cumbrous boat, that was rowed by Acadian boatmen. 

745 It was a band of exiles : a raft, as it were, from the shipwrecked 
Nation, scattered along the coast, now floating together. 
Bound by the bonds of a common belief and a common misfortune; 
Men and women and children, who, guided by hope or by hearsay, 
Sought for their kith and their kin among the few-acred larmers 

750 On the Acadian coast, and the prairies of fair Opelousas. 

With them Evangeline went, and her guide, the Father Felician. 
Onward o'er sunken sands, through a wilderness sombre with 

forests, 
Day after day they glided adown the turbulent river ; 
Night after night, by their blazing fires, encamped on its borders. 

7:;=; Now through rushing chutes, among green islands, where plumelike 
Cotton-trees nodded their shadowy crests, they swept with the cur- 
rent. 
Then emerged into broad lagoons, where silvery sand-bars 
Lay in the stream, and along the wimpling waves of their margin, 
Shining with snow-white plumes, large flocks of pelicans waded. 

760 Level the landscape grew, and along the shores of the river. 
Shaded by china-trees, in the midst of luxuriant gardens, 
Stood the houses of planters, with negro cabins and dove-cots. 
They were approaching the region where reigns perpetual summer, 
Where through the Golden Coast, and groves of orange and citron. 

76c Sweeps with majestic curve the river away to the eastward 

They, too, swerved from their course ; and, entering the Bayou of 

Plaquemine, 
Soon were lost in a maze of sluggish and devious waters. 
Which like a network of steel, extended in every direction. 
Over their heads the towering and tenebrous boughs of the cypress 

770 Met in a dusky arch, and trailing mosses in mid-air 

Waved like banners that hang on the walls of ancient cathedrals. 



EVANGELINE. 47 

Deathlike the silence seemed, and unbroken, save by the herons 
Home to their roosts in the cedar-trees returning at sunset, 
Or by the owl, as he greeted the moon with demoniac laughter. 
775 Lovely the moonlight was as it glanced and gleamed on the water, 
Gleamed on the columns of cypress and cedar sustaining the arches, 
Down through whose broken vaults it fell as through chinks in a 

ruin. 
Dreamlike, and indistinct, and strange were all things around them ; 
And o'er their spirits there came a feeling of wonder and sadness, — 

o Strange forebodings of ill, unseen and that cannot be compassed. 
As, at the tramp of a horse's hoof on the turf of the prairies. 
Far in advance are closed the leaves of the shrinking mimosa. 
So, at the hoof-beats of fate, with sad forebodings of evil, 
Shrinks and closes the heart, ere the stroke of doom has attained it. 

5 But Evangeline's heart was sustained by a vision, that faintly 

Floated before her eyes, and beckoned her on through the moonlight. 
It was the thought of her brain that assumed the shape of a phantom. 
Through those shadowy aisles had Gabriel wandered before her. 
And every stroke of the oar now brought him nearer and nearer. 

o Then in his place, at the prow of the boat, rose one of the oars- 

men, 
And, as a signal sound, if others like them peradventure 
Sailed on those gloomy and midnight streams, blew a blast on his 

bugle. 
Wild through the dark colonnades and corridors leafy the blast rang, 
Breaking the seal of silence and giving tongues to the forest. 

5 Soundless above them the banners of moss just stirred to the music. 
Multitudinous echoes awoke and died in the distance, 
Over the watery floor, and beneath the reverberant branches ; 
But not a voice replied ; no answer came from the darkness ; 
And when the echoes had ceased, like a sense of pain was the silence. 

o Then Evangeline slept; but the boatmen rowed through the mid- 
night. 
Silent at times, then singing familiar Canadian boat-songs. 
Such as they sang of old on their own Acadian rivers. 
While through the night were heard the mysterious sounds of the 

desert. 
Far off, — indistinct, — as of wave or wind in the forest, 

'5 Mixed with the whoop of the crane and the roar of the grim alligator 

Thus ere another noon they emerged from the shades ; and be- 
fore them 
Lay, in the golden sun, the lakes of the Atchafalaya. 
Water-lilies in myriads rocked on the slight undulations 
Made by the passing oars, and, resplendent in beauty, the lotus 
8io Lifted her golden crown above the heads of the boatmen. 



48 EVANGELINE. 

Faint was the air with the odorous breath of magnolia blossoms, 
And with the heat of noon; and numberless sylvan islands, 
Fragrant and thickly embowered with blossoming hedges of roses, 
Near to whose shores they glided along, invited to slumber, 

815 Soon by the fairest of these their weary oars were suspended. 
Under the boughs of Wachita willows, that grew by the margin, 
Safely their boat was moored; and scattered about on the green- 
sward. 
Tired with their midnight toil, the weary travellers slumbered. 
Over them vast and high extended the cope of a cedar. 

820 Swinging from its great arms, the trumpet-flower and the grapevine 
Hung their ladder of ropes aloft like the ladder of Jacob, 
On whose pendulous stairs the angels ascending, descending, 
Were the swift humming-birds, that flitted from blossom to blossom. 
Such was the vision Evangeline saw as she slumbered beneath it. 

825 Filled was her heart with love, and the dawn of an opening heaven 
Lighted her soul in sleep with the glory of regions celestial. 

Nearer, ever nearer, among the numberless islands. 
Darted a light, swift boat, that sped away o'er the water. 
Urged on its course by the sinewy arms of hunters and trappers. 

830 Northward its prov/ was turned, to the land of the bison and beaver. 
At the helm sat a youth, with countenance thoughtful and careworn. 
Dark and neglected locks overshadowed his brow, and a sadness 
Somewhat beyond his years on his face was legibly written. 
Gabriel was it, who, weary with waiting, unhappy and restless, 

835 Sought in the Western wilds oblivion of self and of sorrow. 
Swiftly they glided along, close under the lee of the island. 
But by the opposite bank, and behind a screen of palmettos ; 
So that they saw not the boat, where it lay concealed in the willows ; 
All undisturbed by the dash of their oars, and unseen, were the 
sleepers ; 

840 Angel of God was there none to awaken the slumbering maiden. 
Swiftly they glided away, like the shade of a cloud on the prairie. 
After the sound of their oars on the tholes had died in the distance, 
As from a magic trance the sleepers av/oke, and the maiden 
Said with a sigh to the friendly priest, "O Father Felician ! 

845 Something says in my heart that near me Gabriel wanders. 
Is it a foolish dream, an idle and vague superstition? 
Or has an angel passed, and revealed the truth to my spirit?" 
Then, with a blush, she added, "Alas for my credulous fancy ! 
Unto ears like thine such words as these have no meaning." 

850 But made answer the reverend man, and he smiled as he answered, — 
"Daughter, thy words are not idle; nor are they to me without 

meaning. 
Feeling is deep and still ; and the word that floats on the surface 
Is as the tossing buoy, that betrays where the anchor is hidden. 



EVANGELINE. 49 

Therefore trust to thy heart, and to what the world calls illusions. 

Gabriel truly is near thee ; for not far away to the southward, 

On the banks of the Teche, are the towns of St. Maur and St. 

Martin. 
There the long-wandering bride shall be given again to her bride- 
groom, 
There the long absent pastor regain his flock and his sheepfold. 
Beautiful is the land, with its prairies and forests of fruit-trees ; 
Under the feet a garden of flowers, and the bluest of heavens 
Bending above, and resting its dome on the walls of the forest. 
They who dwell there have named it the Eden of Louisiana." 

With these words of cheer they arose and continued their jour- 
ney. 
Softly the evening came. The sun from the western horizon 
Like a magician extended his golden wand o'er the landscape ; 
Twinkling vapors arose ; and sky and water and forest 
Seemed all on fire at the touch, and melted and mingled together. 
Hanging between two skies, a cloud with edges of silver, 
Floated the boat, with its dripping oars, on the motionless water. 
Filled was Evangeline's heart with inexpressible sweetness. 
Touched by the magic spell, the sacred fountains of feeling 
Glowed with the light of love, as the skies and waters around her. 
Then from a neighboring thicket the mocking-bird, wildest of 

singers, 
Swinging aloft on a willow spray that hung o'er the water. 
Shook from his little throat such floods of delirious music, 
That the whole air and the woods and the waves seemed silent to 

listen. 
Plaintive at first were the tones and sad ; then soaring to madness 
Seemed they to follow or guide the revel of frenzied Bacchantes. 
Single notes were then heard, in sorrowful, low lamentation; 
Till, having gathered them all, he flung them abroad in derision, 
As when, after a storm, a gust of wind through the tree-tops 
Shakes down the rattling rain in a crystal shower on the branches. 
With such a prelude as this, and hearts that throbbed with emotion, 
Slowly they entered the Teche, where it flows through the green 

Opelousas, 
And, through the amber air, above the crest of the woodland, 
Saw the column of smoke that arose from a neighboring dwelling ; — 
Sounds of a horn they heard, and the distant lowing of cattle. 



FOR STUDY 

WORDS. Look up derivations and define: somber, tenebrous, mimosa, 
colonnade, corridor, myriad, magnolia, credulous, wimpling. Ana- 
lyze and define: resplendent, cumbrous, prelude, delirious. Define: kith, 
kin, chutes, lagoons, pelican, heron, crane, alligator, bison, demoniac, perad- 
venture, lotus, cope, tholes, frenzied (G. phren, brain, mind). 



50 EVANGELINE. 

SUGGESTIONS ^- ^°^^ "wimpling" refer to the form or the sound of 

FOR SPEC! AL ^^e wave? 2. Rewrite in your own words, giving 

WORK meaning of "hanging between two skies," "a cloud with 

WUKi\. edges of silver," in connection with the lines in which 

they occur. 3. Write explanation of line 840. 4. Diagram or otherwise ana- 
lyze the statement in lines 820-823. 5. Select figures of speech in this selec- 
tion (perhaps forty). 6. Make a list of the lines which give a tinge of sad- 
ness to the otherwise brightly pictured journey. 7. Make sub-headings for 
the following outline, giving special attention to the river scenes : 

1. The voyagers. 

2. Shifting river scenes. 

3. Night on the river. 

4. Evangeline's dream and presentiment. 

5. The priest's opinion. 

6. Description of evening. 

7. Description of the mocking-bird's song. 

8. The journey's ending. 

8. Commit to memory 781-784, 864-882. 9. Study to reproduce this selec- 
tion in your own words. 

NOTES. 74^- ^^^ "beautiful river" was the Ohio, named thus by the 
Indians. 

750. The banks of the Mississippi near its mouth were known as the 
Acadian Coast on account of settlements of Acadians there. Opelousas is_ a 
town in St. Landry parish, fifty miles west of Baton Rouge, and the fertile 
grazing and farming lands, about it and stretching back from the river are 
here spoken of as the prairies of fair Opelousas (6p-e-Ioo'sas). 

761. The mention here of the "China-tree" may have reference to the 
Cinchona or Peruvian-bark tree, or to some ornamental tree growing there. 

764. The "Golden Coast" refers to the banks of the river north of Baton 
Rouge. 

766. The Bayou of Plaquemine (bi'66, plak-meen) is a bayou about one 
hundred miles from the Gulf, flowing from the Mississippi river westward 
into Atchafalaya bayou. 

807. Atchafalaya Bayou (ach-a-fa-li'yah) is a Red River outlet flowing 
into the Gulf of Mexico, through Atchafalaya bay. It is navigable about 
two hundred fifty miles. 

808. The flower here called a lotus is a beautiful swamp lily, with great 
leaves several feet in diameter floating upon the surface of the sluggish bayous 
of the South. Two foot-stocks, bearing two large leaves, three feet or more 
in height, rise above the floating discs. From between these leaves the flower- 
stem rises still higher, bearing its golden cup-shaped lily to wave in the 
breezes and fill the air with its fragrance. 

821. For the Bible account here referred to, read Genesis 28: 12. 

856. The Teche (tash) is a bayou of St. Landry parish, which, after a 
navigable course to the south-east for two hundred miles, flows into Atcha- 
falaya bayou. Note St. Maur (sanh mor'). 

878. Bacchus (bak'us), in Greek mythology, was the god of the vine- 
yard, or of wine. The Bacchantes (bak-kan'tez) were priestesses or devotees 
of Bacchus. At the festivals to that god, under the influence of wine and 
excitement, they carried their revels to a high pitch and committed great 
excesses. 



EVANGELINE. 51 

SELECTION XV 

Lines 888 to 925 
THE HERDSMAN AND HIS HOME 



III. 

Near to the bank of the river, o'ershadowed by oaks from whose 
branches 
Garlands of Spanish moss and of mystic mistletoe flaunted, 
Such as the Druids cut down with golden hatchets at Yule-tide, 
Stood, secluded and still, the house of the herdsman. A garden 
Girded it round about with a belt of luxuriant blossoms, 
Filling the air with fragrance. The house itself was of timbers 
Hewn from the cypress-tree, and carefully fitted together. 
Large and low was the roof ; and on slender columns supported, 
Rose-wreathed, vine-encircled, a broad and spacious veranda. 
Haunt of the huming-bird and the bee, extended around it. 
At each end of the house, amid the flowers of the garden. 
Stationed the dove-cots were, as love's perpetual symbol, 
Scenes of endless wooing, and endless contentions of rivals. 
Silence reigned o'er the place. The line of shadow and sunshine 
Ran near the tops of the trees ; but the house itself was in shadow, 
And from its chimney-top, ascending and slowly expanding 
Into the evening air, a thin blue column of smoke rose. 
In the rear of the house, from the garden gate, ran a pathway 
Through the great groves of oak to the skirts of the limitless prairie, 
Into whose sea of flowers the sun Vv^as slowly descending. 
Full in his track of light, like ships with shadowy canvas 
Hanging loose from their spars in a motionless calm in the tropics. 
Stood a cluster of trees, with tangled cordage of grapevines. 

Just where the woodlands met the flowery surf of the prairie, 
Mounted upon his horse, with Spanish saddle and stirrups, 
Sat a herdsman, arrayed in gaiters and doublet of deerskin. 
Broad and brown was the face that from under the Spanish sombrero 
Gazed on the peaceful scene, with the lordly look of its master. 
Round about him were numberless herds of kine that were grazing 
Quietly in the meadows, and breathing the vapory freshness 
That uprose from the river, and spread itself over the landscape. 
Slowly lifting the horn that hung at his side, and expanding 
Fully his broad, deep chest, he blew a blast that resounded 
Wildly and sweet and far, through the still damp air of the evening. 
Suddenly out of the grass the long white horns of the cattle 
Rose like flakes of foam on the adverse currents of ocean. 
Silent a moment they gazed, then bellowing rushed o'er the prairie, 
And the whole mass became a cloud, a shade in the distance. 



52 EVANGELINE. 

WORDS ^i^^ derivations, analyze and define: mystic (myst), luxuriant 
(lux), vapory (vapor). Define: mistletoe, Yule-tide, cordage, 
doublet, sombrero. 

SUGGESTIONS ^- ^^^ ^^^ ^^'° Pictures in this selection: a. The house 

FOR SPECIAL ^"^ ^^^ surroundings; b. The prairie. Note in the first 

WORK picture: the house, garden, dove-cots, line of shadow 

and sunshine, smoke, pathway. Note in the second: 
the limitless prairie, setting sun, cluster of trees, herdsman, cattle. Describe 
these pictures as though on canvas before you. 2. Draw a picture of the clus- 
ter of trees. 3. Write explanation of line 890. 4. Give part of speech and 
use in sentence of each of these words : o'ershadowed, secluded, still, filling, 
hewn, fitted, supported, rose-wreathed, vine-encircled, ascending, expanding 
(903), mounted, arrayed, lifting, expanding (919), bellowing. 5. Analyze 
or diagram sentence contained in first four lines. 6. Analyze or diagram 
sentence beginning with line 895. 

NOTES ^9" G^'S^'" gives the following description of Spanish moss, 
which, like the mistletoe, is a parasite: "It is a tangle of pale- 
green tendrils, in thickness like ordinary string, and while one end is closely 
woven around a branch of the tree, the remainder droops in long straight 
festoons. Its popular name heno (hay) conveys the best possible description 
of the effect it produces on the view." 

889-890. Mistletoe is a parasitic plant which grows upon the trunk and 
branches of trees, especially the oak. The Druids regarded the oak as a 
sacred tree, and the mistletoe, if found upon the sacred tree, was considered 
a gift from the gods, to be used by them in the secret, mystic rites of their 
religion, and the ceremony of taking it from the oak was elaborate. The 
priest, clad in white robes, cut it with a golden knife, or hatchet, and then, 
beneath the tree, offered two milk-white bulls, a sacrifice to the gods. 

Christmas time is known as Yule-tide from the ancient custom iu Eng- 
land of burning a great yule-log on Christmas day. 



SELECTION XVI 

Lines 926 to 958 
THE MEETING WITH BASIL 



Then, as the herdsman turned to the house, through the gates of 
the garden 

Saw he the forms of the priest and the maiden advancing to meet 
him. 

Suddenly down from his horse he sprang in amazement, and for- 
ward 

Pushed with extended arms and exclamations of wonder; 
930 When they beheld his face, they recognized Basil the blacksmith, 

Hearty his welcome was, as he led his guests to the garden. 

There in an arbor of roses with endless question and answer 

Gave they vent to their hearts, and renewed their friendly embraces, 

Ivaughing and weeping by turns, or sitting silent and thoughtful, 
935 Thoughtful, for Gabriel came not ; and now dark doubts and mis- 
givings 

Stole o'er the maiden's heart; and Basil, somewhat embarrassed, 

Broke the silence and said, " If you come by the Atchafalaya, 



EVANGELINE. 53 

How have you nowhere encountered my Gabriel's boat on the 

bayous ?" 
Over Evangeline's face at the words of Basil a shade passed. 

940 Tears came into her eyes, and she said, with a tremulous accent, 

"Gone? is Gabriel gone?" and, concealing her face on his shoulder. 
All her o'erburdened heart gave way, and she wept and lamented. 
Then the good Basil said, — and his voice grew blithe as he said it, — 
"Be of good cheer, my child ; it is only to-day he departed. 

945 Foolish boy ! he has left me alone with my herds and my horses. 
Moody and restless grown, and tried and troubled, his spirit 
Could no longer endure the calm of this quiet existence. 
Thinking ever of thee, uncertain and sorrowful ever, 
Ever silent, or speaking only of thee and his troubles, 

950 He at length had become so tedious to men and to maidens, 

Tedious even to me, that at length I bethought me, and sent him 
Unto the town of Adayes to trade for mules with the Spaniards. 
Thence he will follow the Indian trails to the Ozark Mountains, 
Hunting for furs in the forests, on rivers trapping the beaver. 

955 Therefore be of good cheer ; we will follow the fugitive lover ; 

He is not far on his way, and the Fates and the streams are against 

him. 
Up and away to-morrow, and through the red dew of the morning, 
We will follow him fast, and bring him back to his prison." 



FOR STUDY 

WORDS Look up derivations, analyze and define: ardor, (ard; ars— 
burn),r^7;^ (vent — wind), tedious (tedi — irksomeness), fiigi- 
tive {fug — flee). Define: amazement, embarrassed, bayous, accent, blithe, 
moody. 

SUGGESTIONS ^' -^^^^^ ^ topical outline for this. 2. Prepare for an 

FOR SPECIAL °^^^ reproduction. 3. Write a description, based upon 

>^p,r5j, statements in this and the preceding selection, for each 

Evangeline and Gabriel, comparing them in appearance 

and character as here portrayed. 

NOTES ?5^' -^^^y^s (a-da-yes), a town in the northern part of Te.xas, 
in territory settled early by the Spanish. 

953. The Indian trails to the various hunting-grounds were the only 
ways for western travel in those early days. The Ozark mountain range is a 
range in the northern part of Arkansas, extending into Missouri. 

956. The Fates were three goddesses in Grecian mythology, who were 
supposed to preside over human life and its destinies. Their names were 
Atropos, Clotlio, and Lachesis. They are sometimes represented as spinning 
the thread of life, Clotho holding the distaff, Lachesis turning the wheel, and 
Atropos, with shears in hand, ready to cut the thread. 



54 EVANGELINE. 

SELECTION XVII 

I,ines 959 to 1068 
THE EVENING WITH BASIL 



Then glad voices were heard, and up from the banks of the river, 

960 Borne aloft on his comrades' arms, came Michael the fiddler. 
Long under Basil's roof had he lived, Hke a god on Olympus, 
Having no other care than dispensing music to mortals. 
Far renowned was he for his silver locks and his fiddle. 
'■'Long live Michael," they cried, "our brave Acadian minstrel !" 

965 As they bore him aloft in triumphal procession ; and straightway 
Father Felician advanced with Evangeline, greeting the old man 
Kindly and oft, and recalling the past, while Basil, enraptured, 
Hailed with hilarious joy his old companions and gossips. 
Laughing loud and long, and embracing mothers and daughters. 

970 Much they marvelled to see the wealth of the ci-devant blacksmith. 
All his domains and his herds, and his patriarchal demeanor; 
Much they marvelled to hear his tales of the soil and the climate, 
And of the prairies, whose numberless herds were his who would 

take them ; 
Each one thought in his heart, that he, too, would go and do likewise. 

975 Thus they ascended the steps, and, crossing the breezy veranda, 
Entered the hall of the house, where already the supper of Basil 
Waited his late return ; and they rested and feasted together. 

Over the joyous feast the sudden darkness descended. 

All was silent without, and, illuming the landscape with silver, 
980 Fair rose the dewy moon and the myriad stars ; but within doors, 

Brighter than these, shone the faces of friends in the glimmering 
lamplight. 

Then from his station aloft, at the head of the table, the herdsman 

Poured forth his heart and his wine together in endless profusion. 

Lighting his pipe, that was filled with sweet Natchitoches tobacco, 
985 Thus he spake to his guests, who listened, and smiled as they list- 
ened : — 

"Welcome once more, my friends, who long have been friendless and 
homeless, 

Welcome once more to a home, that is better perchance than the 
old one! 

Here no hungry winter congeals our blood like the rivers ; 

Here no stony ground provokes the wrath of the farmer ; 
990 Smoothly the ploughshare runs through the soil, as a keel tlirough 
the water. 

All the year round the orange-groves are in blossom; and grass 
grows 

More in a single night than a whole Canadian summer. 



EVANGELINE. 55 

Here, too, numberless herds run wild and unclaimed in the prairies ; 

Here, too, lands may be had for the asking, and forests of timber 
995 With a few blows of the axe are hewn and framed into houses. 

After your houses are built, and your fields are yellow with harvests, 

No King George of England shall drive you away from your home- 
steads, 

Burning your dwellings and barns, and stealing your farms and your 
cattle." 

Speaking these words, he blew a wrathful cloud from his nostrils, 
1000 While his huge, brown hand came thundering down on the table. 

So that the guests all started ; and Father Felician, astounded. 

Suddenly paused, with a pinch of snuff half-way to his nostrils. 

But the brave Basil resumed, and his words were milder and 
gayer : — 

"Only beware of the fever, my friends, beware of the fever! 

!ioo5 For it is not like that of our cold Acadian climate, 
I Cured by wearing a spider hung round one's neck in a nutshell !" 

' Then there were voices heard at the door, and footsteps approaching 

Sounded upon the stairs and the floor of the breezy veranda. 
It was the neighboring Creoles and small Acadian planters, 
loio Who had been summoned all to the house of Basil the herdsman. 
Merry the meeting was of ancient comrades and neighbors : 
Friend clasped friend in his arms ; and they who before were as 

strangers, 
Meeting in exile, became straightway as friends to each other, 
Drawn by the gentle bond of a common country together. 
IG15 But in the neighboring hall a strain of music, proceeding 
From the accordant strings of Michael's melodious fiddle. 
Broke up all further speech. Away, like children delighted, 
All things forgotten beside, they gave themselves to the maddening 
Whirl of the dizzy dance, as it swept and swayed to the music, 
1020 Dreamlike, with beaming eyes and the rush of fluttering garments. 

Meanwhile, apart, at the head of the hall, the priest and the 
herdsman 
Sat, conversing together of past and present and future ; 
While Evangeline stood like on entranced, for within her 
Olden memories rose, and loud in the midst of the music 
1025 Heard she the sound of the sea. and an irrepressible sadness 

Came o'er her heart, and unseen she stole forth into the garden. 
Beautiful was the night. Behind the black wall of the forest. 
Tipping its summit with silver, arose the moon. On the river 
Fell here and there through the branches a tremulous gleam of the 
moonlight, 
1030 Like the sweet thought of love on a darkened and devious spirit. 
Nearer and round about her, the manifold flowers of the garder 



56 EVANGELINE. 

Poured out their souls in odors, that were their prayers and oan- 
fessions 

Unto the night, as it went its way, Hke a silent Carthusian. 

Fuller of fragrance than they, and as heavy with shadows and night* 
dews, 
1O35 Hung the heart of the maiden. The calm and the magical moon- 
light 

Seemed to inundate her soul with indefinable longings. 

As, through the garden gate, and beneath the shade of the oak-trees, 

Passed she along the path to the edge of the measureless prairie. 

Silent it lay, with a silvery haze upon it, and fire-flies 
1040 Gleamed and floated away in mingled and infinite numbers. 

Over her head the stars, the thoughts of God in the heavens. 

Shone on the eyes of man, who had ceased to marvel and worship, 

Save when a blazing comet was seen on the walls of that temple, 

As if a hand had appeared and written upon them, "Upharsin." 
1045 And the soul of the maiden, between the stars and the fire-flies. 

Wandered alone, and she cried, "O Gabriel ! O my beloved ! 

Art thou so near unto me, and yet I cannot behold thee ? 

Art thou so near unto me, and yet thy voice does not reach me ? 

Ah ! how often thy feet have trod this path to the prairie ! 
1050 Ah ! how often thine eyes have looked on the woodlands around me ! 

Ah ! how often beneath this oak, returning from labor, 

Thou hast lain down to rest, and to dream of me in thy slumbers ! 

When shall these eyes behold, these arms be folded about thee?" 

Loud and sudden and near the note of a whippoorwill sounded 
1055 Like a flute in the woods ; and anon, through the neighboring thick- 
ets, 

Farther and farther away it floated and dropped into silence. 

"Patience!" whispered the oaks from oracular caverns of darkness; 

And, from the moonlit meadow, a sigh responded, "To-morrow !" 



FOR STUDY 

WORDS Look up derivations, analyze and define: comrades (earner — 
chamber), mortal (niort — death), hilarious (hilar — cheerful), 
patriarchal (L. pater, patr — father, and G. arch — rule, govern), demeanor, 
myriad, congeal (gel — frost), ancient, accordant, devious, inundate, indeiin- 
*ble, (fin — end, limit). Study to define: borne, renoivncd, veranda, illuming, 
myriad, glimmering, entranced, irrepressible, manifold, oracular. Notice the 
following: See notes for Olympus, Creoles, Carthusian, Upharsin, oracular, 
cidevant (se-de-vonh'), — former; F. ci (ici), — here; devant — before. 
SUGGESTIONS ^' ^^^ were those who bore Michael on their shoul- 

FOR SPECIAL ders? Cite several lines to prove their identity. 2. 

y^QP^ Describe the tableau seen in the four lines beginning 

with 999. Compare Basil here with Basil in lines 297- 
299, and 452-457. 3. What figure in line 999? 4. Make a topical outline for 
this selection. 5. Commit to memory lines 1027-1033. 6. Prepare for repro- 
duction in your own words. 

Much opportunity is afforded in this selection, (as in others), especially 
from line 1021 to the end, for careful thought and class discussion. 



EVANGELINE. 57 

NOTES Thessaly, near ancient Macedonia. Its altitude is nearly 10,000 
961. Olympus (6-lim'pus) is a famous mountain of Greece, in 
feet. It was regarded by the ancient people of Greece as the abode of the 
gods, and as crowned by the throne of Jupiter. 

984. Natchitoches (nach-i-toch'ez, or nak-i-tosh') is a parish in the 
northwestern part of Louisiana, with the Red River for its eastern boundary. 
It has fertile farming lands, and Natchitoches is its chief city. 

1009. A Creole (kre'ol), in Louisiana, is a person born there, but of 
French and Spanish ancestry. 

1033. The Carthusians (kar-thu-zhans) — an order of monks, founded 
in 1086, who took their name from the monastery of Chartreuse, near Gren- 
oble, France. Their rules were very austere, and forbade them, among other 
things, to leave their cells, or to speak to any one without permission from 
their superior. 

1044. For the force and meaning of the word "Upharsin" read the ac- 
count of Belshazzar's feast in the fifth chapter of Daniel. 

1057. Oracular means pertaining to the oracles. An oracle was a pre- 
tended revelation of future events by a priest or priestess. Among the most 
famous oracles were those of Apollo, at Delphi. Darkness and ambiguity 
in the responses to inquiries were made to cover the mistakes which otherwise 
would have exposed the imposture, (from L. oraculum, — divine announce- 
ment; L. orarc, — to pray; L. os, oris, — the mouth.) 



SELECTION XVIII 

Lines 1059 to 1077 
THE JOURNEY TO ADAYES 



Bright rose the sun next day; and all the flowers of the garden 
*o Bathed his shining feet with their tears, and anointed his tresses 
With the delicious balm that they bore in their vases of crystal. 
"Farewell I" said the priest, as he stood at the shadowy threshold ; 
"See that you bring us the Prodigal Son from his fasting and famine, 
And, too, the Foolish Virgin, who slept when the bridegroom was 
coming." 
)5 "Farewell !" answered the maiden, and, smiling, with Basil de- 
scended 
Down to the river's brink, where the boatmen already were waiting. 
Thus beginning their journey with morning, and sunshine, and glad- 
ness. 
Swiftly they followed the flight of him who was speeding before 

them, 
Blown by the blast of fate like a dead leaf over the desert. 
1070 Not that day, nor the next, nor yet the day that succeeded, 
Found they trace of his course, in lake or forest or river, 
Nor, after many days, had they found him ; but vague and uncertain 
Rumors alone were their guides through a wild and desolate country ; 
Till, at the little inn of the Spanish town of Adayes, 
1075 Weary and worn, they alighted, and learned from the garrulous 
landlord 
That on the day before, with horses and guides and companions, 
Gabriel left the village, and took the road of the prairies. 



58 EVANGELINE. 

FOR STUDY 

WORDS. Look up derivations, analyze and define: delicious {delict — de- 
light, pleasure), crystal (G. crystall, — ice), succeeded {ced, cess, 
— go, yield), vague {vag, — wander), garrulous (garr, — chatter). 

SUGGESTIONS ^" ^''^^^ ^"t an explanation of the first three lines of 

FOR SPECIAL *'^'^ selection. 2. Write explanation of reference in 

^QP^ line 1063, also of that in 1064, giving the connection of 

each in this story. 3. Describe the conditions surround- 
ing the beginning of the journey and compare with its ending. 4. Write 
explanation of the simile in line 1069 and compare it with another in this 
poem, similar to it, made with reference to a nation. 5. What figure in line 
1073? 6. Commit to memory lines 1059-1061. 7. Prepare to reproduce orally. 

NOTES. 1059-1061. For a study of the allusion contained in these lines 
read Luke 7 : 37, 38. 

1063. The story of the Prodigal Son will be found in Luke, the fifteenth 
chapter. 

1064. For the account of the Foolish Virgins read Matthew 25: 1-13. 



SELECTION XIX 

Liues 1078 to 1105 
THE WESTERN MOUNTAINS AND GREAT PLAINS 



IV. 

Far in the West there Hes a desert land, where the mountains 
Lift, through perpetual snows, their lofty and luminous summits. 

1080 Down from their jagged, deep ravines, where the gorge, like a gate- 
way, 
Opens a passage rude to the wheels of the emigrant's wagon, 
Westward the Oregon flows and the Walleway and Owyhee. 
Eastward, with devious course, among the Wind-river Mountains, 
Through the Sweet-water Valley precipitate leaps the Nebraska; 

1085 And to the south, from Fontaine-qui-bout and the Spanish sierras. 
Fretted with sands and rocks, and swept by the wind of the desert. 
Numberless torrents, with ceaseless sound, descend to the ocean, 
Like the great chords of a harp, in loud and solemn vibrations. 
Spreading between these streamis are the wondrous, beautiful 
prairies, 

1090 Billowy bays of grass ever rolling in shadow and sunshine, 
Bright with luxuriant clusters of roses and purple amorphas. 
Over them wandered the bufifalo herds, and the elk and the roebuck; 
Over them wandered the wolves, and herds of riderless horses; 
Fires that blast and blight, and winds that are weary with travel ; 

1095 Over them wander the scattered tribes of Ishmael's children. 

Staining the desert with blood ; and above their terrible war-trails 
Circles and sails aloft, on pinions majestic, the vulture. 
Like the implacable soul of a chieftain slaughtered in battle. 
By invisible stairs ascending and scaling the heavens. 



EVANGELINE. 59 

iioo Here and there rise smokes from the camps of these savage ma- 
rauders ; 
Here and there rise groves from the margins of swift-running rivers ; 
And the grim, taciturn bear, the anchorite monk of the desert, 
Climbs down their dark ravines to dig for roots by the brook-side, 
And over all is the sky, the clear and crystalline heaven, 

1 105 Like the protecting hand of God inverted above them. 



I 



FOR STUDY 

WORDS Look up derivations, analyze and define: luminous, ravine {rav — 
bear away), emigrant's (niigr — wander), devious (vi — way, 
road), precipitate (precipic, precipit, — headlong; from L. prae — before, and 
caput, capitis, the head), descend, vibrations (vibr — swing), scaling {scaU-^ 
ladder), crystalline. Define: perpetual, jagged, gorge, fretted, chords, prai- 
ries, billowy, luxuriant, pinions, implacable, marauders, taciturn, anchorite. 

SUGGESTIONS ^- ^^^^ ^ topical outline. 2. Rewrite in good prose 

FOR SPECIAL ^'"^^ 1087-1088, changing the simile to a metaphor. 3. 

WORK ^^^y should the sky seem as the protecting hand of 

' God? 4. Get a complete view of this superb word pic- 

ture. Describe it as though the land lay before you, and you were actually 
looking at the things mentioned in Longfellow's description. 

NOTES ^°'^^- ^^^ P°^^ ^^^^ opens a description of the great west, includ- 
ing the Rocky Mountain region, and the great plains extending 
eastward to the Ozark Mountains. 

1082. The Oregon, now the Columbia river, flows westward from the 
Rocky Mountains to the Pacific. The Ouyhee (o-wy'hee), in southeastern 
Oregon, flows into the Snake river, a southern tributary of the Columbia. 
The Walleway (woU'e-wa) is a small stream in the northeastern part of the 
same state. 

1083-1084. The Wind River Mountains is an outlying range of the Rocky 
Mountains in Wyomiing, culminating in Fremont's Peak, at an altitude of 
about 13,000 feet. 

The Sweet-v/ater Valley affords an outlet from the Wind River range 
to the eastward. A tributary of the North Piatt, a branch of the Nebraska, 
flows through this valley. 

1085. Fontaine-qui-bout (fonh-tan-ke-boo), French word meaning "boil- 
ing spring," is supposed to refer to springs in southeastern Colorado. 

The Spanish Sierras are mountains extending southward from Utah to 
Mexico. Sierra is a Spanish word meaning "a saw." 

1091. The Amorpha is a plant bearing a dark-blue flower. It is thus 
named on account of the irregularity in form of the flower. From the Greek 
words a — without, and morphe — form. 

1095. The Bedouins, or true Arabs, are the traditional descendants of 
Ishmael. They wander with their herds, and live in tents. They subsist 
partly by plunder, and this characteristic may have prompted the comparison 
of the Indians to "Ishmael's children." Read Genesis 21 : 9-21, and Genesis 
25:12-16. There is no reason for supposing that the American Indians are 
the descendants of these people, although fancy sometimes pictures them as 
such. 



6o EVANGELINE. 

SELECTION XX 

Lines 1106 to 1115 
THE PURSUIT UPON THE PLAINS 



Into this wonderful land, at the base of the Ozark Mountains, 
Gabriel far had entered, with hunters and trappers behind him. 
Day after day, with their Indian guides, the maiden and Basil 
I'ollowed his flying steps, and thought each day to o'ertake him. 
I no Sometimes they saw, or thought they saw, the smoke of his camp-fire 
Rise in the morning air from the distant plain ; but at nightfall. 
When they had reached the place, they found only embers and ashes. 
And, though their hearts were sad at times and their bodies were 

weary, 
Hope still guided them on, as the magic Fata Morgana 
1 1 15 Showed them her lakes of light, that retreated and vanished before 
them. 



FOR STUDY 

SUGGESTIONS ^' ^^"^ ^ person see as far as indicated in lines iiio- 

FOR SPECIAL 1112? If so, under what conditions? If not, account 

w/Qpi^ for the statement. 2. What is the figure in line 1x09? 

3. Rewrite lines 1114-1115, explaining "Fata Morgana" 

and "lakes of light," and connect them with the thought here. 4. Find a 

quotation or two with reference to "hope," from some other author, which 

would apply here. 

NOTE III4- The Fata Morgana (fa'tah-mor-gah'nah), Italian for the 

fairy Morgana, is a marine mirage seen on the seacoast, espe- 
cially about Reggio, Italy, in the Straits of Messina. There, multiplied re- 
flections of objects on the surrounding coasts are seen in the air, or upon 
the surface of the water. Supposed to be the work of the fairy Morgana. 
This phenomenon is also produced by the sun shining upon the sandy deserts 
of the west in this country. The sand and lower stratum of air are heated, 
producing the appearance of lakes in the distance. 



SELECTION XXI 

Lines 1116 to 11G4 
THE SHAWNEE WOMAN 

Once, as they sat by their evening fire, there silently entered 
Into the little camp an Indian woman, whose features 
Wore deep traces of sorrow, and patience as great as her sorrow. 
She was a Shawnee woman returning home to her people, 
1 120 From the far-off hunting-grounds of the cruel Camanches, 

Where her Canadian husband, a coureur-des-bois, had been mur- 
dered. 
Touched were their hearts at her story, and warmest and friendliest 

welcome 
Gave they, with words of cheer, and she sat and feasted among them 



EVANGELINE. 6l 

On the buffalo-meat and the venison cooked on the embers. 

1 1 25 But when their meal was done, and Basil and all his companions, 

Worn with the long day's march and the chase of the deer and the 

bison, 
Stretched themselves on the ground, and slept where the quivering 

fire-light 
Flashed on their swarthy cheeks, and their forms wrapped up in 

their blankets. 
Then at the door of Evangeline's tent she sat and repeated 

1 1 30 Slowly, with soft, low voice, and the charm of her Indian accent, 
All the tale of her love, with its pleasures, and pains, and reverses. 
Much Evangeline wept at the tale, and to know that another 
Hapless heart like her own had loved and had been disappointed. 
Moved to the depths of her soul by pity and woman's compassion, 

1 1 35 Yet in her sorrow pleased that one who had suffered was near her. 
She in turn related her love and all its disasters. 
Mute with wonder the Shawnee sat, and when she had ended 
Still was mute ; but at length, as if a mysterious horror 
Passed through her brain, she spake, and repeated the tale of the 
Mowis ; 

1 140 Mowis, the bridegroom of snow, who won and wedded a maiden. 
But, when the morning came, arose and passed from the wigwam, 
Fading and melting away and dissolving into the sunshine. 
Till she beheld him no more, though she followed far into the forest. 
Then, in those sweet, low tones, that seemed like a weird incantation, 

1 145 Told she the tale of the fair Lilinau, who was wooed by a phantom, 
That, through the pines o'er her father's lodge, in the hush of the 

twilight. 
Breathed like the evening wind, and whispered love to the maiden. 
Till she followed his green and waving plume through the forest, 
And nevermore returned, nor was seen again by her people. 

1 150 Silent with wonder and strange surprise, Evangeline listened 

To the soft flow of her magical words, till the region around her 
Seemed like enchanted ground, and her swarthy guest the en- 
chantress. 
Slowly over the tops of the Ozark Mountains the moon rose, 
Lighting the little tent, and with a mysterious splendor 

1 155 Touching the sombre leaves, and embracing and filling the woodland. 
With a delicious sound the brook rushed by, and the branches 
Swayed and sighed overhead in scarcely audible whispers. 
Filled with the thoughts of love was Evangeline's heart, but a secret, 
Subtle sense crept in of pain and indefinite terror, 

1 1 60 As the cold, poisonous snake creeps into the nest of the swallow. 
It was no earthly fear. A breath from the region of spirits 
Seemed to float in the air of night ; and she felt for a moment 



62 EVANGELINE. 

That, like the Indian maid, she, too, was pursuing a phantom. 
With this thought she slept, and the fear and the phantom had van- 
ished. 



FOR STUDY 

WORDS. Look up derivations, analyze and define: reverses {vert, vers—' 
turn), disaster (G. aster, astr — star), dissolving (solv, solut — 
loosen), incantation {cant — sing), enchantress {chant — sing). Both these 
stems are from the Latin word cantare, but chant comes to us through the 
French word chanter, audible {and — hear, listen), indefinite {fin — end, limit). 
Define: venison, embers, swarthy, hapless, wooed, phantom, sombre. 

SUGGESTIONS ^- Locate the Indian tribes mentioned in this selection. 

FOR SPECIAL ^- Describe the Shawnee woman and tell of her recep- 

y^QPI^ tion. 3. In what was her experience similar to Evan- 

geline's? Compare the taking off of her husband with 
that of Evangeline's. 4. Briefly write out the Indian legends which she told. 
5. Was the telling of these stories intended to comfort Evangeline t In what 
way could comfort come to her from them? 6. What was the effect upon 
Evangeline? Note the vivid simile used in lines 1159-1160. 7. Scan lines 
1150-1152, and notice the difference in making the two-syllable feet trochees 
or spondees. 

NOTES. mp- The Shawnee (shaw'ne) Indians belong to the Olgonquin 
family, and their early home was upon the Wabash river in Ohio. 

1 120. The Comanches were the most numerous and warlike of all the 
tribes of American Indians. 'Their habitat extended from the Gulf of Mexico 
to the Rocky Mountains, principally along the rivers in that territory tribu- 
tary to the Rio Grande. They were fine horsemen, fierce, predatory, and rich 
in property gathered in their many raids. 

1130. The tale of Mowis (mcVwes) runs as follows: A wasting sick- 
ness had been brought upon an Indian Ijrave through a spell cast over him 
by an Indian maiden. He appealed to the great Indian spirit, Manito, who 
agreed to punish the maiden. Following the great spirit's directions he made 
a figure of bones and refuse, binding the whole together with snow. The 
great spirit then breathed life into it and introduced it to the maiden as 
Mowis, to whom she, falling in love, was married. Soon after the marriage 
the bridegroom prepared for a long journey, and the maiden, after much 
persuasion was allowed to accompany him though much against his will. 
She followed him on through the forest, but could not keep pace with his 
hurrying footsteps. The hot sun began to melt the snow. The bones ap- 
peared. The refuse fell apart, and Mowis disappeared from her view. She 
was overcome with grief for her lost lover, and died there alone in the 
forest. 

1 145. The story of Lilinau (le'-li-no) is also an Indian story as weird 
as that of Mowis, and well illustrates the workings of the Indian mind. It 
also has its own peculiar application in the story of Evangeline. 



EVANGELINE. 63 

SELECTION XXn 

Lines 1165 to 1206 
THE JESUIT MISSION 



1 1 65 Early upon the morrow the march was resumed, and the 

Shawnee 
Said, as they journeyed along, — "On the western slope of these 

mountains 
Dwells in his little village the Black Robe chief of the Mission. 
Much he teaches the people, and tells them of Mary and Jesus ; 
Loud laugh their hearts with joy, and weep with pain, as they hear 
him." 
II 70 Then, with a sudden and secret emotion, Evangeline answered, 
"Let us go to the Mission, for there good tidings await us !" 
Thither they turned their steeds ; and behind a spur of the moun- 
tains. 
Just as the sun went down, they heard a murmur of voices, 
And in a meadow green and broad, by the bank of a river, 
1 175 Saw the tents of the Christians, the tents of the Jesuit Mission. 
Under a towering oak, that stood in the m.idst of the village, 
Knelt the Black Robe chief with his children. A crucifix fastened 
High on the trunk of the tree, and overshadowed by grapevines, 
Looked with its agonized face on the multitude kneeling beneath it. 
1 1 80 This was their rural chapel. Aloft, through the intricate arches 
Of its aerial roof, arose the chant of their vespers. 
Mingling its notes with the soft susurrus and sighs of the branches. 
Silent, with heads uncovered, the travellers, nearer approaching, 
Knelt on the swarded floor, and joined in the evening devotions. 
1185 But when the service was done, and the benediction had fallen 

Forth from the hands of the priest, like seed from the hands of the 
sower, 

(Slowly the reverend man advanced to the strangers, and bade them 
Welcome; and when they replied, he smiled with benignant expres- 
sion, 
Hearing the homelike sounds of his mother-tongue in the forest, • • 
1190 And, with words of kindness, conducted them into his wigwam. 

There upon mats and skins they reposed, and on cakes of the maize- 
ear 
R Feasted and slaked their thirst from the water-gourd of the teacher. 
P Soon was their story told; and the priest with solemnity answered: 

" Not six suns have risen and set since Gabriel, seated 
1 195 On this mat by my side, where now the maiden reposes, 

Told me this same sad tale; then arose and continued his journey." 
Soft was the voice of the priest, and he spake with an accent of 

kindness ; 
But on Evangeline's heart fell his words as in winter the snow- 
flakes 



64 EVANGELINE. 

Fall into some lone nest from which the birds have departed. 

1200 "Far to the north he has gone," continued the priest ; "but in autumn, 
When the chase is done, will return again to the Mission." 
Then Evangeline said, and her voice was meek and submissive, 
"Let me remain with thee, for my soul is sad and afflicted." 
So seemed it wise and well unto all ; and betimes on the morrow, 

1205 Mounting his Mexican steed, with his Indian guides and companions, 
Homeward Basil returned, and Evangeline stayed at the Mission. 



FOR STUDY 

WORDS. Look up derivations, analyze and define: crucifix {cruc — cross 
and fix — fixed, fastened), agonized (G. agon — contest, struggle), 
aerial (aer — air), vesper (vesper — the evening star), benediction, benignant 
(benign — mild). Define: spur, intricate, chant, susurus, azuarded, reverend, 
bade, maize-ear, slaked, betimes. 

SUGGESTIONS ^" -^^^^ picture of the company, in lines 1175-1179, and 

FOR SPECIAL compare with that in lines 1095-1099. 2. Notice the 

Y^QPI^ figure in lines 1 185- 1 186 and compare it with a similar 

one used earlier in the poem. 3. Compare the figure in 
lines 1198-1199 with one similar to it, used to show an effect of the Shawnee 
woman's stories. 4. Write a character sketch of Basil, using references to 
him in preceding pages. 5. Make an outline for this selection (about ten 
headings) and prepare for oral reproduction. 

NOTES ^^75- ^^^ Jesuits, or Society of Jesus, a religious order in the 

Roman Catholic Church, was founded by St. Ignatius Loyola, 

about 1540, and soon became a very powerful organization. Its priests have 

no special costume, but dress in black, similar to the usual dress of Catholic 

priests. 



SELECTION XIII 

Lines 1207 to 1238 
LIFE AT THE MISSION 



Slowly, slowly, slowly the days succeeded each other, — 
Days and weeks and months; and the fields of maize that were 

springing 
Green from the ground when a stranger she came, now waving 

about her, 
12 10 Lifted their slender shafts, with leaves interlacing, and forming 
Cloisters for mendicant crows and granaries pillaged by squirrels. 
Then in the golden weather the maize was husked, and the maidens 
Blushed at each blood-red ear, for that betokened a lover. 
But at the crooked laughed, and called it a thief in the corn-field. 
12 15 Even the blood-red ear to Evangeline brought not her lover. 

"Patience!" the priest would say; "have faith, and thy prayer will 

be answered ! 
Look at this vigorous plant that lifts its head from the meadow, 
See how its leaves are turned to the north, as true as the magnet ; 



EVANGELINE. 65 

This is the compass-flower, that the finger of God has planted 

1220 Here in the houseless wild, to direct the traveller's journey 
Over the sea-like, pathless, limitless waste of the desert. 
Such in the soul of man is faith. The blossoms of passion, 
Gay and luxuriant flowers, are brighter and fuller of fragrance, 
But they beguile us, and lead us astray, and their odor is deadly. 

1225 Only this humble plant can guide us here, and hereafter 

Crown us with asphodel flowers, that are wet with the dews of 
nepenthe." 
So came the autumn, and passed, and the winter — yet Gabriel 
came not ; 
Blossomed the opening spring, and the notes of the robin and blue- 
bird 
Sounded sweet upon wold and in wood, yet Gabriel came not. 

1230 But on the breath of the summer winds a rumor was wafted 
Sweeter than song of bird, or hue or odor of blossom. 
Far to the north and east, it said, in the Michigan forests, 
Gabriel had his lodge by the banks of the Saginaw River. 
And, with returning guides, that sought the lakes of St. Lawrence, 

1235 Saying a sad farewell, Evangeline went from the Mission. 
When over weary ways, by long and perilous marches, 
She had attained at length the depths of the Michigan forests, 
Found she the hunter's lodge deserted and fallen to ruin ! 

FOR STUDY 



WORDS Look up derivatives, analyze and define: mendicant (rnendic—- 
heg). granary (gran — grain). Define: interlacing, cloisters, pil- 
laged, luxuriant, beguile, autumn, zvold, hue. 

SUGGESTIONS l' AnaIyze,--or show analysis by a diagram,-the first 

FOR SPECIAL ^"^^ ^'"^^ °^ ^^^^ selection. 2. Why use here the ex- 

WORK ' pression "cloisters for mendicant crows"? 3. In what 

ways is the .compass-flower, as described here, like 
faith? 4. What are the blossoms of passion, and why are they called gay, 
luxuriant, fragrant flowers? 5. In connection v/ith preceding lines, rewrite 
lines 1225-1226 in your own words. 6, What figure in 1236? 7. Commit to 
memory lines 1216-1226. 

NOTES ^^^9' '^^^ compass-flower is a plant growing usually several 
feet in height. After the poem had first been published, Mr. 
Longfellow, on seeing the plant, rewrote his description of it. As first pub- 
lished the lines ran : 

"Look at this delicate plant that lifts its head from the meadow, 
See how its leaves all point to the north, as true as the magnet; 
It is the compass-flower that the finger of God has suspended 
Here on its fragile stock, to direct the traveler's journey." 

1226. The asphodels are a genus of perennial plants, of the order 
Liliaceae. They are stately plants, growing about three feet high, and hav- 
ing beautiful yellow or white flowers arranged upon a long spike. The 
ancients imagined these flowers as growing in great profusion upon the 
elysian fields of Paradise. 

Nepenthe is the name of a drug for allaying pain. Nepenthe was a 
drink which the ancients believed would release one from sorrow. 



66 EVANGELINE. 

SELECTION XXIV 

Lines 1239 to 1251 
THE SUMMARY OF EVANGEI,INE"S WANDERINGS 



Thus did the long sad years glide on, and in seasons and places 
1240 Divers and distant far was seen the wandering maiden;— 
Now in the Tents of Grace of the meek Moravian Missions, 
Now in the noisy camps and the battle-fields of the army, 
Now in secluded hamlets, in towns and populous cities. 
Like a phantom she came, and passed away unremembered. 
1245 Fair was she and young, when in hope began the long journey; 
Faded was she and old, when in disappointment it ended. 
Each succeeding year stole something away from her beauty, 
Leaving behind it, broader and deeper, the gloom and the shadow. 
Then there appeared and spread faint streaks of gray o'er her fore- 
head, 
1250 Dawn of another life, that broke o'er her earthly horizon, 

As in the eastern sky the first faint streaks of the morning. 



FOR STUDY 

WORDS. Study: perilous, attained, lodge, divers. 

SUGGESTIONS ^' ^^"^^ battle-fields were these, referred to in line 

FOR SPECIAL 1242? 2. Note the beauty of the metaphor in last three 

W.QDK lines. Is there anything up to this point to indicate 

that the "dawn" here means more than the "gray o'er 
her forehead," or has any reference to her aside from her personal appear- 
ance? 3. Write out your method of studying any selection, showing what 
steps you would take to get all its meaning. 4. Study this for reproduction. 

NOTES 1241. The Moravians are a Christian sect which began in Mora- 
via and Bohemia in 1457. They seem to have been practicing 
the doctrines of the Reformation in Bohemia when Luther began to preach. 
They are very strong in missionary work. 



SELECTION XXV 

Lines 1252 to 1297 
EVANGELINE FINDS HERSELF 

V. 

In that delightful land which is washed by the Delaware's 
waters. 
Guarding in sylvan shades the name of Penn the apostle. 
Stands on the banks of its beautiful stream the city he founded. 
1255 There all the air is balm, and the peach is the emblem of beauty, 
And the streets still reecho the names of the trees of the forest, 
As if they fain would appease the Dryads whose haunts they mo- 
lested. 
There from the troubled sea had Evangeline landed, an exile, 

LofJ. 



EVANGELINE. 67 

Finding among the children of Penn a home and a country. 

1260 There old Rene Leblanc had died; and when he departed, 
Saw at his side only one of all his hundred descendants. 
Something at least there was in the friendly streets of the city, 
Something that spake to her heart, and made her no longer a 

stranger ; 
And her ear was pleased with the Thee and Thou of the Quakers, 

1265 For it recalled the past, the old Acadian country. 

Where all men were equal, and all were brothers and sisters. 
So, when the fruitless search, the disappointed endeavor. 
Ended, to recommence no more upon earth, uncomplaining. 
Thither, as leaves to the light, were turned her thoughts and her 
footsteps. 

1270 As from a mountain's top the rainy mists of the morning 
Roll away, and afar we behold the landscape below us. 
Sun-illumined, with shining rivers and cities and hamlets, 
So fell the mists from her mind, and she saw the world far below her. 
Dark no longer, but all illumined with love ; and the pathway 

1275 Which she had climbed so far, lying smooth and fair in the distance. 
Gabriel was not forgotten. Within her heart was his image, 
Clothed in the beauty of love and youth, as last she beheld him, 
Only more beautiful made by his deathlike silence and absence. 
Into her thoughts of him time entered not, for it was not. 

1280 Over him years had no power; he was not changed, but transfigured ; 
He had become to her heart as one who is dead, and not absent ; 
Patience and abnegation of self, and devotion to others, 
This was the lesson a life of trial and sorrow had taught her. 
So was her love diffused, but, like to some odorous spices, 

1 285 Suffered no waste nor loss, though filling the air with aroma. 
Other hope had she none, nor wish in life, but to follow, 
Meekly with reverent steps, the sacred feet of her Saviour. 
Thus many years she lived as a Sister of Mercy ; frequenting 
Lonely and wretched roofs in the crowded lanes of the city, 

1290 Where distress and want concealed themselves from the sunlight, 
Where disease and sorrow in garrets languished neglected. 
Night after night when the world was asleep, as the watchman re- 
peated 
Loud, through the gusty streets, that all was well in the city, 
High at some lonely window he saw the light of her taper. 

[2!j5 Day after day, in the gray of the dawn, as slow through the suburbs 
Plodded the German farmer, with flowers and fruits for the market. 
Met he that meek, pale face, returning home from its watchings. 



68 EVANGELINE. 

FOR STUDY 



WORDS. 



Derivatives for analysis and defining: sylvan {silv — forest), 
abnegation {negat — deny), frequenting {frequ — crowd, press), 
languished (langu — ^be vi^eak), suburbs (urb — city). Define: reecho, ap- 
pease, molested, exile, descendants, endeavor, diffused, odorous, aroma, (com- 
pare aroma and odor) wretched, concealed, plodded. 

SUGGESTIONS ^' What guards the name of Penn? 2. Write a de- 

FOR SPECIAL scription of the city and surroundings from statements 

YYQpjj^ in the first six lines. 3. Write explaining line 1258. 

4. Who are the children of Penn? 5. Write your 
thoughts on reading carefully lines 1260-1261. 6. Why did this seem a home- 
like place to Evangeline? 7. Had Evangeline's life up to this time been an 
unselfish one? 8. What now becomes her supreme desire? 9. Quote lines 
which indicate a training for this higher life. 10. State how her past life 
appears to her now, as shown in lines 1270- 1275. 11. Give a short statement 
of what she does here, and in what spirit it is done. 

NOTES 1252. The Delav/are river is the eastern boundary of Pennsyl- 
vania, and flows into Delaware Bay. 
1253. The life of William Penn is interesting as an illustration of the 
power of a high resolve in the accomplishment of a good purpose under great 
difficulties. He established the State of Pennsylvania, and the spirit in which 
it was done is read in the name of the city he founded, — Philadelphia — 
"brotherly love." 

1256. A number of the streets of Philadelphia bear the names of trees 
of that section. 

1257. The Dryads (Gr. dryas, from drus — an oak-tree) were in Grecian 
mythology, the goddesses of woods and trees in general. They differed from 
the Hemadryads, who were born in the tree, lived in it, and died when the 
tree died. 

1264. The Quakers, or Society of Friends, use the old style of address, 
— thee and thou, for you, etc. 

1288. Sisters of Mercy, or Charitj', is an order of women in the Catholic 
Church, v/ho devote their lives and whole time to acts of charity and help- 
fulness. 



SELECTION XXVI 

Lines 1298 to 1319 
THE PESTILENCE 



Then it came to pass that a pestilence fell on the city, 
Presaged by wondrous signs, and mostly by flocks of wild pigeons, 

1300 Darkening the sun in their flight, with natight in their craws but an 
acorn. 
And, as the tides of the sea arise in the month of September, 
Flooding some silver stream, till it spreads to a lake in the meadow, 
So death flooded life, and, o'erflowing its natural margin, 
Spread to a brackish lake the silver stream of existence. 

1305 Wealth had no power to bribe, nor beauty to charm, the oppressor; 
But all perished alike beneath the scourge of his anger ; — 
Only, alas ! the poor, who had neither friends nor attendants, 
Crept away to die in the almshouse, home of the homeless. 



Ji^ 



EVANGELINE. 69 

Then in the suburbs it stood, in the midst of meadows and wood- 
lands ; — 
Now the city surrounds it ; but still, with its gateway and wicket 
Meek, in the midst of splendor, its humble walls seem to echo 
Softly the words of the Lord : — "The poor )^e always have with you." 
Thither, by night and by day, came the Sister of Mercy. The dying 
Looked up into her face, and thought, indeedj to behold there 
Gleams of celestial light encircle her forehead with splendor, 
Such as the artist paints o'er the brows of saints and apostles, 
Or such as hangs by night o'er a city seen at a distance. 
Unto their eyes it seemed the lamps of the city celestial, 
Into whose shining gates ere long their spirits would enter. 



FOR STUDY 

WORDS. Study: presaged, brackish, scourge. 

SUGGESTIONS ^' ^^hat is a pestilence? 2. Notice the comparison of 

FOR SPECIAL ^^'^^ ''"^ silver stream, to death and life, in lines 1300- 

Y^^Qpj^ 1304. Write this comparison in your own best prose 

statements. 3. Has life's "natural margin" been deter- 
mined? Discuss in this connection, mortality statistics, and "Expectation of 
life" tables. 4. Write your thoughts, as suggested by lines 1305-1308. 5. 
What, in your opinion, could be a greater compensation than that which 
came to her as described in the last seven lines of this selection? 
NOTES ^3°3- The mortality statistics of modern cities show a large de- 
crease in the death rate on account of improved sanitary condi- 
tions. Thus life's "natural margin" has been very much extended. Mortal- 
ity statistics and life insurance tables of "expectation of life" vary according 
to the healthfulness of the locality considered. 

1308. The old Friends' Almshouse is the one referred to by Longfellow, 
who saw it on his visit to Philadelphia in 1826 (see the biogj-aphy). It has 
since been removed. 

1312. For this saying of Christ's see Mark 14 : 7. 



SELECTION XXVn 

Lines 1320 to 1380 
GABRIEL FOUND 

1320 Thus, on a Sabbath morn, through the streets, deserted and 

silent, 
Wending her quiet way, she entered the door of the almshouse. 
Sweet on the summer air was the odor of flowers in the garden. 
And she paused on her way to gather the fairest among them. 
That the dying once more might rejoice in their fragrance and 
beauty. 
1325 Then, as she mounted the stairs to the corridors, cooled by the east- 
wind, 



70 EVANGELINE. 

Distant and soft on her ear fell the chimes from the belfrj^ of Christ 
Church, 

While, intermingled with these, across the meadows were wafted 

Sounds of psalms, that were sung by the Swedes in their church at 
Wicaco. 

Soft as descending wings fell the calm of the hour on her spirit; 
1330 Something within her said, "At length thy trials are ended;" 

And, with light in her looks, she entered the chambers of sickness. 

Noiselessly moved about the assiduous, careful attendants, 

Moistening the feverish lip, and the aching brow, and in silence 

Closing the sightless eyes of the dead, and concealing their faces, 
1335 Whei'e on their pallets they lay, like drifts of snow by the roadside. 

Many a languid head, upraised as Evangeline entered. 

Turned on its pillow of pain to gaze while she passed, for her 
presence 

Fell on their hearts like a ray of the sun on the walls of a prison. 

And, as she looked around, she saw how Death, the consoler, 
1340 Laying his hand upon many a heart, had healed it forever. 

Many familiar forms had disappeared in the night time; 

Vacant their places were, or filled already by strangers. 



Suddenly, as if arrested by fear or a feeling of wonder, 
Still she stood, with her colorless lips apart, while a shudder 

1345 Ran through her frame, and, forgotten, the flowerets dropped from 
her fingers. 
And from her eyes and cheeks the light and bloom of the morning. 
Then there escaped from her lips a cry of such terrible anguish, 
That the dying heard it, and started up from their pillows. 
On the pallet before her was stretched the form of an old man. 

1350 IvOng, and thin, and gray were the locks that shaded his temples: 
But, as he lay in the morning light, his face for a moment 
Seemed to assume once more the forms of its earlier manhood; 
So are wont to be changed the faces of those who are dying. 
Hot and red on his lips still burned the flush of the fever, 

1355 As if life, like the Hebrew, with blood had besprinkled its portals, 
That the Angel of Death might see the sign, and pass over. 
Motionless, senseless, dying he lay, and his spirit exhausted 
Seemed to be sinking down through infinite depths in the darkness. 
Darkness of slumber and death, forever sinking and sinking. 

1360 Then through those realms of shade, in multiplied reverberations. 
Heard he that cry of pain, and through the hush that succeeded 
Whispered a gentle voice, in accents tender and saint-like, 

"Gabriel! O my beloved!" and died away in silence. 
Then he beheld, in a dream, once more the home of his childhood; 

1365 Green Acadian meadows, with sylvan rivers among them. 

Village, and mountain, and woodland; and, walking under their 
shadow, 



EVANGELINE, 7 1 

As in the days of her youth, Evangehne rose in his vision. 

Tears came into his eyes; and as slowly he Hfted his e3'eHds, 

Vanished the vision away, but Evangehne knelt by his bedside. 
1370 Vainly he strove to whisper her name, for the accents imuttered 

Died on his lips, and their motion revealed what his tongue would 
have spoken. 

Vainly he strove to rise ; and Evangeline, kneeling beside him, 

Kissed his dying lips, and laid his head on her bosom. 

Sweet was the light of his eyes ; but it suddenly sank into darkness, 
1375 ^^ when a lamp is blown out by a gust of wind at a casement. 

All was ended now, the hope, and the fear, and the sorrow, 
All the aching of heart, the restless, unsatisfied longing. 
All the dull, deep pain, and constant anguish of patience! 
And, as she pressed once more the lifeless head to her bosom, 
13S0 Meekly she bowed her own, and murmured, "Father, I thank thee!" 



FOR STUDY 

WORDS. ^tudy : wending, psalms, Swedes, assiduous, pallets, languid, 

consoler, reverberations, casement. 
SUGGESTIONS '• ^''i'^^ ^ comparison Iietween Evangeline on this 

FOR SPECIAL Sunday morning, and on that other Simday morn de- 

yyQpjl^ scribed in lines 71-81. 2. Would you place the climax 

of this story in this selection or in some other? 3. 
Write an account of Evangeline's finding Gabriel, his vision, his recognition 
of her, and his death. 4. Why did she say, "Father, I thank thee"? 5. Com- 
pile what you have previously written, adding whatever else you can find, 
for a completed character sketch of Evangeline. 6. Do the same for a final 
sketch of Gabriel. 

NOTES ^3-'5- Christ's Church is the Episcopal church in which Franklin 
lies buried. 
1328. The Swede's church at Wicaco (we-ka'ko) still stands, the oldest 
in the city, founded in 1698. Wicaco was a village on the banks of the Dela- 
ware, but now is a part of the city. 

1355- The reference here is to the event in memory of wdiich the Hebrew 
feast of the Passover was kept. Read E.Kodus, 12:7, 12-13, 22-23. 



SELECTION XXVIII 

Lines 1.3S1 to 1399 
KINIS 

Still stands the forest ]M-imevaI ; but far away from its shadow, 
Side by side, in their nameless graves, the lovers are sleeping. 
Under the humble walls of the little Catholic churchyard. 
In the heart of the city, they lie, unknown and unnoticed. 
1385 Daily the tides of life go ebbing and flowing beside them. 

Thousands ot throbbing hearts, where theirs are at rest and forever, 
Thousands of aching brains, where theirs no longer are busy, 



72 BVANGELINE. 

Thousands of toiling hands, where theirs have ceased from their 

labors, 
Thousands of weary feet, where theirs have completed their journey I 

1390 vStill stands the forest primeval; but under the shade of its 

branches 
Dwells another race, with other customs and language. 
Only along the shore of the mournful and misty Atlantic 
Linger a few Acadian peasants, whose fathers from exile 
Wandered back to their native land to die in its bosom. 

1393 In the fisherman's cot the wheel and the loom are still busy ; 

Maidens still wear their Norman caps and their kirtles of homespun, 
And by the evening fire repeat Evangeline's story. 
While from its rocky caverns the deep-voiced, neighboring ocean 
Speaks, and in accents disconsolate answers the wail of the forest. 

FOR STUDY 

SUGGESTIONS ^' Write at least three comparisons between the pic- 

FOR SPECIAL tures presented in hnes 379-381, and events portrayed 

WORK. '" *-^^ poem. 2. Write the comparison between the 

living and these dead contained in lines 1381-1389. 3. 

Why does the author recall the Acadian land for a closing piece? 4. Write a 

synopsis of this story. 


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