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Friday, November 17, 2017

Macbeth (The New Cambridge Shakespeare, A. R. Braunmuller ed., 1997)

THE NEW CAMBRIDGE SHAKESPEARE GENERAL EDITOR: Brian Gibbons, University of Munster ASSOCIATE GENERAL EDITOR: A. R. Braunmuller, University of California, Los Angeles From the publication of the first volumes in 1984 the General Editor of the New Cambridge Shakespeare was Philip Brockbank and the Associate General Editors were Brian Gibbons and Robin Hood. From 1990 to 1994 the General Editor was Brian Gibbons and the Associate General Editors were A. R. Braunmuller and Robin Hood. MACBETH This is the most extensively annotated edition of Macbeth currently available, offering a thorough reconsideration of one of Shakespeare's most popular plays. A full and accessible introduction studies the immediate theatrical and political contexts of Macbeth's composition, especially the Gunpowder Plot and the contemporary account of an early performance at the Globe. It treats such celebrated issues as whether the Witches compel Macbeth to murder; whether Lady Macbeth is herself in some sense a witch; whether Banquo is Macbeth's accomplice in crime; and what criticism is levelled against Macduff. A wellillustrated account of the play in performance examines several cinematic versions, such as those by Kurosawa and Roman Polanski, and other dramatic adaptations. Several possible new sources are suggested, and the presence of Thomas Middleton's writing in the play is proposed. Appendixes contain additional text and accompanying music.
THE NEW CAMBRIDGE SHAKESPEARE All's Well That Ends Well, edited by Russell Fraser Antony and Cleopatra, edited by David Bevington The Comedy of Errors, edited by T. S. Dorsch Hamlet, edited by Philip Edwards Julius Caesar, edited by Marvin Spevack The First Part of King Henry IV, edited by Herbert Weil and Judith Weil The Second Part of King Henry IV, edited by Giorgio Melchiori King Henry V, edited by Andrew Gurr The First Part of King Henry VI, edited by Michael Hattaway The Second Part of King Henry VI, edited by Michael Hattaway The Third Part of King Henry VI, edited by Michael Hattaway King Henry VIII, edited by John Margeson King John, edited by L. A. Beaurline The Tragedy of King Lear, edited by Jay L. Halio King Richard II, edited by Andrew Gurr Measure for Measure, edited by Brian Gibbons The Merchant of Venice, edited by M. M. Mahood The Merry Wives of Windsor, edited by David Crane A Midsummer Night s Dream, edited by R. A. Foakes Much Ado About Nothing, edited by F. H. Mares Othello, edited by Norman Sanders The Poems, edited by John Roe Romeo and Juliet, edited by G. Blakemore Evans The Sonnets, edited by G. Blakemore Evans The Taming of the Shrew, edited by Ann Thompson Titus Andronicus, edited by Alan Hughes Twelfth Night, edited by Elizabeth Story Donno The Two Gentlemen of Verona, edited by Kurt Schlueter THE EARLY QUARTOS The First Quarto of King Lear, edited by Jay L. Halio The First Quarto of King Richard III, edited by Peter Davison The First Quarto of Hamlet, edited by Kathleen O. Irace The Taming of a Shrew, edited by Stephen Roy Miller MACBETH Edited by A. R. BRAUNMULLER University of California, Los Angeles CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS PUBLISHED BY THE PRESS SYNDICATE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, United Kingdom CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK www.cup.cam.ac.uk 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, USA www.cup.org 10 Stamford Road, Oakleigh, Melbourne 3166, Australia Ruiz de Alarcôn 13, 28014 Madrid, Spain © Cambridge University Press 1997 This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 1997 Reprinted 1998, 1999 Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication data Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616. Macbeth / edited by A. R. Braunmuller. p. cm. - (New Cambridge Shakespeare) Includes bibliographical references ISBN o 521 22340 7 (hardback) - ISBN O 521 29455 x (paperback) 1. Macbeth, King of Scotland, 1 ith cent. - Drama. 1. Braunmuller, A. R., 1945- . 11. Title in. Series: Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616. Works. 1984. Cambridge University Press. PR2823.A2B73 1997 822.3'3 - dc20 96-23374 en» ISBN o 521 22340 7 hardback ISBN o 521 29455 x paperback CONTENTS List of illustrations Acknowledgements List of abbreviations and conventions Introduction Macbeth in legend, Macbeth in history Topical Macbeth Occasional Macbeth Documents Macbeth in the mind Succession, time, and families page vii ix xi 1 2 5 8 13 15 15 Master of his time: 'doubly redoubled strokes' 23 Prospect of belief: witches, women, and mediated knowledge 29 'What do you mean?': the languages of Macbeth 43 Macbeth in performance Performance and adaptation before 1800 Later stagings and versions Further variations: Kurosawa, Polanski, Ninagawa Macbeth in the mind and in performance: Act 4, Scene 3 Note on the text Note on the Commentary List of characters T H E PLAY Supplementary notes Textual analysis Appendix 1 : Casting Macbeth Appendix 2: Additional text and music Appendix 3: Relineation of the Folio Reading list 56 57 67 84 88 95 97 100 102 239 245 264 268 275 279 ILLUSTRATIONS 1 Banquo and his descendants. From John Leslie, De Origine, moribus, et rebus gestis Scotorum (1578) page 3 2 The Witches of 'Macbeth ', by Henry Fuseli (Heinrich Fiissli). Oil, after 1783 18 3 Title page from Robert Fludd, Utriusque cosmi historia (1617-19) 21 4 London Bridge. Detail from a facsimile (c. 1885) of J. C. Visscher, Londinium Florentiss\t]ma Britanniae Urbs (1616) 31 5 'Sueno's Stone'. Plate 49 in Vetvsta monvmenta (1747-1835) 36 6 Chart of the Mediterranean, c. 1555, by Sebastâo Lopes 39 7 'Head of the Cumaean sibyl'. Drawing by Michelangelo 41 8 Two limbecks. From The Works ofGeber (Jabir ibn Hayyan), trans. Richard Russell (1678), rpt. 1928, p. 102, reproducing an image from the Latin edition (Berne, 1545) 46 9 Fresco of hell-castle, formerly in the Chapel of the Holy Cross, Stratford-upon-Avon 50 10 'The King', by Hans Holbein the Younger (1538), in Francis Douce, The Dance of Death (1833) 52 11 Two witches with a cauldron. From Ulric Molitor, Des Sorcières et des devineresses, 1926, reproducing an image from the Latin edition (Cologne, 1489) of his De Lamiis et phitonicis mulieribus 55 12 The Great Seal of James I. From Francis Sandford, A Genealogical History of the Kings of England (1677), p. 514 59 13 David Garrick as Macbeth and Mrs Pritchard as Lady Macbeth. Watercolour by Henry Fuseli (Heinrich Fiissli), c. 1766 65 14 William Charles Macready as Macbeth 73 15 Adelaide Ristori as Lady Macbeth 75 16 Lady Macbeth, Macbeth, and company in Glen Byam Shaw's production, Stratford Memorial Theatre, 1955. Photograph: Angus Macbean 80 17 The sisters and Macbeth in Trevor Nunn's 1976-8 RSC production. Photograph: Joe Cocks Studio 83 List of illustrations \viii\ Map of Scotland, showing place names mentioned in the text page 94 Illustrations 1, 3, 5, and 12 are reproduced by courtesy of the Henry E. Huntington Library; illustrations 2 and 13 by courtesy of the Kunsthaus, Zurich; illustration 4 by courtesy of the Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington, D.C.; illustration 6 by courtesy of the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London; illustration 7 by courtesy of the Biblioteca reale, Turin; and illustrations 16 and 17 by courtesy of the Shakespeare Centre Library, Stratford-upon-Avon. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 'If I have done well, and as fitting the story, it is that which I desired: but if slenderly and meanly, it is that which I could attain unto.'1 Most of what I say about Macbeth must already have been said in the voluminous writings about the play, and anyone who reads Thomas Wheeler's excellent 'Macbeth': An Annotated Bibliography, 1990, will understand how little there is that has not been said about this compelling play. I acknowledge debts I recall and apologise for failing to acknowledge those I do not. A children's rhyme assures us that big fleas have little fleas to bite 'em; editors have editors, and even associate general editors have a general editor. For me, the editor's editor is Brian Gibbons, and his light touch and gentle bite made me always wish for the most succinct and clearest phrase, note, and collation. Paul Chipchase, Sue Gibbons, Judith Harte, and Sarah Stanton did more to improve this effort than they will ever say, or I will ever know. Now I essay the impossible task of parsing my further indebtedness. Those creditors include R. A. Foakes, whose edition of A Midsummer Night's Dream helped me shape the Introduction here, students in the courses named English 247 and 142c (at the University of California, Los Angeles), and my research assistants - several of whom were supported by my university's Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies under the direction of, first, Michael J. B. Allen and, latterly, Patrick Geary, and others of whom were supported, just as generously, by the Research Committee of my university's Academic Senate, who also supported my own work - (chronologically, as memory serves) Kari Schoening, Owen Staley, Margaret Sullivan, Jerome Arkenberg, Karl Hagen, and Billy Phelan, who helped over several years. These individuals' compulsiveness, argumentativeness, and learning often equalled my own, and I thank them, as I also thank the institution, UCLA, that supported them and me. Michael Cohen, David Stuart Rodes, and I worked long and valuably on an electronic, multi-media version of Macbeth, now published as a CD-Rom ('The Voyager Macbeth\ 1994), and I learned much from our joint venture. A fragment of Michael Cohen's effort appears here in Appendix 1; David Rodes's beneficent influence has pervaded not just this edition and our electronic version, but all my university service. Our joint effort also allowed me to be instructed (but not convinced) by Lisa Harrow. Many colleagues at UCLA - Charles A. Berst, Robert W. Dent, Claire McEachern, Donka Minkova, Alan Roper, Norman J. W. Thrower, Robert N. Watson - taught me things (from maps to philology, Shaw to annotation to Davenant) I needed to know and did not. The Sheriffs Department of Los Angeles County retrieved my stolen automobile and the edition it contained with remarkable dispatch, and I thank those public servants. 1 2 Maccabees 15.38, cited by Gordon Crosse, Shakespearean Playgoing 18ÇO-1Ç52, 1953, p. 159. Acknowledgements [x] My debts extend, geographically, far beyond Los Angeles to: Lee Bliss (Santa Barbara, California), Constance Jordan (Claremont, California), Stephen Orgel (Stanford, California), F. J. Levy (Washington), Thomas L. Berger (Canton, N.Y., and London), Leonard Tennenhouse (Providence, Rhode Island), for a remark he has probably now forgotten, Barbara Mowat (Washington, D.C.), Alan Dessen (North Carolina), John Astington (Ontario), Randall McLeod (or any passing cloud), Alan Somerset and his extraordinary computer program, 'Feste', and Paul Werstine (also Ontario), Pauline Croft, J. P. Ferris, G. R. Proudfoot, the Tivoli Research Group, Joanna Udall (all in London), Robert Baldwin (Greenwich), Peter Holland (Cambridge), Jenny Wormald and the generous folk of the Oxford Text Archive (Oxford), Mary White Foakes and Sylvia Morris of the Shakespeare Centre Library (Stratfordupon-Avon), Niky Rathbone and the Birmingham Public Library's Shakespeare Library's staff and their unfailing good humour (Birmingham), Gareth Roberts for help with matters alchemical (Exeter), Akiko Kusunoki (Tokyo). To heap one Pelion on another and also to repeat, I should say I am especially grateful to Thomas L. Berger, Pauline Croft, Brian Gibbons, Victoria Hay ne, Gail Kern Paster, Linda Levy Peck, Billy Phelan, G. R. Proudfoot, Sarah Stanton. And, again, my work has been generously assisted by the following organisations: the Research Committee, Academic Senate, University of California, Los Angeles; the National Endowment for the Humanities; the Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington, D.C. All were generous, and, even more important, all were patient. A.R.B. Los Angeles, Washington, Stratford, London

ABBREVIATIONS AND CONVENTIONS i. Shakespeare's plays Shakespeare's plays, when cited in this edition, are abbreviated in a style slightly modified from that used in the Harvard Concordance to Shakespeare. Other editions of Shakespeare are abbreviated under the editor's surname (Furness, Hudson) unless they are the work of more than one editor. In such cases, an abbreviated series title is used (Cam., Oxford). When more than one edition by the same editor is cited, later editions are discriminated with a raised figure (Theobald2 ). All quotations from Shakespeare, except those from Macbeth, use the lineation of The Riverside Shakespeare, under the general editorship of G. Blakemore Evans. Ado Much Ado About Nothing Ant. Antony and Cleopatra AWW All's Well That Ends Well AY LI As You Like It Cor. Coriolanus Cym. Cymbeline Err. The Comedy of Errors Ham. Hamlet 1H4 The First Part of King Henry the Fourth 2H4 The Second Part of King Henry the Fourth H5 King Henry the Fifth 1H6 The First Part of King Henry the Sixth 2H6 The Second Part of King Henry the Sixth 3H6 The Third Part of King Henry the Sixth H8 King Henry the Eighth JC Julius Caesar John King John LLL Love's Labour's Lost Lear King Lear Mac. Macbeth MM Measure for Measure MND A Midsummer Night's Dream MV The Merchant of Venice Oth. Othello Per. Pericles R2 King Richard the Second Rj King Richard the Third Rom. Romeo and Juliet Shr. The Taming of the Shrew STM Sir Thomas More Temp. The Tempest TG V The Two Gentlemen of Verona Tim. Timon of Athens Tit. Titus Andronicus Abbreviations and conventions [xii] TN Twelfth Night TNK The Two Noble Kinsmen Tro. Troilus and Cressida Win. The Merry Wives of Windsor WT The Winter's Tale 2. Editions, adaptations, other works of reference, and periodicals Works mentioned once in the Commentary appear there with full bibliographical information; all others are cited by the shortened titles listed below. Abbott Adams Adelman AEB Agate Allen Armstrong AV Barlow Barrough Bartholomeusz Bate BBC Belman Bevington Biggs Blackfriars Bloch Blurt Booth Bradley Braunmuller, Letter-Book Brennan E. A. Abbott, A Shakespearian Grammar, 3rd edn, 1870; references are to numbered sections J. Q. Adams (éd.), Chief Pre-Shakespearean Dramas, 1924 Janet Adelman, Suffocating Mothers: Fantasies of Maternal Origin in Shakespeare's Plays, 'Hamlet' to 'The Tempest', 1992 Analytical and Enumerative Bibliography James Agate, Brief Chronicles, 1943 Michael J. B. Allen, 'Macbeth's genial porter', ELR 4 (1974), 326-36 William A. Armstrong, 'Torch, cauldron and taper: light and darkness in Macbeth', in Antony Coleman and Antony Hammond (eds.), Poetry and Drama isjo-ijoo, 1981, pp. 47-59 The Holy Bible, 1611 (Authorised Version) Frank Barlow, 'The King's Evil', EHR 95 (1980), 3-27 Philip Barrough, The Méthode ofPhisicke, 1583 Dennis Bartholomeusz, 'Macbeth ' and the Players, 1969 Philip Bate, The Oboe: An Outline of its History, 3rd edn, 1975 British Broadcasting Corporation Thomas Dekker, The Belman of London (1608), in Oliphant Smeaton (éd.), 'The Guls Hornbook' and 'The Belman of London', 1904 David Bevington, Action is Eloquence: Shakespeare's Language of Gesture, 1984 Murray Biggs et al. (eds.), The Arts of Performance in Elizabethan and Early Stuart Drama, 1991 Macbeth, ed. R. W. Dent, 1969 (Blackfriars Shakespeare) Marc Bloch, The Royal Touch (1923), trans. J. E. Anderson, 1973 Thomas Dekker (?), Blurt, Master Constable (1602), ed. Thomas L. Berger, 1979 Stephen Booth, 'King Lear', 'Macbeth', Indefinition, and Tragedy, 1983 A. C. Bradley, Shakespearean Tragedy (1904), rpt. 1955 A. R. Braunmuller (éd.), A Seventeenth-Century LetterBook, 1983 Anthony Brennan, Onstage and Offstage Worlds in Shakespeare's Plays, 1989 [xiii] Brooke Brooks Bullough Burnim Byrne c. Cam. Camden Campbell, Life Capell Capell, Notes Caretti Carlisle Carlson Carter Cercignani Chambers Changeling Chapman Clarendon Clark Clark, 'Inversion' Clarkson and Warren Coleridge Collier Collier2 Abbreviations and conventions The Tragedy of Macbeth, ed. Nicholas Brooke, 1990 (Oxford Shakespeare) Cleanth Brooks, The Well Wrought Urn, 1947 Geoffrey Bullough (éd.), Narrative and Dramatic Sources of Shakespeare, 8 vols., 1957-75 Kalman A. Burnim, David Garrick, Director, 1961 Muriel St Clare Byrne, 'Fifty years of Shakespearian production: 1898—1948', S.Sur. 2 (1949), 1-20 circa ('about', used for an uncertain date or dates) Macbeth in The Works of William Shakespeare, ed. W. G. Clark and W. A. Wright, '2nd edn', 9 vols., 1891-93, vu (1892) (Cambridge Shakespeare) William Camden, Remains Concerning Britain (1605), ed. R. D. Dunn, 1984 Thomas Campbell, Life of Mrs Siddons, 2 vols., 1834 Macbeth in Mr William Shakespeare, his Comedies, Histories, and Tragedies, ed. Edward Capell, 10 vols., 1767—8, iv Edward Capell, Notes and Various Readings to Shakespeare, 3 vols., 1779-80; references are to vol. 11 (1780), first pagination-sequence, unless otherwise noted Laura Caretti (ed.), // Teatro delpersonaggio: Shakespeare sulla scena italiana dell'800, 1979 Carol Jones Carlisle, Shakespeare from the Greenroom, 1969 Marvin Carlson, The Italian Shakespearians, 1985 Thomas Carter, Shakespeare and Holy Scripture, 1905 Fausto Cercignani, Shakespeare's Works and Elizabethan Pronunciation, 1981 Macbeth, ed. E. K. Chambers, 1893 (Warwick Shakespeare) Thomas Middleton and William Rowley, The Changeling (1622), ed. George W. Williams, 1966 (Regents Renaissance Drama) The Plays of George Chapman: The Tragedies, gen. ed. Allan Holaday, 1987 William Shakespeare, Select Plays: Macbeth, ed. W. G. Clark and W. Aldis Wright, 1869 (Clarendon Press Series) Arthur Melville Clark, Murder Under Trust, or, The Topical 'Macbeth', 1981 Stuart Clark, 'Inversion, misrule and the meaning of witchcraft', P&P 87 (May 1980), 98-127 P. S. Clarkson and C. T. Warren, The Law of Property in Shakespeare and the Elizabethan Drama, 1942 Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Coleridge's Criticism of Shakespeare, ed. R. A. Foakes, 1989 Macbeth in The Works of William Shakespeare, ed. J. Payne Collier, 8 vols., 1842-4, vu (1843) Macbeth in The Plays of William Shakespeare, ed. J. Payne Collier, 1853 Abbreviations and conventions [xiv] conj. corr. Cotgrave Crosse Daemonologie Damned Art Davenant Davies, Life Davies, Micellanies De Quincey Dekker Dent Dent, PLED Dessen Dessen, 'Problems' Dolan Donohue, Dramatic Character Donohue, 'Mrs Siddons' Doran Downer Dutch Courtesan Dyce Dyce2 conjecture, conjectured by corrected Randle Cotgrave, A Dictionarie of the French and English Tongues, 1611 Gordon Crosse, Shakespearean Playgoing I8QO-IQ$2, 1953 James VI and I, Daemonologie (1598), éd. G. B. Harrison, Bodley Head Quartos, 1924 The Damned Art: Essays in the Literature of Witchcraft, ed. Sydney Anglo, 1977 Macbeth, a Tragedy [adapted by William Davenant] With all the alterations . . . and New Songs. As it's now acted at the Dukes [sic] Theatre, 1674 Thomas Davies, Memoirs of the Life of David Garrick, 2 vols., 1780 Thomas Davies, Dramatic Micellanies [sic], 3 vols., 1783- 4 Thomas De Quincey, 'On the knocking at the gate in Macbeth' (1823), in The Collected Writings of Thomas De Quincey, ed. David Masson, 14 vols., 1889-90, x, 389—95 The Dramatic Works of Thomas Dekker, ed. Fredson Bowers, 4 vols., 1953-61 Robert W. Dent, Shakespeare's Proverbial Language: An Index, 1981; reference is to proverbs by letter and number Robert W. Dent, Proverbial Language in English Drama Exclusive of Shakespeare, 1984; reference is to proverbs by letter and number Alan Dessen, Elizabethan Stage Conventions and Modern Interpreters, 1984 Alan Dessen, '"Taint not thy mind . . .": problems and pitfalls in staging plays at the New Globe', in Franklin J. Hildy (ed.), New Issues in the Reconstruction of Shakespeare's Theatre, 1990, pp. 135-57 Frances E. Dolan, Dangerous Familiars: Representations of Domestic Crime in England 1550—1700, 1994 Joseph W. Donohue, Jr, Dramatic Character in the English Romantic Age, 1970 Joseph W. Donohue, Jr, 'Kemble and Mrs Siddons in Macbeth: the Romantic approach to tragic character', ThN 22 (1967-8), 65-86 Madeleine Doran, 'The Macbeth music', S.St. 16 (1983), 153-73 Alan S. Downer, The Eminent Tragedian: William Charles Macready, 1966 John Marston, The Dutch Courtesan (1605), ed. M. L. Wine, 1965 (Regents Renaissance Drama) Macbeth in The Works of William Shakespeare, ed. Alexander Dyce, 6 vols., 1857, v Macbeth in The Works of William Shakespeare, ed. Alexander Dyce, 9 vols., 1864-7, vu (1866) [xv] Abbreviations and conventions éd., eds. Edelman Edmonton edn Edward III EHR ELH ELN ELR Everett F2 F3 F4 Farnham Fidèle and Fortunio Foakes Focus Folger Forman Furness Gardner Garner Geneva Gerard Globe Golden Age Greg editor(s), edited by Charles Edelman, Brawl Ridiculous: Swordfighting in Shakespeare's Plays, 1992 Thomas Dekker et al., The Witch of Edmonton (1621) in Peter Corbin and Douglas Sedge (eds.), Three Jacobean Witchcraft Plays, 1986 (Revels Plays) edition Edward HI, ed. Giorgio Melchiori, NCS (forthcoming) English Historical Review ELH: A Journal of English Literary History English Language Notes English Literary Renaissance Barbara Everett, Young Hamlet: Essays on Shakespeare 's Tragedies, 1989 Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, and Tragedies, 1623 (First Folio) Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, and Tragedies, 1632 (Second Folio) Mr. William Shakespear's Comedies, Histories, and Tragedies, 1663-4 (Third Folio) Mr. William Shakespear's Comedies, Histories, and Tragedies, 1685 (Fourth Folio) Willard Farnham, Shakespeare's Tragic Frontier (1950), rpt. 1963 Luigi Pasqualigo, // Fedele, trans. Anthony Munday (?), Fidèle and Fortunio (1585), ed. Percy Simpson, MSR, 1909 The Tragedy of Macbeth, ed. R. A. Foakes, 1968 (BobbsMerrill Shakespeare) John Russell Brown (ed.), Focus on 'Macbeth', 1982 The Tragedy of Macbeth, ed. Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine, 1992 (New Folger Library Shakespeare) Simon Forman, Booke of Plaies (Bodleian Library MS. Ashmole 208, folios 2O7r-v), in E. K. Chambers, William Shakespeare: A Study of Facts and Problems, 2 vols., 1930, n, 337-8 Macbeth, rev. edn, ed. H. H. Furness, Jr, 1903 (New Variorum) Helen Gardner, 'Milton's "Satan" and the theme of damnation in Elizabethan tragedy', in F. P. Wilson (ed.), English Studies 1948, 1948, pp. 46-66 Bryan A. Garner, 'Shakespeare's Latinate neologisms', S.St. 15 (1982), 149-70 The Holy Bible, 1560 (Geneva translation) John Gerard, The Herball, or Generall Historié of Plantes, 2 vols, [continuously paginated], 1597 The Works of William Shakespeare, ed. W. G. Clark and W. Aldis Wright, 1865 (Globe Edition) Thomas Hey wood, The Golden Age, 1611 W. W. Greg, The Shakespeare First Folio, 1955 Abbreviations and conventions Grey Halio Halliwell Hanmer Harbage Harcourt Heal Heath Henslowe Hiérarchie Hinman HLQ_ Honest Mans Houlbrooke Hudson Hughes Hughes, Irving Hunter Hunter, New Jackson Jaech Jenkin JHI Johnson Jones, Origins Jones, Scenic Jonson Keightley Knight Zachary Grey, Critical, Historical, and Explanatory Notes on Shakespeare, 2 vols., 1754 Macbeth, ed. Jay L. Halio, 1972 (Fountainwell Drama) Macbeth in The Works of William Shakespeare, ed. James O. Halliwell, 16 vols., 1865, xiv Macbeth in The Works of Mr William Shakespear, ed. Thomas Hanmer, 6 vols., 1743-4, v (1744) Alfred Harbage, Theatre for Shakespeare, 1955 John B. Harcourt, '" I pray you, remember the porter"', SQ_i2 ( 1961), 393-402 Felicity Heal, Hospitality in Early Modern England, 1990 Benjamin Heath, A Révisai of Shakespear5 Text, 1765 Henslowe's Diary, ed. R. A. Foakes and R. T. Rickert, 1961 Thomas Heywood, The Hiérarchie of the Blessed Angells, 1635 Charlton Hinman, The Printing and Proof-Reading of the First Folio of Shakespeare, 2 vols., 1963 Huntington Library Quarterly The Honest Mans Fortune, ed. J. Gerritsen, 1952 Ralph A. Houlbrooke, The English Family 1450-1joo, 1984 Macbeth in The Works of Shakespeare, ed. H. N. Hudson, 11 vols., 1851-59, iv (1852) Alan Hughes, 'Lady Macbeth: a fiend indeed?', Southern Review (Adelaide) n (1978), 107-12 Alan Hughes, Henry Irving, Shakespearean, 1981 Macbeth, ed. G. K. Hunter, 1967 (New Penguin Shakespeare) Joseph Hunter, New Illustrations of the Life, Studies, and Writings of Shakespeare, 2 vols., 1845 Zachariah Jackson, Shakspeare's Genius Justified, 1819 Sharon L. Jansen Jaech, 'Political prophecy and Macbeth's "sweet bodements"', SQ24 (1983), 290-7 H. C. Fleeming Jenkin, 'Mrs Siddons as Lady Macbeth. From contemporary notes by George Joseph Bell', The Nineteenth Century 3 (1878), 296-313, as rpt. in Fleeming Jenkin, Papers on Acting, in (1915), 25-68 Journal of the History of Ideas The Plays of William Shakespeare, ed. Samuel Johnson, 8 vols., 1765, vi Emrys Jones, The Origins of Shakespeare, 1977 Emrys Jones, Scenic Form in Shakespeare, 1971 Ben Jonson, The Complete Plays of Ben Jonson, ed. G. A. Wilkes, 4 vols., 1981-2 Macbeth in The Plays of William Shakespeare, ed. Thomas Keightley, 6 vols., 1864, vi Macbeth in The Pictorial Edition of the Works of Shakespeare, ed. Charles Knight, 6 vols., Tragedies, 11, 1841 [xvii] Knight, Imperial Knights Knowles Lancashire Langham Lamer Leiter Lexicon Linthicum Long Macbeth Onstage Mackinnon Macready, Diaries Mahood Maid's Tragedy Malone Marlowe Mason Massinger MED Milton Mirror MLN MLR Morley Abbreviations and conventions G. W. Knight, The Imperial Theme (1931), 3rd edn, corr. rpt-, 1954 L. C. Knights, 'How many children had Lady Macbeth?' (1933), rpt. in Knights, Explorations, 1946, pp. 1-39 [Anonymous,] Sheridan Knowles' Conception and Mr Irving's Performance of Macbeth, 1876 Thomas Heywood and Richard Brome, The Late Lancashire Witches, 1634 Robert Langham (or Lanham), A Letter (1575), ed. R. J. P. Kuin, 1983 Christina Larner, Witchcraft and Religion, 1984 Samuel L. Leiter et al. (comp.), Shakespeare Around the Globe: A Guide to Notable Postwar Revivals, 1986 Alexander Schmidt, Shakespeare Lexicon, 3rd edn rev. Gregor Sarrazin, 1901; reissued, 1968; references are adapted to the forms used by OED M. C. Linthicum, Costume in the Drama of Shakespeare and his Contemporaries, 1936 John H. Long, Shakespeare's Use of Music: The Histories and Tragedies, 1971 Michael Mullin (éd.), ''Macbeth' Onstage: An Annotated Facsimile of Glen By am Shaw's iç$$ Promptbook, 1976 Lachlan Mackinnon, Shakespeare the Aesthete, 1988 The Diaries ofW. C. Macready, 18JJ-1851, ed. William Toynbee, 2 vols., 1912 M. M. Mahood, Shakespeare's Wordplay, 1957 Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher, The Maid's Tragedy, ed. Howard B. Norland, 1968 (Regents Renaissance Drama) Macbeth in The Plays and Poems of William Shakespeare, ed. Edmond Malone, 10 vols., 1790, iv Christopher Marlowe, The Complete Works of Christopher Marlowe, ed. Fredson Bowers, 2nd edn, 2 vols., 1981, except Tamburlaine (see below) John Monck Mason, Comments on the Last Edition of Shakespeare's Plays, 1785 Philip Massinger, The Plays and Poems of Philip Massinger, ed. Philip Edwards and Colin Gibson, 5 vols., 1976 Middle English Dictionary; references are adapted to the forms used by OED Poetical Works of John Milton, ed. Helen Darbishire, 2 vols., 1952-5 J. C. Gray (ed.), Mirror up to Shakespeare: Essays in Honour ofG. R. Hibbard, 1984 Modern Language Notes Modern Language Review Henry Morley, The Journal of a London Playgoer, from 18s 1 to 1866, 1866 Abbreviations and conventions [xviii] MSC MSR Muir Mullin Mulryne n., nn. N&Q Nashe Nerves Norbrook Nosworthy NS OED Oxford P&P Padua Patten Paul Peek Pepys PMLA Pope Pope2 PQ. Prolusions Prophesie Malone Society Collections Malone Society Reprints Macbeth, ed. Kenneth Muir (1951), rev. edn, 1984 (Arden Shakespeare) Michael Mullin, 'Strange images of death: Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree's Macbeth, 1911\ Theatre Survey 17 (1976), 125-42 Ronnie Mulryne, 'From text to foreign stage: Yukio Ninagawa's cultural translation of Macbeth\ in Shakespeare from Text to Stage, ed. Patricia Kennan and Mariangela Tempera, 1992, pp. 131-43 note, notes Notes and Queries Thomas Nashe, The Works of Thomas Nashe, ed. R. B. McKerrow, rev. edn, F. P. Wilson, 5 vols., 1958 Nerves from Scotland (?i59i) in Daemonologie David Norbrook, 'Macbeth and the politics of historiography' in Kevin Sharpe and Steven N. Zwicker (eds.), Politics of Discourse, 1987, pp. 78-116 J. M. Nosworthy, Shakespeare's Occasional Plays: Their Origin and Transmission, 1965 Macbeth, ed. J. D. Wilson, rev. edn, 1950 (New Shakespeare) Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edn William Shakespeare: The Complete Works, gen. eds. Stanley Wells and Gary Taylor, 1986; collations and apparatus for this edition appear in Textual Companion Past and Present Promptbook of F (University of Padua Library) prepared c. 1625-35, m G. Blakemore Evans, Shakespearean Prompt-Books of the Seventeenth Century, 7 vols., i960— 89,1, i, and 1, ii William Patten, The Expedicion into Scotlande of. . . Edward, Duke ofSoomerset, 1548 Henry N. Paul, The Royal Play of Macbeth, 1950 The Life and Works of George Peek, gen. ed. C. T. Prouty, 3 vols., 1952-70 The Diary of Samuel Pepys, ed. Robert Latham and William Matthews, 11 vols., 1970-83 Publications of the Modern Language Association (of America) Macbeth in The Works of Mr William Shakespear, ed. Alexander Pope, 6 vols., 1723-5, v (1723) Macbeth in The Works of Mr William Shakespear, ed. Alexander Pope, 10 vols., 1728, vu Philological Quarterly Edward Capell, Prolusions; or, Select Pieces of Antient Poetry, 1760 The Whole Prophesie of Scotland, England, and some part of France, 1603 [xix] Abbreviations and conventions Q Q1673 Queens Reader RenD rev. Ritson Riverside Robbins Rosen Rosen and Porter Rosenberg Rothwell and Melzer Rowe Rowe2 Rowe3 rpt. SB Schàfer Schanzer Scot Scotland Scouten SD SH Shaheen quarto Macbeth: a Tragedy. Acted at the Dukes-Theatre, 1673 (a quarto) The Masque of Queens in Ben jfonson: Complete Masques, ed. Stephen Orgel, 1969 recto (the right-hand page when a manuscript or book is opened) Vivian Salmon and Edwina Burness (éd.), A Reader in the Language of Shakespearean Drama, 1987 Renaissance Drama revised, revised by Joseph Ritson, Remarks, Critical and Illustrative, 1783 The Riverside Shakespeare, text éd. G. B. Evans, 1974 Rossell Hope Robbins, Encyclopedia of Witchcraft and Demonology, 1957 Barbara Rosen, Witchcraft in England, 1558-1618, 1969 David Rosen and Andrew Porter (eds.), Verdi's 'Macbeth': A Sourcebook, 1984 Marvin Rosenberg, The Masks of'Macbeth', 1978 Kenneth S. Rothwell and Annabelle Henkin Melzer, Shakespeare on Screen: An International Filmography and Videography, 1990 Macbeth in The Works of Mr William Shakespear, ed. Nicholas Rowe, 6 vols., 1709, v Macbeth in The Works of Mr William Shakespear, ed. Nicholas Rowe, 6 vols., c. 1710, v Macbeth in The Works of Mr William Shakespear, ed. Nicholas Rowe, 9 vols., 1714, vi reprint, reprinted Studies in Bibliography Jùrgen Schàfer, Shakespeares Stil: Germanisches und Romanisches Vokabular, 1973; unpaginated citations refer to Appendix 3 Ernest Schanzer, 'Four Notes on "Macbeth" ', MLR 52 (1957), 223-7 Reginald Scot, The Discoverie of Witchcraft (1584), ed. Brinsley Nicholson, 1886; reference is by book and chapter 'Historié of Scotland' in Raphael Holinshed et al., The . . . Second Volume of Chronicles, 1587; reference is by page number and column (a = left-hand column, b = right) Arthur H. Scouten, 'The premiere of Davenant's adaptation of "Macbeth" ', in Shakespeare and Dramatic Tradition, ed. W. R. Elton and William B. Long, 1989, pp. 28M 3 stage direction speech heading Naseeb Shaheen, Biblical References in Shakespeare's Tragedies, 1987 Abbreviations and conventions [xx] SHR sig., sigs. Singer Singer2 Sisson Slater SP Spenser Sprague SQ. S.St. S.Sur. Staunton Steevens Steevens2 Steevens3 Stone Stratford subst. Sugden Swander Tamburlaine Textual Companion Theobald Theobald2 ThN Thomas Tieck Scottish Historical Review signature, signatures (printers' indications of the ordering of pages in early modern books, often more accurate than page numbers) Macbeth in The Dramatic Works of William Shakespeare, ed. Samuel Weller Singer, 10 vols., 1826, iv Macbeth in The Dramatic Works of William Shakespeare, ed. Samuel Weller Singer, 2nd edn, 10 vols., 1856, ix C. J. Sisson, New Readings in Shakespeare, 2 vols., 1956 Ann Pasternak Slater, Shakespeare the Director, 1982 Studies in Philology The Poetical Works of Edmund Spenser, ed. J. C. Smith and E. De Selincourt, 1912 Arthur Colby Sprague, Shakespeare and the Actors: The Stage Business in his Plays 1660-190s, 1944 Shakespeare Quarterly Shakespeare Studies Shakespeare Survey Macbeth in Routledge's Shakespeare, ed. Howard Staunton, 50 parts in 3 vols., 1857-60, parts 42-3 (September-October 1859) Macbeth in The Plays of William Shakespeare, ed. Samuel Johnson and George Steevens, 10 vols., 1773, iv Macbeth in The Plays of William Shakespeare, ed. Samuel Johnson and George Steevens, 10 vols., 1778, iv Macbeth in The Plays of William Shakespeare, ed. George Steevens and Isaac Reed, 15 vols., 1793, vu George Winchester Stone, Jr, 'Garrick's handling of Macbeth', SP 38 (1941), 600-28 Shakespeare Memorial Theatre, later the Royal Shakespeare Theatre, Stratford-upon-Avon, England substantively E. H. Sugden, A Topographical Dictionary to the Works of Shakespeare and his Fellow Dramatists, 1925 Homer Swander, 'No exit for a dead body: what to do with a scripted corpse?', Journal of Dramatic Theory and Criticism 5 (1991), I39~52 Christopher Marlowe, Tamburlaine the Great {Part 1 and 2), ed. J. S. Cunningham, 1981 (Revels Plays) Stanley Wells etal., William Shakespeare: A Textual Companion, 1987 Macbeth in The Works of Shakespeare, ed. Lewis Theobald, 7 vols., 1733, v Macbeth in The Works of Shakespeare, ed. Lewis Theobald, 8 vols., 1740, vi Theatre Notebook Keith Thomas, Religion and the Decline of Magic, 1971 Dorothea Tieck (trans.), Macbeth in Shakespeare's dramatische Werke, ix, 1833 [.m] Abbreviations and conventions TLS Topsell TQ_ Travers True Lawe uncorr. Upton Utopia Waith Warburton Warning Watson Webster Werstine Whately White White2 Wickham, Wickham, 'Castle' 'Fly' Widow's Tears Williams Williams, 'Play' Through Line Number(s) in The First Folio of Shakespeare, ed. Charlton Hinman, 1968; each line within each play is numbered The Times Literary Supplement Edward Topsell, The Historié of Foure-Footed Beasts, 1607 Theatre Quarterly The Tragedy of Macbeth, ed. Charles Travers [i.e. Tweedie ?], 1844 The True Larve of Free Monarchies (1598) in Minor Prose Works of King James VI and I, ed. James Craigie, 1982 uncorrected John Upton, Critical Observations on Shakespeare, 1746 Utopia in The Complete Works ofSt Thomas More, iv, ed. Edward Surtz, S.J., and J. H. Hexter, 1965 verso (the left-hand page when a manuscript or book is opened) Eugene M. Waith, 'Manhood and valor in two Shakespearean tragedies', ELH 17 (1950), 262-73 Macbeth in The Works of Shakespear, ed. William Warburton, 8 vols., 1747, vi A Warning for Faire Women, 1599 Robert N. Watson, Shakespeare and the Hazards of Ambition, 1984 John Webster, The Duchess ofMalfi (c. 1613-14), ed. J. R. Brown, 1964 (Revels Plays), and The White Devil (c. 1612), ed. J. R. Brown, 2nd edn, 1966 (Revels Plays) Paul Werstine, 'Line division in Shakespeare's dramatic verse: an editorial problem', AEB 8 (1984), 73-125 Thomas Whately, Remarks on Some of the Characters of Shakespeare, 1785 Macbeth in The Works of William Shakespeare, ed. R. G. White, 12 vols., 1857-66, x (1861) Macbeth in Mr William Shakespeare's Comedies Histories Tragedies and Poems, ed. R. G. White, 3 vols., 1883, m Glynne Wickham, 'Hell-castle and its door-keeper', in Aspects of 'Macbeth', ed. Kenneth Muir and Philip Edwards, 1977, pp. 39-45 Glynne Wickham, 'To fly or not to fly? The problem of Hecate in Shakespeare's Macbeth', in Essays on Drama and Theatre: Liber Amicorum Benjamin Hunningher, 1973, pp. 171-82 George Chapman, The Widow's Tears (c. 1605), ed. Akihiro Yamada, 1975 (Revels Plays) Gordon Williams, A Dictionary of Sexual Language and Imagery in Shakespearean and Stuart Literature, 3 vols., 1994 George Walton Williams, 'Macbeth: King James's play', South Atlantic Review 47.2 (1982), 12-21 Abbreviations and conventions [xxii] Winter William Winter, Shakespeare on the Stage, series 1(1911) Witch Thomas Middleton, The Witch (c. 1613-15?), ed. W. W. Greg, MSR, 1950 Woodstock Woodstock: A Moral History (c. 1591-4), ed. A. P. Rossiter, 1946 Unless otherwise noted, quotations from the Bible are taken from the Bishops' Bible (1568). INTRODUCTION Violent in action and memorably written, difficult to perform and yet extraordinarily popular on stage, granted by actors and audiences its own special 'curse',' William Shakespeare's Macbeth strongly resists critical and theatrical exposition. Despite these manifest contradictions, an early-twentieth-century critic asserts that the play 'is distinguished by its simplicity .. . Its plot is quite plain. It has very little intermixture of humour. It has little pathos except of the sternest kind. The style [of the play's language] . . . has not much variety . . .'2 Like many speeches in Macbeth, each of these apparently straightforward claims is paradoxical: each is true and at the same time misleading. Further, these claims are both true and false to the play's life in the theatres of early Jacobean London and in the theatres of many times and many places since. Moreover, these claims are often false to the play's complex relation with the social and political circumstances in which it was first written and first performed. As I understand my introductory task, it is to give an account of a magnificent earlyseventeenth-century English play as it was originally conceived and as it might have been first played in a faraway and impossible-to-retrieve moment or series of moments in Jacobean London. It is also my task to present its afterlife in times and places very distant from the historical William Shakespeare, from his extraordinary acting company, and from their once living, now irretrievably lost, social, commercial, political, theatrical world. To that end, I consider here: the play in its Jacobean, early-seventeenth-century moments - especially its possible political meanings - and its likely relation to documentary sources; the play's treatment of time and of time's varied evocations (family, succession, birth and death); the many ways in which the play allows or withholds knowledge and belief for the characters and the audience; the ways the play affects the audience through language; the ways the play has been performed in early and later times and in other places and media. 1 See Iona Opie and Moira Tatem (eds.), A Dictionary of Superstitions, 1989, p. 396, and Richard Huggett, The Curse of Macbeth' and Other Theatrical Superstitions, 1981. The nature of the play's 'curse' (which derives at least partly from its representation of the demonic and, practically, from its many sword-fights and the consequent physical danger to the actors) and the remedies for that curse, especially for quoting it outside the theatre, are elaborate. My favourite version is that of the distinguished actor Patrick Stewart, who taught me this remedy when I made the mistake of quoting one of the sisters' lines in the play: to remove the curse of quoting Macbeth outside the theatre, one must immediately speak an equal number of lines from Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. Other recorded remedies include walking around the theatre building three times. 2 A. C. Bradley, Shakespearean Tragedy, 1904, rpt. 1955, p. 309. Later critics have, sometimes justly, derided Bradley's version of Macbeth, but the issues he identified - history, identity, violence, sovereignty, for example - have not gone away. See, among many, Francis Barker, The Culture of Violence: Tragedy and History, 1993, pp. 51-92; Sheldon P. Zitner, 'Macbeth and the moral scale of tragedy', Journal of General Education 16 (1964), 20-8; and Robert B. Heilman, 'The criminal as tragic hero: dramatic methods' (1966), rpt. in Kenneth Muir and Philip Edwards (eds.), Aspects of'Macbeth \ 1977, pp. 26-38. 1 Macbeth M Macbeth in legend, Macbeth in history James Stewart or Stuart (i 566-1625), the sixth king of that name to rule Scotland, believed, or claimed to believe, that he descended from one Banquo, Thane of Lochaber in the eleventh century when Scotland's king was Macbeth (see illustration 1). In late March 1603, the same King James VI became the first of that name to rule England. Barely two years later, Samuel Calvert commented on political drama, public response to it, and official failure to react: The Plays [i.e. the players?] do not forbear to present upon their Stage the whole Course of this present Time, not sparing either King, State or Religion, in so great Absurdity, and with such Liberty, that any would be afraid to hear them.1 Calvert assumes that audiences would be 'afraid' to hear or see plays representing a living monarch, secrets of state, and controversial religious matters ('King, State or Religion'), and that such plays should be treated specially and usually censored. Samuel Calvert was probably right, or at least conventional for his time. Queen Elizabeth I's first proclamation seeking to control the subject and content of drama (16 May 1559) used words that were regularly repeated and echoed in official and unofficial documents: 'her majestie doth . . . charge [her officers] . . . that they permyt none [i.e. no 'common Interludes'] to be played wherin either matters of religion or of the governaunce of the estate of the common weale shalbe handled or treated . . .', and thirty years later the Privy Council sought closer theatrical control because the companies had 'handle[d] in their plaies certen matters of Divinytie and of State unfitt to be suffred'.2 To offer the public a play representing living monarchs almost always drew official attention and usually censorship. Less than eighteen months after James's accession, his newly patented London acting company, the King's Men, twice performed a now-lost play, 'the tragédie of Gowrie'. The Tragedy of Gowrie presumably dealt with the alleged attempt by the Earl of Gowrie and others to assassinate James on 5 August 1600, when he was still King of Scotland only.3 The Tragedy of 1 Samuel Calvert to Ralph Win wood, 28 March 1605, in Winwood, Memorials of Affairs of State, 3 vols., 1725,11, 54. Calvert may refer specifically to the controversy Eastward Ho caused; see p. 12 below. The Comte de Beaumont, the French ambassador, an observer admittedly grinding a diplomatic and political axe, vividly noted: 'what must be the state and condition of a prince [King James], whom the preachers publicly from the pulpit assail, whom the comedians of the metropolis bring upon the stage, whose wife attends these representations in order to enjoy the laugh against her husband' (letter, 14 June 1604, quoted from E. K. Chambers, The Elizabethan Stage, 4 vols., 1923,1, 325), and Henry Crosse, a fairly temperate critic of the theatre, complains that 'there is no passion wherewith the king, the soveraigne majestie of the Realme was possest, but is amplified, and openly sported with, and made a May-game to all the beholders, abusing the state royall' (Vertves Commonwealth (1603), sig. P3). 2 Quoted from Chambers, The Elizabethan Stage, iv, 263 and 306, respectively. Matters of religion and state were the most frequently censored dramatic subjects throughout the Tudor and Stuart period. 3 See W. F. Arbuckle, 'The "Gowrie Conspiracy'" [in two parts], SHR 36 (1957), 1-24 and 89-110. Scottish public opinion immediately doubted official claims about the events (Arbuckle, pp. 13-14), and an Edinburgh pamphlet, Gowries Conspiracie (1600), supporting James's version, appeared less than a month later, soon enough for George Nicolson, the English agent in Scotland, to send a copy south on 3 September (Arbuckle, p. 18). Valentine Simmes's London edition of this text, The earle of Gowries conspiracie, was entered in the Stationers' Register on 11 September 1600 and published, possibly soon after, with the date '1600'. Such speedy printing and reprinting may indicate a propaganda war and/or contemporary anxieties about attacks on monarchs.

i Banquo and his supposed descendants, including King James VI of Scotland; from John Leslie, Origine . . . Scotorum (1578). Banquo is at the base of the tree, James at the crown De Macbeth M Gowrie was quickly suppressed,1 and its fate suggests how politically and practically difficult it was to write and perform plays concerning the Stuart monarchy and its well-known vicissitudes in Scotland and in England. Many years later, the British monarchy, now Hanoverian, faced an effort to restore the Stuarts, and after the Battle of Falkirk (1746), when Scottish troops, supported by the French, won a temporary advantage, 'The king was advised to go to the theatre and to command the tragedy of Macbeth', and the play was performed.2 In the anxious times of a largely Scottish insurrection against the British (or English) central government in 1746, Macbeth was considered a pro-English, pro-monarchical, anti-rebel, and (curiously) anti-Stuart play. Given even this brief context, it is a nice understatement to say that 'Shakespeare's task in writing Macbeth was . . . extremely problematic.'3 From a very different perspective, another critic agrees: ''Macbeth is a play about Scotland, seized at a crucial moment of transition in its history . . .'4 However distant these early-seventeenthcentury debates and problems may seem, they were living difficulties for the King's Men, for William Shakespeare as playwright, and for their audiences at the Globe theatre and elsewhere. Those difficulties entailed not only who might have rightfully ruled Scotland in the eleventh century, but who might justly rule Scotland and, more controversially, England, in the seventeenth. Looking back to early Jacobean London, we recognise that these early-seventeenthcentury debates affect our understanding of Macbeth\ origins. Reversing the telescope of time, we must suppose that those debates shaped the play's creation. The problems of situating the composition and earliest performances of Macbeth, and of determining its sources in written documents, contemporary events, and early Jacobean culture, are interdependent matters, often with no certain answers. One place to start is with the often-remarked 'connection' between the play and the accession of the Scottish King James VI as England's King James I, whose family provided England's and Scotland's native monarchs until the death of Queen Anne in 1714. Arguments linking Macbeth with King James or with specific events in the early seventeenth century divide into the 'topical' Macbeth and the 'occasional' Macbeth. First, the play may be studied as a 'topical' or general repository of references to events, ideas, or persons in the years immediately after James's accession,5 second, as a more specific response to the unprecedented 'occasion' of a Scottish king becoming England's king, third, as a response to an even more precise 'occasion', when James's brother-in-law, the Danish King Christian IV, first visited England. 1 For these performances and their suppression, see John Chamberlain to Ralph Winwood, letter, 18 December 1604, in N. E. McClure (éd.), The Letters of John Chamberlain, 2 vols., 1939, 1, 199. 2 See Thomas Davies, Memoirs of the Life of David Garrick, 2 vols., 1780,11, 136. 3 David Norbrook, 'Macbeth, and the politics of historiography', in Kevin Sharpe and Steven N. Zwicker (eds.), Politics of Discourse: The Literature and History of Seventeenth-Century England, 1987, p. 93. 4 John Turner, 'Macbeth', in Graham Holderness et al. (eds.), Shakespeare: The Play of History, 1988, p. 120. Just before this remark, Turner says: 'two rival Scottish traditions of interpreting relations with England, the unionist and the nationalist. . . have been brought together .. . in Macbeth .. . to problematise our understanding of historical progress by the theatrical experience of tragedy'. 5 For extensive, sometimes persuasive, arguments about the play's topicality, see Arthur Melville Clark, Murder Under Trust: The Topical Macbeth', 1981. M Introduction TOPICAL MACBETH Claims for a topical Macbeth cannot be substantiated and may be circular. There are some striking pieces of what may be 'evidence'. Consider the Porter in Macbeth: Here's a farmer that hanged himself on th'expectation of plenty. Come in time - have napkins enough about you, here you'll sweat for't. (Knock) Knock, knock. Who's there in th'other devil's name? Faith, here's an equivocator that could swear in both the scales against either scale, who committed treason enough for God's sake, yet could not equivocate to heaven. O, come in, equivocator. (2.3.3-10)' Critics have linked the Porter's words with the notorious imprisonment, trial, and execution (1606) of the Gunpowder plotters, who had sought to blow up Parliament, along with the king and his family, and many aristocrats and judges on 5 November 1605. Among those executed was the Superior of the English Jesuits, Father Henry Garnet, who espoused the doctrine of'equivocation' ('here's an equivocator that could swear in both the scales . . .') and used the alias 'Farmer' ('Here's a farmer that hanged himself.. .').2 Among other topical evidence, there is Matthew Gwinne's brief Latin pageant, 'Très Sibyllae' (Three Sibyls), welcoming King James to St John's College, Oxford, on 27 August 1605, apparently drawing upon chronicle accounts of Macbeth and Banquo meeting the three witches, and pandering to James's belief that he was descended from Banquo.3 Gwinne's pageant, recited by 'très quasi Sibyllae' (three persons like sibyls), is quite conventional. Although the repeated uses of'Salve' (Hail) in addressing king, queen, and royal prince seem close to the witches' words in Macbeth Act 1, Scene 3, they do in fact duplicate a sibyl's prophetic greeting that Queen Elizabeth had heard thirty years earlier, when one 'Sibylla' intercepted her as she rode through the Earl of Leicester's park at Kenilworth Castle with the words, 'All hayle, all hayle, thrice happy prince, / I am Sibilla she / Of future chaunce, and after happ, / foreshewing what shalbe.'4 Gwinne's seemingly significant language may 'prove' only that he could read Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles (see pp. 13-15 below) as well as any other author eager to please the new king.5 Most of the proposed links 1 For the contemporary socio-economic resonances of 'plenty', see Richard Wilson, Will Power: Essays on Shakespearean Authority, 1993, chapter 4, esp. pp. 83 ff., and the authorities there cited. 2 See also 5.5.42-3. Prosecutors repeatedly emphasised the various names ('false appellations' in Sir Edward Coke's words) used by the Gunpowder Plot conspirators and the doctrine of equivocation at Garnet's trial, 28 March 1606; see T. B. Howell (comp.), A Complete Collection of State Trials, 33 vols., 1809-26, 11, columns 225 (multiple names), 234 (Garnet as 'Farmer'), 234-5, 23&-9 (equivocation). 3 See Geoffrey Bullough (éd.), Narrative and Dramatic Sources of Shakespeare, 8 vols., 1957-75, VII> 47°-~2 > for the Latin text (published with Gwinne's Vertumnus sive Annus recurrens in 1607) and an English translation. On equivocation in the play, see Frank L. Huntley, ''Macbeth and the background of Jesuitical equivocation', PMLA 79 (1964), 390-400, and, more generally, Lowell Gallagher, Medusa's Gaze: Casuistry and Conscience in the Renaissance, 1991, pp. 1-120. Another possible topical reference would place at least some of the play's composition after mid 1606: see i.3.6n.; see also p. 15 below. 4 'The princely pleasures at Kenelworth Castle', in The Whole woorkes of George Gascoigne (1587), sig. Air, following p. 352. 5 Anthony Nixon's account of James's visit to Oxford, Oxfords Triumph (1605), mentions (sig. Bir) 'three little Boyes comming foorth of a Castle, made all of Ivie, drest like three Nimphes'; Nixon thus 'echoes' Macbeth's history in Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles (1587) and anticipates Simon Forman's eyewitness account of a Jacobean performance of Macbeth. See pp. 13-15 and 57-8 below. Macbeth [6] between Macbeth, the Gunpowder Plot, and Gwinne's pageant prove to be vague, circumstantial, or undatable.1 If Macbeth contains allusions to the Gunpowder Plot, some of its text must have been composed after 5 November 1605; if the play alludes to the conspirators' trials, convictions, and executions, some of its text must have been composed about the first quarter of 1606. If the First Witch's mention of a sailor who is 'master o'th'Tiger' (1.3.6) refers to one specific historical ship, as her eerily precise reference to that historical ship's tumultuous voyage might suggest, then her lines could not have been written before that particular Tiger returned to England (27 June 1606) and the ship's travails became known.2 If William Warner's additions to Albions England, published at an unknown date in 1606 (see p. 10 below), echo, rather than anticipate, Macbeth, the play must have been publicly performed or its subject-matter and perhaps its text have become publicly known before Warner composed his text. Verbal similarities between Macbeth and Antony and Cleopatra suggest that the two plays may have been written at about the same time. Macbeth, awaiting the murderers, compares himself and Banquo with Mark Antony and Octavian (Shakespeare's Octavius), the man who became Augustus Caesar, the first Roman emperor: There is none but he [Banquo], Whose being I do fear; and under him My genius is rebuked, as it is said Mark Antony's was by Caesar. (3-i-55~8) Yet these verbal similarities say nothing certain about priority or proximity of composition.3 Macbeth, although its general style is very different, has many linguistic and imaginative links with Shakespeare's The Rape of Lucrèce, published in 1593, many years before Macbeth seems to have been written and performed.4 Around the same supposed time of Macbeth'*s original composition, Volumnia in Coriolanus powerfully compares mother's milk and blood, two of Macbeth''s most evocative liquids: The breasts of Hecuba, When she did suckle Hector, looked not lovelier Than Hector's forehead when it spit forth blood At Grecian sword, contemning - (Coriolanus 1.3.40-3) 1 See J. Leeds Barroll, Politics, Plague, and Shakespeare's Theater, 1991, pp. 133-52. 2 See i-3.6n. It is impossible to know how widespread the knowledge of the Tiger's voyage might have been. 3 Antony and Cleopatra and Macbeth are also dramaturgically similar; see p. 24 below and p. 28 n. 1. The plays also have similar 'arming scenes' (Macbeth 5.3 and Antony 4.4), where love, or memories of love, interrupt preparations for war. More generally, the Shakespearean tragedies that probably preceded and succeeded Macbeth - King Lear and Antony and Cleopatra, respectively - follow what may be a psychologically or authorially explicable treatment of time. In King Lear, time is memorably expressed as ageing, or the coming-into-being of a past; in Antony and Cleopatra, time is treated as a present past, as nostalgia (see e.g. Michael Neill (éd.), Ant., 1994, pp. 94-8); in Macbeth, time is treated as a future-in-the-present (see 1.5.54-6 and pp. 20-3 below) or as the future made a changeless present. 4 See e.g. 2.1.55 n. For the many links between The Rape of Lucrèce and Macbeth, see G. W. Knight, The Imperial Theme, 1931, 3rd edn, corr. rpt., 1954, p. 133, and Kenneth Muir (éd.), Mac, 9th edn, 1962, Appendix D. M Introduction These lines are part of Volumnia's reply to Virgilia's anxious worry - 'O Jupiter, no blood!' - for her husband's safe return from war. They also rewrite in Shakespearean 'Roman' terms Lady Macbeth's willingness to dash out the brains of the child she suckled (1.7.54-9; se e P- 36 below). Blood for milk, in Shakespeare's Rome and Shakespeare's Scotland.1 The plot of Coriolanus also puts ambiguous 'heroes', Coriolanus and Aufidius, into conflict, as does the plot of Macbeth: Macbeth versus Banquo, who acknowledges 'cursed thoughts' (2.1.8) which might be thoughts of usurpation; later, Macbeth versus Macduff, who disastrously abandons his family and becomes at least technically a regicide; still later, Macbeth versus Malcolm, who also flees and whose royal claim rests on Duncan's nomination (1.4.37-9) and remains at best arguable.2 By joining an attractive hero-villain with ambiguously moral or ambiguously 'good' opponents, Macbeth resembles Richard HI among Shakespeare's earlier plays.3 Further, Shakespeare's Roman plays and English history plays emphasise shame as a motive for royal and aristocratic acts. Macduff cannily manoeuvres Macbeth, who supposes himself invincible ('I bear a charmed life which must not yield' (5.8.12)), into battle by threatening public humiliation: Then yield thee coward, And live to be the show and gaze o'th'time. We'll have thee, as our rarer monsters are, Painted upon a pole and underwrit, 'Here may you see the tyrant.' (5.8.23-7) Social and political humiliation and near-raucous comedy are closely joined here, as they are in Antony and Cleopatra (see p. 28 below); earlier in Macbeth (Act 2, Scene 3), the Porter insistently if unself-consciously combines 'high' political events with 'low' bodily functions. Before choosing suicide, Cleopatra imagines public humiliation were she to submit to Roman power {Antony and Cleopatra 4.12.33-9, 5.2.108-24); Richard III uses his physical deformity as ambition's spur {Richard III 1.1.14-51); and Aufidius cleverly names Coriolanus a 'boy of tears' {Coriolanus 5.6.100) when the political, deadly moment is right. Although traditional chronologies place Macbeth after King Lear and before Antony and Cleopatra and Coriolanus, those chronologies are uncertain.4 Amidst these uncer1 R. B. Parker (éd.), Cor., 1994, p. 52, compares Volumnia's behaviour in general and Lady Macbeth's '"unsexing" herself (with a comparable distortion of breast-feeding to child-murder) . . .' Dying, Cleopatra links death and suckling when she compares the fatal asp to a child: 'Dost thou not see my baby at my breast, / That sucks the nurse asleep?' {Ant. 5.2.309-10). 2 Critical suspicion of Banquo begins with Bradley, pp. 304 and 306-8; for the play's ambivalent treatment of Macduff and Malcolm, see pp. 88-93 below. 3 Emrys Jones, Scenic Form in Shakespeare, 1971, pp. 199-224, discusses Macbeth's structural (and some verbal) links with Shakespeare's earlier plays, especially Richard III and (more surprisingly) Henry VI, Parts 2 and j . For Richard IIFs relation with Macbeth, see also p. 71 below and n. 3. 4 For the traditional argument, see E. K. Chambers, William Shakespeare: A Study of Facts and Problems, 2 vols., 1930,1, 249-50 and 271, and for Macbeth, ibid., I, 471-6, but Chambers admits (1, 251) that Lear, Macbeth, and Antony and Cleopatra come 'in no certain order'. A counter-claim appears in Barroll, passim, but esp. chapters 5-6. Barroll speculates that Macbeth was written 'by the end of 1606' (p. 177) and may have been first performed 'at court, December-February 1606-7' (P- 153); Barroll's argument for both Macbeth m tainties, there is one highly probable claim. When Scotland's King James became England's King James in March 1603, his accession made a Shakespearean Scottish play commercially viable and creatively attractive. King James and his Scottishness created an occasion, and at some point Shakespeare and the King's Men apparently seized the popular, commercial moment, as they had less successfully done in performing The Tragedy ofGowrie. OCCASIONAL MACBETH Macbeth has been called an 'occasional' play in two senses: first, the argument runs, Shakespeare would not have composed a play on a Scottish subject had not a Scottish king come to the English throne. This claim seems very probable. Second and more specific, some scholars believe Shakespeare composed the play as a 'compliment' to King James, perhaps even as an entertainment when King Christian IV of Denmark, James's brother-in-law, visited his fellow monarch from 17 July to 11 August 1606.1 James's interest in witchcraft and the King's Evil (compare 4.3.141-61),2 and his belief that he was descended from Banquo, have been claimed, plausibly, as links between the new king and Shakespeare's play, but the more specific claim that Macbeth was written to honour the Danish king's visit, or that the play was performed before James and Christian - who did not speak English3 - lacks any proof. The royal visit included many dramatic performances - three unnamed plays by the King's Men, another by the company that had recently been punished for anti-Scottish satire in Eastward Ho, another by the Children of Paul's - as well as bear-baitings and demonstrations of fencing and wrestling.4 Yet John Heminge of Shakespeare's company received the customary £10 per play,5 and the records mention no extraordinary costs, as we might have expected if Macbeth had been performed, since in a full-blown royal performance it would probably have required some unusual costumes, props, and machinery. Unlike masques and other courtly entertainments, few public theatre plays (such as Macbeth) were premiered at court and/or written for a specific royal occasion. In 1606, composition and performance partly depends upon the frequent theatre-closures for the plague (see p. 9 below, n. 1), and it is weakened by the unargued assumption (pp. 17 and 19) that in the Jacobean period Shakespeare did not continue to write plays when London performances were forbidden. Equally uncertain is Macbeth's chronological relation with Pericles (1609), a play deeply interested in birth, death, and parenthood. 1 See e.g. C. C. Stopes, Shakespeare's Industry, 1916, pp. 95-109; J. W. Draper, '"Macbeth" as a compliment to James I', Englische Studien 72 (1937-8), 207-20; Henry N. Paul, The Royal Play of Macbeth, 1950; J. M. Nosworthy, Shakespeare's Occasional Plays, Their Origin and Transmission, 1965, chapter 1; Clark, esp. chapters 5 and 7. 2 On James's interest in witchcraft, see Newes from Scotland and Daemonologie, in James VI and I, Daemonologie, éd. G. B. Harrison, 1924; for the topicality of James's ambivalent attitude toward healing the King's Evil, see F. David Hoeniger, Medicine and Shakespeare in the English Renaissance, 1992, chapter 16, esp. pp. 276 and 281-2. 3 See Michael Hawkins, 'History, politics and Macbeth, in John Russell Brown (éd.), Focus on 'Macbeth', 1982, pp. 155-88; p. 186. Hawkins's entire article is essential for the study of Macbeth, and Hawkins's Appendix, pp. 185-8, powerfully refutes the claims of Henry N. Paul. 4 See David Cook and F. P. Wilson, 'Dramatic records in the declared accounts of the Treasurer of the Chamber, 1558-1642', MSC 6 (1962 for 1961), 44-6, and W. R. Streitberger, 'Jacobean and Caroline Revels accounts, 1603-1642', MSC 13 (1986), 15. 5 Cook and Wilson, 'Dramatic records', p. 44. M Introduction plague had closed the theatres for many months. Economic necessity, therefore, as well as the commercial value of performing at court, might have led the King's Men to present Macbeth there first.1 Nothing stronger than hypothesis and circumstantial evidence joins Macbeth with either James's accession or Christian's visit, yet no English tragedy (as opposed to comedies and histories) on Scottish subjects earlier than Macbeth has survived. Four Scottish tragedies are known to have been written; they are for us only titles: 'a Tragédie of the Kinge of Scottes' (1567-8), 'Robart the second Kinge of scottes tragédie' or 'the scottes tragedi' (September 1599), 'malcolm Kynge of scottes' (April 1602), and 'the tragédie of Gowrie' (already mentioned).2 A satiric remark in Will Kemp's Nine Daies Wonder (1600) implies that Macbeth and what Kemp calls 'Prophetesses' (possibly the beings who later became the 'sisters' of Macbeth) had already appeared in a ballad.3 Kemp had been the principal comic actor in the Lord Chamberlain's Men (the earlier name of the King's Men), and he might therefore have known a now-lost Macbeth-play.4 Before Macbeth, English dramatists and their audiences generally understood Scotsmen as a comical, alien, dangerous, and uncivilised people - as Frenchmen who spoke a form of English, perhaps.5 The historic Franco-Scottish alliance, the 'auld 1 Among likely plays and entertainments, George Peek's Arraignment of Paris requires Queen Elizabeth as a participant and was advertised as having been performed at court; one version of Ben Jonson's Every Man Out of His Humour ends with an address to Elizabeth and was apparently performed at court, perhaps before it appeared at the Globe. Jonson's Sejanus may also have been performed first at court; see Philip Ayres (éd.), Sejanus, 1990, p. 9, citing E. K. Chambers. A few other plays may have been designed for royal performance before appearing in public theatres: see e.g. Glynne Wickham, ''The Two Noble Kinsmen or A Midsummer Night's Dream, Part 77?', in G. R. Hibbard (éd.), Elizabethan Theatre VII, 1980, pp. 167- 96. Generally, however, plays were performed publicly and then performed (sometimes adapted) at court. For the effort and expenses required by dramatic productions at court, see Glynne Wickham, Early English Stages, 3 vols., 11, pt. 1 (1963), chap. 8. For a different view about Macbeth, see Barroll, p. 153; he notes (p. 144): 'Beginning in June 1606, there would be no public presentations of plays in London for seven or eight months' because of the plague 'and thus no performances of Macbeth at the Globe'; such a long closure might make original performance at court more likely. Parker (éd.), Coriolanus, pp. 86-7, argues that Coriolanus may have been written and rehearsed, perhaps before paying audiences, under similarly difficult conditions. If Parker's guess is accurate, both writing and rehearsal of Coriolanus contradict BarrolPs assumptions about Macbeth (see p. 7 above, n. 4). 2 For the first and second, see Clark, pp. 11-12; on the second, see Henslowe, p. 124, and James Shapiro, ''The Scot's Tragedy and the politics of popular drama', ELR 23 (1993), 428-49; on the third, see Henslowe, pp. 199-200. 3 Bullough, vu, 429. 4 David Wiles, Shakespeare's Clown: Actor and Text in the Elizabethan Playhouse, 1987, p. 34. Dover Wilson (NS, pp. xli-xlii) thought a Macbeth-play existed in Elizabeth's reign, and G. B. Evans (private communication, 30 May 1994) has noted many verbal similarities between F Macbeth and A Warning for Faire Women (printed 1599), a Lord Chamberlain's Men's play. 5 Typically, Scots and Scotland were material for comedies (such as Robert Greene's James IV, which includes an English invasion to rectify Scottish royal abuses, or the anonymous Pinner of Wakefield), or for history plays concerning the long medieval wars against Scotland (e.g. Peek's Edward I, Marlowe's Edward II, and the anonymous Edward III, in which Shakespeare probably had a hand and which includes a 'treacherous' Scottish invasion of northern England, repulsed by Edward III in person and involving the capture of David, King of Scots), or for national stereotypes and comic effects, as in Henry V and the quarto versions (1600, 1619) of Portia's ridiculed suitors in The Merchant of Venice. In the last instance, the Folio discreetly changes a satiric reference to a 'Scottish lord' to 'other lord'; perhaps similarly, Shakespeare transferred the Hero-Claudio plot in Much Ado from the Scottish setting of his source (Ariosto) to Italy (see Bullough, 11, 62). Edward III in particular, and very unlike Macbeth, draws Macbeth [10] alliance', made these two countries seem especially likely to take advantage of any English internal dissension: 'If Lincolnshire seke to distroye Englande, what wonder is hit if Fraunce and Scotlande sometime have fought [i.e. sought?] to offende me?', one English propagandist wrote.1 And the possibly Shakespearean Edward III (? 1593) dramatises an earlier period, the fourteenth century, when English ambitions in France coincided with the designs of the Scots (England's 'everlasting foe'2 ) and the French on England. In Edward III, David, King of Scots, promises the French ambassador, 'That we with England will not enter parley, / . . . nor take truce' {Edward III 1.2.22-3). The text of Henry V alludes to this episode, where Westmoreland succinctly gives the English view: But there's a saying, very old and true, 1 If that you will France win Then with Scotland first begin.'' For once the eagle England being in prey, To her unguarded nest the weasel Scot Comes sneaking, and so sucks her princely eggs, Playing the mouse in absence of the cat To 'tame and havoc more than she can eat.3 Unmentioned in Henry V are England's frequent attacks upon and invasions of Scotland. Queen Elizabeth engaged in very f@w independent foreign military adventures, but her first (1560) was against Scotland, when she intervened in Scottish factional struggles, hoping to install a puppet-régime or even to conquer the country.4 Lamenting Queen Elizabeth's death and praising King James as the first monarch to unite cBritaine\ William Warner's A Continuance ofAlbions England (1606) adds to a work first published in 1586 and often republished and enlarged; Warner's 1606 additions include a chapter (94) 'Of Makbeth the Tyrant. . .', perhaps alluding to Shakespeare's Macbeth, another (95) on the Gunpowder Plot, and one (90) 'Of the long continued League and Confedracie betweene the French and Scots against the English . . .'s Although Andrew Boorde practised medicine in Glasgow, his Fyrst Boke of the Introduction of Knowledge (?i547) is a compendium of the stereotypes that English popular and political writing kept alive for Shakespeare's audience: I Am a Scotyshe man, and trew I am to Fraunce; In every countrey, myselfe I do avaunce; I wyll boost myselfe, I wyll crake and face; attention to Scottish speech, using such conventional stage-Scots as 'whinyards' (thought to be an especially Scottish weapon; see Supplementary Note 4.3.162, p. 244 below), 'Jemmy' (for 'Jimmy'), and 'bonny' (see Giorgio Melchiori (éd.), Edward III (forthcoming), 1.2.33 an d 57, respectively; subsequent quotations cite this edition). Later, King Edward specifically compliments the Countess of Salisbury for her ability to imitate King David's speech: ' "Even thus", quoth she, "he spake" - and then spoke broad, / With epithets and accents of the Scot, / But somewhat better than the Scot could speak' (2.1.29-31). 1 Richard Morrison, quoted in Anthony Fletcher, Tudor Rebellions, 3rd edn, 1983, p. 5. 2 Edward III 1.2.15. 3 Andrew Gurr (éd.), H5, 1992, 1.2.166-73; Westmoreland's 'saying' has been found as early as 1548. 4 For a wry, knowledgeable account, see C. G. Cruickshank, Elizabeth's Army, 2nd edn, 1966, pp. 207-36; for English fears of French intervention, see esp. p. 211. 5 William Warner, A Continuance ofAlbions England (1606), sig. b2r. ["] Introduction I love to be exalted, here and in every place. an Englyshe man I cannot naturally love, Wherfore I offend them, and my lorde above . . . I am a Scotyshe man, and have dissymbled muche, and in my promyse I have not kept touche. Great morder and theft in tymes past I have used ..." We cannot completely reimagine sixteenth- or early-seventeenth-century English attitudes toward Scotland and its people, or even contemporary English knowledge of them, but surviving documents tell an ominous tale. English fear and prejudice had deep roots. Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles (see pp. 13-15 below) begin with William Harrison's 'Description of Britaine' where chapter 4 comments on the Scots: How and when the Scots, a people mixed of the Scithian and Spanish blood, should arrive here out of Ireland, & when the Picts should come unto us out of Sarmatia, or from further toward the north & the Scithian Hyperboreans, as yet it is uncerteine . . . the Scots did often adventure hither [i.e. into the British Isles] to rob and steale out of Ireland, and were finallie called by them Meats or Picts (as the Romans named them, because they painted their bodies) to helpe them against the Britains, after the which they so planted themselves in these parts, that unto our time that portion of the land cannot be cleansed of them. I find also that as these Scots were reputed for the most Scithian-like and barbarous nation, and longest without letters . . . For both Diodorus lib. 6. and Strabo lib. 4. doo seeme to speake of a parcell of the Irish nation that should inhabit Britaine in their time, which were given to the eating of mans flesh, and therefore called Anthropophagi... it appeareth that those Irish, of whom Strabo and Diodorus doo speake, are none other than those Scots of whom Jerome speaketh Adversus jfovinianum, lib. 2 who used to feed on the buttocks of boies and womens paps, as delicate dishes.2 Cannibalistic, violent, unlettered - these are qualities English audiences associated with the Celts whom their supposed ancestors and Roman armies had forced to the margins of the British Isles; similar fear and prejudice appear elsewhere in plays and other documents, public and private.3 For instance, Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, wrote to James VI about Anglo-Scottish hostility shortly before his accession as England's king: 'the name of scotts is harche in the earres of the wulgar . . . [but] the memoriss of the ancient woundis betuene england and Scotland will soune be cancelled when conscience in there harts sail proclame your ryght'.4 James I himself and his 1 Andrew Boorde, Fyrst Boke, éd. F. J. Furnivall, Early English Text Society, extra series 10 (1870), pp. 135-6. 2 Raphael Holinshed et al., The First. . . Volumes of Chronicles, 1587, pp. 5b-6a. The claim that the peoples of Ireland and Scotland were related seems historically correct: migration and invasion from the Conti- nent forced peoples from the north of Britain across the Irish Sea, and close connections (both friendly and unfriendly) between Ireland and Scotland persisted into Jacobean times. 3 See, e.g., A. R. Braunmuller, George Peek, 1983, chapter 6 (on Edward I), and Phyllis Rackin, Stages of History, 1990, pp. 170-5. 4 John Bruce (éd.), Correspondence of King James VI. of Scotland, Camden Society 78 (1861), 56. Both the English and the Lowland Scots considered Highlanders, denizens of the parts of Scotland where Macbeth is imagined to take place, especially savage and uncivilised: see John Major (Mair), A History of Greater Britain, ed. and trans. Archibald Constable, 1892, pp. 48-9. For early modern perceptions of the Highlander, see T. C. Smout, A History of the Scottish People 1560-1830, 1969, pp. 42-6. Macbeth [12] royal predecessors and successors found Highlanders a difficult, recalcitrant, independent people.1 James was enthusiastically welcomed on his accession, not least because he had a male heir, but the king and his Scottish entourage quickly became objects of courtly envy and theatrical derision,2 as they did, for instance, in Eastward Ho by George Chapman, Ben Jonson, and John Marston. Chapman and Jonson went to prison and Marston into hiding for various offences including a passage where one of their slightly criminal characters described life in the new Virginian colony as free of the usual impediments to larceny except for the criminal competition of a few industrious Scots, perhaps, who, indeed, are dispersed over the face of the whole earth. But as for them, there are no greater friends to Englishmen and England, when they are out on't, in the world, than they are. And for my part, I would a hundred thousand of 'em were there [Virginia], for we are all one countrymen now, ye know; and we should find ten times more comfort of them there than we do here [in London] . . .3 In short, better 100,000 Scots in Virginia than any Scot in London. Shakespeare's audiences probably had a crude and garish image of Highlanders, but English readers might have known a more generous view of the Scots as fighting men. Before the Battle of Pinkie (or Musselburgh), an English writer noted: Thoughe they [Scottish warriors] me[a]nt but small humanit[i]e, yet shewed thei. . . much civilit[i]e, both of fayre play .. . & of formall order to chyde [the English force] ear [ere] they fought.4 In the 1550s, an English listing of national stereotypes ambivalently named 'the Scots for boldness', but several decades later William Camden recalled the Scottish alliance with France and less ambiguously notes: with manlike courage and warlike prowesse, they [the Scots] have . . . maintained [their kingdom] at home, [and] . . . also hath purchased great honour abroad. For the French cannot but 1 In Basilikon Doron (1598), James VI, who five years later became James I of England, repeated Mair's views (see preceding note) when he cautioned his infant son, Prince Henry, about the Highlands and advised him on how he should deal sternly with the Highlanders when he became king; see C. H. Mcllwain (éd.), The Political Works of James I, 1918, p. 22. Basilikon Doron was reprinted in London (1603), along with many other of James's writings, when he ascended the English throne. For James's Highland policy, see Maurice Lee, Great Britain's Solomon, 1990, pp. 196-203, and for the availability of Basilikon Doron in the theatrical community, see p. 15 below, n. 1. Prince Henry died young, in November 1612. Just before the prince's death, Henry Peacham envisaged Highlanders (or 'redshanks') among the national enemies that the future king of a united Scotland and England might face: 'whether TURKE, SPAINE, FRAUNCE, or ITALIE, / The REDSHANKE, or the IRISH Rebell bold, / Shall rouze thee up, thy Trophées may be more, / Than all the HENRIES ever liv'd before' (Henry Peacham, Minerva Britanna, 1612, p. 17; I have slightly modernised the spelling). 2 For courtly resistance to James and his Scottish followers, see e.g. Neil Cuddy, 'Anglo-Scottish union and the court of James I, 1603-1625', Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th series, 39 (1989), esp. pp. 110-15; f°r public theatrical responses, see George Chapman, Ben Jonson, and John Marston, Eastward Ho, ed. R. W. Van Fossen, 1979, pp. 4-7, and A. R. Braunmuller (éd.), A Seventeenth-Century LetterBook, 1983, pp. 370-89 and 452-6. 3 Eastward Ho 3.3.44-52. The play contains other anti-Scot satire, and the actors may have been even more satirical (e.g. accents, costumes) in performance. For the playwrights' fates, see Braunmuller, Letter-Book, PP- 452-3- 4 William Patten, The Expedicion into Scotlande of. . . Edward, Duke ofSoomerset, 1548, sig. Hir. l'3\ Introduction acknowledge they have seldome atchieved any honourable acts without Scottish hands, who therefore are deservedly to participate [share] the glorie with them.1 Camden's remark may be as much anti-French as pro-Scot, yet his preference is a telling one. Camden shows an admirable judiciousness, but popular - or at least recorded - hostility to James and his Scottish entourage spread from court gossip and the theatre, where topicality then as now sold places, to the floor of Parliament. In February 1607, Sir Christopher Piggott astonished the House of Commons when he interrupted a debate on the union of Scotland and England, a union James dearly sought; this outburst sent Piggott to the Tower: let us not join murderers, thieves, and the roguish Scots with the well-deserving Scots. As much difference between them as between a judge and a thief. . . They ['the roguish Scots', presumably] have not suffered above two kings to die in their beds, these 200 years.2 Piggott only slightly exaggerated the violence of Scottish history and all too accurately recalled the political weakness of her kings. That weakness included most recently James VI, who had often found himself the announced or virtual captive of various aristocratic factions. The violence and the weakness both appear in Macbeth.
DOCUMENTS Although Shakespeare's own writings were one of his main sources - he 'copied from himself'3 - the principal printed source for the plot of Macbeth also served as a source for Shakespeare's English history plays: the massive Chronicles (first published in 1577 and later expanded (1587) into the version Shakespeare read) compiled by Raphael Holinshed and others. The text of this work is divided into three 'volumes' (though published as two separately bound books); the histories of Scotland and Ireland in 'volume' 11 serve to separate the histories of pre- and post-Conquest England in 'volumes' 1 and m, respectively. The 'Historié of Scotland' contains two accounts Shakespeare unquestionably appropriated, one of the reign and murder of King Duff, the other of Macbeth's rise and reign.4 1 See Thomas Wilson, Arte of Rhétorique (1553) as quoted in A. J. Hoenselaars, Images of Englishmen and Foreigners in the Drama of Shakespeare and His Contemporaries, 1992, p. 20, and William Camden, Remains Concerning Britain (1605), ed- R- D. Dunn, 1984, pp. 15-16. 2 For the incident and its aftermath, see Journals of the House of Commons, 95 vols., 1803-57,1, 333, 335- 6, and 344; for Piggott's alleged words, see William Cobbett, Parliamentary History of England, 36 vols., 1806-20,1, column 1097. Of the historical period Macbeth deals with, John Dover Wilson notes, 'Out of the nine kings who reigned betwen 943 and 1040 all but two were killed, either in feud or directly by their successors' (NS, p. viii). 3 G. K. Hunter, 'Shakespeare's reading', in Kenneth Muir and S. Schoenbaum (eds.), A New Companion to Shakespeare Studies, 1971, p. 59; see p. 6 above, n. 3 and p. 7 n. 1. On internal borrowings in Macbeth, see Jonathan Goldberg, 'Speculations: Macbeth and source', in Jean E. Howard and Marion F. O'Connor (eds.), Shakespeare Reproduced: The Text in History and Ideology, 1987, pp. 242-64. More generally, see Jones, Scenic, chapter 7. 4 Holinshed and his collaborators consulted numerous sources; the main ones for Macbeth's reign seem to have been Hector Boece, Scotorum historiae (1526, 1575), and John Bellenden's Scots translation of it (?i54o). For other sources of Scottish history available to Holinshed (and therefore possibly to Shakespeare), see Norbrook, and Supplementary Note 1.3.30, pp. 239-40 below. R. A. Law, 'The composition of Macbeth with reference to Holinshed', Texas Studies in English 31 (1952), 35-41, provides tabular summaries of where Macbeth parallels and deviates from Holinshed. Macbeth M In the first narrative, the wife of 'Donwald', a hitherto loyal nobleman in whom Duff placed 'a speciall trust', urges her husband 'to make . . . awaie' King Duff 'and shewed him the meanes wherby he might soonest accomplish it'; 'kindled in wrath by the words of his wife',1 Donwald secretly murders the king, smuggles the body out of the castle, and buries the corpse in a river bed. During Duncan's 'fained treatie' with the invading Sueno, drugged drinks stunned the Danish soldiers, and the army fell 'into a fast dead sleepe, that in manner it was unpossible to awake them'.2 Similarly, Lady Macbeth promises to make Duncan's 'two chamberlains', his most intimate guards, 'spongy [drunken] officers' (1.7.63, 71). Holinshed stresses that Duff trusted Donwald, that the king had frequent difficulties with witches, and that louring darkness and bizarre events (including equine cannibalism and strange contests between birds of unequal ferocity)3 pestered Scotland until Duff's body was found and properly buried. In Holinshed's account, Macbeth's career is influenced by his ambitious spouse: his wife 'lay sore upon him to attempt' regicide 'as she that was verie ambitious, burning in unquenchable desire to beare the name of a queene'.4 According to Holinshed, Banquo is a fully committed co-conspirator; he is murdered after the passage of some time because Macbeth fears 'he should be served of the same cup, as he had minstred to his predecessor',5 but Banquo's ghost does not interrupt a royal banquet, and Lady Macbeth does not walk in her sleep. Holinshed elaborately details Macbeth's ten-yearlong reign as a good and responsible ruler, his trust in witches and wizards, the 'testing' of Macduff by Malcolm, and the coming of Birnam Wood to Dunsinane, and includes many other events and even phrases that were transmuted into Macbeth. At one point, Holinshed interrupts his narrative to give a detailed genealogy of 'the originall line of those kings, which have descended from . . . Banquho',6 and the list, ending with the then King James VI of Scotland, would have made the 'show of kings' in Act 4, Scene 1, easier to invent. One of the kings who reigned between Duff and Duncan was Kenneth, a good king who none the less secretly poisoned Duff's son in order to ensure his own son's succession. Conscience, however, 'pricked' Kenneth: And (as the fame [rumour, tale] goeth) it chanced that a voice was heard as he was in bed in the night time to take his rest, uttering unto him . . . 'Thinke not Kenneth that the wicked slaughter of Malcome Duffe by thee contrived, is kept secret from the knowledge of the eternall God: thou art he that didst conspire the innocents death . . . even at this present are there in hand secret practises to dispatch both thee and thy issue out of the waie . . .' The king with this voice being striken into great dread and terror, passed that night without anie sleepe comming in his eies.7 King Kenneth's torment, so similar to Macbeth's imaginings (Act 2, Scene 2), is elaborated still further in a volume Shakespeare may have known, and which his 1 Scotland, p. 150a; the whole narrative appears on pp. 1493-152. 2 Ibid., p. 170a. 3 Ibid., p. 152a: 'horsses in Louthian, being of singular beautie and swiftnesse, did eate their owne flesh . . . There was a sparhawke also strangled by an owle.' Compare 2.4.10-20. 4 Ibid., p. 171a. 5 Ibid., p. 172b; compare 1.7.10-12. 6 Ibid., pp. I72b-i74a. 7 Ibid., p. 158a. Us] Introduction theatrical colleague, the actor Edward Alleyn, possessed, Rerum Scoticarum historia (1582). Its author was the distinguished scholar and neo-Latin dramatist George Buchanan, who tutored the young King James.1 For at least one incident - the death of Siward's son and his father's reaction to it - Shakespeare could have consulted two known sources: the very end of Holinshed's 'volume' 1, concerning the period just before the Norman invasion, and William Camden's Remains Concerning Britain (1605).2 Aside from Holinshed's Chronicles and the dramatist's possibly direct use of Holinshed's own sources, such as Hector Boece's Scotorum historiae (1526, 1575) and Buchanan's Rerum Scoticarum historia, many other texts may have contributed to the language of Macbeth - Seneca's Latin tragedies, for instance, and Samuel Daniel's Arcadia Reformed (performed during the royal visit to Oxford in 1605 and published as The Queenes Arcadia the next year).3 Yet 'when all is said, Shakespeare's main source was Holinshed'.4 'What he [Shakespeare] did not find in Holinshed was any indication how to shape this narrative material for the stage',5 and that shaping must be our main concern. Macbeth in the mind SUCCESSION, TIME, AND FAMILIES The historical era of Macbeth's reign was as controversial in Scottish political debate and historiography as the reigns of John or of Henry IV were in England.6 In both 1 See Bullough, vu, 509-17, and Norbrook, who seems confident (pp. 87-8) that Shakespeare knew Buchanan's history. King James and Buchanan held deeply divergent views of monarchical authority; see e.g. Pauline Croft, 'Sir John Doddridge, King James I, and the antiquity of Parliament', Parliaments, Estates and Representation 12 (1992), 103. For Edward Alleyn's ownership of Buchanan's Rerum Scoticarum historia, see J. R. Piggott, 'Edward Alleyn's books', in Aileen Reed and Robert Maniura (eds.), Edward Alleyn: Elizabethan Actor, Jacobean Gentleman, 1994, pp. 63-5. Buchanan's book, printed in Edinburgh and later on the Continent but not in London (see I. D. McFarlane, Buchanan, 1981, pp. 512 - 14, and John Durkan, Bibliography of George Buchanan, Glasgow University Library Studies, 1994, pp. 218 ff.), had been recalled for censorship in Scotland and prohibited in England (see McFarlane, pp. 414 - 15, 437, and 437 n. 55). The book was, however, well known in the Sidney circle and approvingly mentioned in Spenser's A View of the Present State of Ireland (written c. 1598); see James E. Phillips, 'George Buchanan and the Sidney circle', Huntington Library Quarterly 12 (1947-8), 23-55, esP- PP- 49~ 55. Given Alleyn's interest, Buchanan's Rerum Scoticarum historia might have been a common theatrical source like Holinshed's Chronicles. Alleyn also owned King James's Basilikon Doron and Daemonologie, both potentially relevant to Macbeth's composition, and many of James's published speeches. 2 'The Historié of England' in Holinshed, The First. . . Volumes of Chronicles, p. 192a. A nearby page (p. 195a) gives an account of King Edward's ability to prophesy and to cure the King's Evil (see Macbeth 4.3.148-61). Lee Bliss suggested to me that Shakespeare drew this incident from Camden, and it has not been noted before; see Camden, p. 216 (sig. 2B2v in the 1605 edn). Camden's Remains are probable sources for King Lear (see Bullough, vu, 274, 288, 322) and Coriolanus (see Parker (éd.), Coriolanus, p. 3). 3 See Bullough and, for other sources and possible influences, Kenneth Muir, The Sources of Shakespeare's Plays, 1977, chapter 29. In addition to the possible source mentioned in the previous note, the present edition suggests new sources and analogues to the play's language, or elaborates upon earlier suggestions, in 2.3.75n., 5-i-64n., and the Supplementary Note to 3.1.91-107, p. 242 below. 4 Muir, Sources, p. 215. 5 Jones, Scenic, p. 199. 6 See R.J. Adam, 'The real Macbeth: King of Scots, 1040-1054', History Today 7 (1957), 381-7; R.James Goldstein, The Matter of Scotland: Historical Narrative in Medieval Scotland, 1993, chap. 4; and Macbeth [16] countries, the past and its most notably disputed successions fostered, if censorship did not intervene, discussion of legitimate sovereignty, tyranny, usurpation, and deposition. Entering this simultaneously 'historical' and contemporary debate, Macbeth was indeed 'extremely problematic'. Holinshed makes clear enough that the Duncan-Macbeth-Malcolm period saw Scotland begin to move from its traditional system of royal succession - tanistry - to primogeniture, the system which later became common and which was by Shakespeare's day long-established.1 Under tanistry, a ruler's successor was elected from a parallel family line, so that, for example, nephew (and not necessarily eldest nephew) succeeded uncle.2 When Duncan nominates (1.4.35-9) his eldest son, Malcolm, as his successor, he abruptly introduces a system half-way between tanistry and primogeniture. In this instance, Duncan wishes eldest son to succeed father, excluding any younger brothers (e.g. Donaldbain) or cousins, but the very nomination indicates that eldest son succeeding father (primogeniture) is not established practice.3 Henry VIII's controversial attempts to settle the royal succession made such questions vivid for an English audience, as did the recent, much-debated succession of James himself.4 The system in early Scotland has been described as 'circulation with elimination' where 'Tension between incumbent and successor is relieved at the expense of increased conflict between the potential successors themselves',5 as indeed we see in Macbeth. Primogeniture, tanistry, and Duncan's intermediate proposal all attempt to assure a monarchy's and therefore a family's continuity, its triumph over time, but primogeniture and Duncan's ad hoc proposal both value father-to-eldest-son successions exclusively and thus strongly imply the age-old metaphor of the king as 'father' to his subjects {pater patriae), making a complex association linking royal progenitor, royal authority, and royal succession. Here, experiences and words in which all people share to some degree - parenthood Norbrook. All three emphasise how later Scottish and English political developments may have distorted the historical accounts on which Shakespeare's own documentary sources drew. Norbrook concentrates on sixteenth-century issues, Adam and Goldstein discuss earlier ones. 1 Primogeniture became settled English law in the 'last years of Henry II' (Frederick Pollock and F. W. Maitland, The History of English Law before the Time of Edward I, 2nd edn with new introduction by S. F. C. Milsom, 2 vols. (1898; 1968), 11, 274). For tanistry's implications in Scottish historiography and Jacobean political thought and debate, see Norbrook, pp. 86-8. Hawkins, 'History, politics and Macbeth', in Focus, p. 175, citing an earlier scholarly debate, rightly says 'Shakespeare refers [in the play] neither to the law of tanistry nor to Duncan's own unlawful tenure of the throne', but the dialogue's silence says nothing about what knowledge shaped the play and nothing about what the audience might know of arcane (and therefore interesting?) Scottish practice. 2 I have simplified tanistry and its possible permutations. For its operation and anthropological functions in Ireland, Scotland, and elsewhere, see the Introduction to Jack Goody (éd.), Succession to High Office, 1966, and J. H. Stevenson, 'The law of the throne - tanistry and the introduction of the law of primogeniture', SHR 25 (1927-8), 1-12; for tanistry and primogeniture in sixteenth-century Scottish political debate and Shakespeare's and Holinshed's sources, see Norbrook. 3 On this important point, see Michael Hawkins, 'History, politics and Macbeth', in Focus, p. 175. Hawkins goes on, unhappily, to imagine what happens off-stage to produce Macbeth's selection as king after Duncan's death, but notes that the unseen, unspoken, events are 'the nearest the play comes to tanistry'. 4 Hawkins, 'History, politics and Macbeth, p. 175, and A. R. Braunmuller (éd.), John, 1989, pp. 56-60. 5 Goody, Succession to High Office, pp. 33 and 45. [//] Introduction and birth, adolescence, maturation and death - metaphorically legitimate a particular political structure. Shakespeare makes these metaphors, extended to include 'servants' as 'children' of the father-king, pervasive in the play. They explain Macbeth's succinct avowal, 'our duties / Are to your [Duncan's] throne and state, children and servants' (1.4.24-5), and his later self-accusing lines on why he should not murder Duncan. Duncan's status as kinsman, ruler, and guest all argue 'against the deed': First, as I am his kinsman and his subject, Strong both against the deed; then, as his host, Who should against his murderer shut the door, Not bear the knife myself. (1.7.13-16) So also, to take two rather disparate examples, Macbeth agonises over the 'unlineal hand' (3.1.64) which will deny his (possibly imaginary)1 son the crown, and his wife says she cannot kill King Duncan because he resembles her father (2.2.12-13) - ast n e metaphorical argument of royal authority insists he must. The sisters (or 'witches') attack this tight, mystifying association of parents and children with rulers and subjects when they predict that one adult male, Macbeth, will become king while another adult male, Banquo, will not be king but a begetter of kings. What they represent as paradoxical, that Banquo is 'lesser' and 'greater' than Macbeth and 'Not so happy, yet much happier' (1.3.63-4), is a paradox only under the assumptions of both primogeniture and an unfailing succession of male heirs, generation upon generation. So construed, Macbeth's kingship - or his hope of it - is itself deeply paradoxical, since he is not son to a king, and Banquo's line will reign in Scotland only if Macbeth's line, as well as Duncan's, fails or is deposed. Succession entails mortality. As Macbeth casually says, 'By Finel's death, I know I am Thane of Glamis' (1.3.69): by the death of my (or the) father I (the son) am who I am.2 The crisis of succession in Macbeth is expressed as a crisis of metaphor. When Macbeth first speaks of regicide explicitly rather than figuratively, he treats father-son succession, the quasi-primogeniture of Duncan's naming Malcolm Prince of Cumberland, as the obstacle: 'that is a step / On which I must fall down, or else o'erleap, / For in my way it lies' (1.4.48-50). Duncan the metaphorical father-king has created a metaphorical son-successor - has combined fatherhood with political succession. If primogeniture and metaphor combined lead Macbeth to contemplate regicide, the same union of patrilineal succession and thinking-through-metaphor leads him to kill Lady Macduff and her children: 1 Whether Lord and Lady Macbeth have (or have had) children in the play's fictional world is a long-lasting theatrical and critical question, much debated as a practical and thematic issue and much ridiculed as a non-existent one. See e.g. Knights, 'How many children had Lady Macbeth', and Marvin Rosenberg, The Masks of'Macbeth', 1978, Appendix, 'Lady Macbeth's indispensable child', pp. 671-6, calling for a cradle and the sound of a child in 1.5 and the cradle's return in 5.1. This demand has to my knowledge only once been even partly met: Bengt Ekerod's 1955 Stockholm production included 'a cradle next to which the Lady read her husband's letter [in 1.5]. There was no other sign of the baby . . .' (Ann Fridén, 'Macbeth' in the Swedish Theatre 1838-1Q86, 1986, p. 235). 2 Compare Katharine Eisaman Maus, 'Transfer of title in Love's Labor's Lost: language, individualism, gender', in Ivo Kamps (éd.), Shakespeare Left and Right, 1991, pp. 210-11. Macbeth [18] 2 The Witches of 'Macbeth': Henry Fuseli's eighteenth-century interpretation of the sisters in Act i, Scene 3 From this moment, The very firstlings of my heart shall be The firstlings of my hand. And even now To crown my thoughts with acts, be it thought and done. The castle of Macduff I will surprise; Seize upon Fife; give to th'edge o'th'sword His wife, his babes, and all unfortunate souls That trace him in his line. (4.1.145-52) While 'firstlings' most plainly conveys 'first things' - here, Macbeth's immediate impulses or thoughts - an archaic meaning of 'firstlings' is children, 'firstborn'. Macbeth's reflection moves from one meaning to the other, from the sudden joining of heart and hand, the unreflective joining of thoughts and acts, to generational murder, to giving 'to th'edge o'th'sword' Macduffs 'wife, his babes, and all unfortunate souls / That trace him in his line'. The same metaphorical extensions and 'arguments' that pertained when he earlier vowed loyalty to Duncan's 'throne and state, children and servants' now lead Macbeth to murder Macduffs family and retainers. Loyalty and tyranny each follow 'naturally' from the play's controlling familial-political metaphors. As Macbeth understands the sisters' words, deceptive words 'That palter with us in a double sense' (5.8.20), they suggest he will gain the throne through interrupting generation, through stopping human continuation in time, though he rarely reflects [•g] Introduction upon the corollary that he himself would or might thus lack a lineal successor. Consequently, he first envisages, and then undertakes to create, a world in which acts have no consequences, no duration beyond the moment of their enactment, no reach in time and beyond time into eternity: If it were done when 'tis done, then 'twere well It were done quickly. If th'assassination Could trammel up the consequence and catch With his surcease, success, that but this blow Might be the be-all and the end-all - here, But here, upon this bank and shoal of time, We'd jump the life to come. (1.7.1-7) For a moment, these hypothetical thoughts dissuade him: But in these cases, We still have judgement here that we but teach Bloody instructions, which being taught, return To plague th'inventor. This even-handed justice Commends th'ingredience of our poisoned chalice To our own lips. (1.7.7-12) Lady Macbeth soon ridicules (1.7.35 ff.) ne r husband's anxiety about the consequences of his actions and persuades him to 'screw' his 'courage to the sticking-place' (1.7.60) because she has already accepted (in Act 1, Scene 5) that regicide is necessarily an attack on time's progression and duration. 'Rapt' by witch-inspired (or witch-encouraged) royal visions, Macbeth writes an account of his meeting that similarly inspires his wife.1 He serves her as the witches served him, and she responds as he did: Thy letters have transported me beyond This ignorant present, and I feel now The future in the instant. (1.5.54-6) This extraordinary remark, anachronistically condensing the future into the present, hints how time and human experience in time will be compressed and squeezed later in the play, so squeezed and compressed that the be-all will be the end-all, and time itself a syllable: Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow Creeps in this petty pace from day to day To the last syllable of recorded time . . . (5.5.18-20) For Macbeth, repeated syllables ('Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow') represent time's slowing and, at 'the last syllable', time's end. For Lady Macbeth, repeated acts - 'It is an accustomed action with her, to seem thus washing her hands; I have 1 See Barbara Everett, Young Hamlet, 1989, p. 104: 'One of the play's most touching and subtle moments is that which brings Lady Macbeth before us for the first time, and she is reading Macbeth's letter: he exists for her when he isn't there. He exists too much for her when he isn't there, she plans and thinks ahead too much for him, she too much connives, putting her image of Macbeth's future where her conscience should be . . .' Macbeth [20] known her continue in this a quarter of an hour' (5.1.24-6) ' - and repeated words - 'Out, damned spot! Out, I say! .. . No more o'that, my lord, no more o'that' (5.1.30, 37-8) - represent the same collapse of change (and of hope and ambition) into a repetition where automatic words and acts eerily imitate life: DOCTOR You see her eyes are open. GENTLEWOMAN Ay, but their sense are shut. (5.1.21-2) Many actors and many critics have taken Lady Macbeth's behaviour here as a lightly rationalised version of demonic possession; for them, Act 5, Scene 1, is the final result of her invocation of the 'spirits / That tend on mortal thoughts' (1.5.38-9). The effect of Macbeth's letter upon Lady Macbeth, so similar to the effect upon him of the sisters' even more ambiguous words, suggests that he is (or becomes) a witch, just as a confusion of ends with means, 'trifles' with 'deepest' consequences, transforms Lady Macbeth into a witch in Act 5, Scene 1 (see pp. 33-5 below). If, in Macbeth, kings are fathers of son-successors and of children-subjects and if, 'In Macbeth . . . usurpation is imagined as an attack on the order of time itself,2 it follows that the play must consider the impossible possibility of unparented children because through procreation, through becoming parents, humanity ordinarily takes its revenge on time's passing and on the inevitability of any generation's death and every generation's replacement by another generation also destined for death and replacement. If 'the order of time itself is to be attacked, so must the order of procreation also become vulnerable and put in question. Macbeth's need to make the moment the be-all and end-all, to condense future and hence duration into the instant, means human procreation must cease - in fact, cannot exist. Lady Macbeth's ambitious hope (1.5.54-6) compresses the future into the instant. Her husband's acts compress past, present, and future into one timeless, unchanging moment. Lady Macbeth's hope and Macbeth's acts are secular and, for the Christian audience, sacrilegious versions of the world's end: Awake, awake! Ring the alarum bell! Murder and treason! Banquo and Donaldbain! Malcolm, awake, Shake off this downy sleep, death's counterfeit, And look on death itself. Up, up, and see The great doom's image. Malcolm, Banquo, As from your graves rise up and walk like sprites To countenance this horror. (2.3.67-74)3 In a moment, Donaldbain asks, 'What is amiss?' (2.3.90), and Macbeth describes the familial and the dynastic stalemate his regicide has created: 1 The Gentlewoman's 'a quarter of an hour' insists upon the ordinary world's time-keeping, a systematic regularity destroyed by and denied to the Macbeths, who have adopted and promulgated a very different 'accustomed action'. 2 Michael Neill, 'Remembrance and revenge: Hamlet, Macbeth and The Tempest\ in Ian Donaldson (éd.), Jonson and Shakespeare, 1983, p. 41. 3 For the biblical elements here, see 2.3.72n. and 2.3.75 n. below. [21] Introduction _ltrt usque Cofffi? ORIS folicct et MINGRIS METyAsiCA, PHVSICA ATQVE TECHNIC S HISTORI A In duo Voluminafecundum COSMI diffcrentiain dtuisa. AVTHORE ROBERTO FLUD «ins JeFkn&uiA & mMcdtcmaJDofïorc Ojcûmc*t/î. •m r •'Tomus Primu s - De Macrocojmt Hi florid m duos tra£tatus dimpt . fMctaphyfUo Mwocojmi 1 ct CnatMranTtUtus orpu. Je Whyfiai Maavto/mim I "rawwuwi' prie' Quorum s SecunJus JtArttN¨ Geometrii £ 9 ^ rtf», rnnti*rtmrM HlMRDXYrti OuxwuJ-p-ltn>loSlam JOeomatitiini. 'jjpV*^ «oAtt h 3 The bleeding Captain at 1.2.22 describes how Macbeth 'unseamed' an enemy 'from the nave to th'chaps': 'nave' might be either the umbilicus or (as in this image) the crotch. The engraving is from the title page of Robert Fludd's Utriusque cosmi historia (1617-19). See G. L. Hersey, Pythagorean Palaces: Magic and Architecture in the Italian Renaissance, 1976, p. 99, on the difference between images of manin-circle found in editions of Vitruvius, where the umbilicus is the centre of the circle, and man-in-circleand-square by Leonardo da Vinci, where the umbilicus is the centre of the circle, but the base of the penis is the centre of the square Macbeth [22] You are, and do not know't. The spring, the head, the fountain of your blood Is stopped, the very source of it is stopped. (2.3.90-2) The sons' bloodline, the royal line, is 'stopped' and does not flow into the future through successive sons who become kings. Considering the possibility that Malcolm and Donaldbain have themselves killed their father, Ross sees a form of filial cannibalism and equates it with the sons' self-thwarting desire to become king: 'Thriftless ambition that will ravin up / Thine own life's means' (2.4.28-9). Macduff and his family illustrate what Macbeth's attack on time and procreation might mean at the level of the person. Macduff himself fulfils the Second Apparition's seemingly impossible condition - 'none of woman born / Shall harm Macbeth' (4.1.70-80) - because Macduff was 'Untimely ripped' (5.8.16) from his dead or dying mother's womb. Macduff was born not of a 'woman' but of a near corpse.1 Once Macduff flees to England, Lady Macduff continues the play's profound linking of family and state when she translates political act into familial terms. She describes her husband's son, now abandoned by Macduff, as 'Fathered he is, and yet he's fatherless' (4.2.27), asserting the paternal paradox (fathered/fatherless) that matches her husband's paradoxical birth (mothered/motherless). Moments later, Macbeth's dynastically inspired murders sweep away mother and son, 'Those precious motives, those strong knots of love' (4.3.27), whose abandonment later leads Malcolm to suspect Macduff, a man not of woman born. These episodes and paradoxes express some of the play's most obsessive interests, if not exactly its 'values': the way political and dynastic succession-in-time depends upon a cycle (birth, death, birth); the importance of motherhood and fathering, and the unanticipated ways (Caesarean birth, 'unlineal' usurpation) each may become unpredictable; the echoing statements and restatements among the sisters or witches, Lady Macbeth, and Lady Macduff. Lady Macduff, ostensibly the play's single 'good' female character, speaks to Ross - albeit anxiously and domestically - much the same fatally equivocal language as the sisters offer Banquo and Macbeth in Act 1, Scene 3, and Macbeth alone in Act 4, Scene 1. Her human uncertainty here soon reappears when Malcolm and Macduff spar, circularly and inconclusively, in Act 4, Scene 3. Macduff is as isolated in time as Macbeth. MacdufPs paradoxical birth meets the Second Apparition's strange condition for one who might harm Macbeth, and Macduff does quell tyranny and restore, violently, Duncan's interrupted (but also dubiously legitimate) succession. Yet that same birth and the actions it entails place Macduff so far outside traditional genealogical or familial narrative that his wife denies him as husband, as father of their son, as, indeed, a wise, a loyal, or even a natural man 1 Thus, the shade of Posthumus's mother describes his birth as having taken place after her death: 'Lucina lent me not her aid, / But took me in my throes, / That from me was Posthumus ript' (Cymbeline 5.4.43- 5); compare the First Gravedigger's ingenuity on when suicide is not suicide (Hamlet 5.1.9-20), and Richard, Duke of Gloucester, who was a breech (or 'Agrippan') birth, whose mother 'coulde not bee delivered of hym uncutte', according to Thomas More (The History of King Richard HI, ed. Richard S. Sylvester, in Complete Works of St Thomas More, 11 (1963), 7 and 167), and who was 'sent before [his] time / Into this breathing world, scarce half made up' (Rj 1.1.20-1). toi Introduction (see 4.2.1-27, discussed above). Macbeth initially claims a secure, explicable place in genealogy and succession: 'By Finel's death, I know I am Thane of Glamis' (1.3.69). From this moment forward, however, that security melts away, dissolved by a complex acid of ambition, miscalculation, and murder, until - in a strange echo of MacduffMacbeth ends outside lineal successions, stripped of family ties, helplessly wading in blood, finally treading-in-place without advance or retreat or change. The 'good' (2.4.20), but flawed revenger Macduff and the criminal hero mirror each other and confound empathy and interpretation. According to Ross, Macbeth's rule melds birth and family with tyranny - under him, Scotland 'cannot / Be called our mother, but our grave' (4.3.167-8) - but of course Macduff s mother's body is also a place of birth and death, a place 'untimely'. Macduff is thus 'untimely' in every possible way. He entered life, as his mother left it, in a temporally abnormal way; he enters Macbeth's final moments in a time-destroying and fatally time-anticipating way; he installs Malcolm as king and thus makes Macbeth's supposed line 'untimely'. MASTER OF HIS TIME: 'DOUBLY REDOUBLED STROKES' As Macbeth's concern for the 'be-all and end-all' and Macduff s unusual mothered/ motherless condition demonstrate, Macbeth is deeply interested in the nature of time - time as experienced by the person (our individual progress from life to death), time as experienced by the family (an individual person's perpetuation through childbearing), time as experienced by the state (the succession of one monarch by another), and finally and most largely, time as we experience the play's performance. Dismissing his lords and ladies until evening comes and it is time for the banquet celebrating and validating his kingship, Macbeth orders: Let every man be master of his time Till seven at night; to make society The sweeter welcome, we will keep ourself Till supper-time alone. (3.1.42-5) Characteristically and disastrously, he does not acknowledge that 'A man is master of his liberty; / Time is their master' (Comedy of Errors 2.1.7-8): time masters human beings (we die), but time also masters our disposition of our 'free' time, our liberty, our freedom of choice. Also characteristically, Macbeth now keeps and will keep himself 'alone', as he is now and will be: 'why do you keep alone, / Of sorriest fancies your companions making' (3.2.8-9), and 'honour, love, obedience, troops of friends, / I must not look to have' (5.3.25-6). 'Style' in Macbeth has been called 'vehement to violence, compressed to congestion',1 but so also is the play's very ordering as an audience experiences it. Verbal style and narrative arrangement are indistinguishable. The play's more technical or dramaturgical handling of time makes the reader's or spectator's temporal experience unlike that in any other Shakespearean tragedy. Macbeth (about 2108 lines long) is the third shortest of the plays included in the First Folio; only The Comedy of Errors (approxi1 Frederick J. Harries, Shakespeare and the Scots, 1932, p. 117. Harries's chapter 10 collects nineteenthcentury literary views of the play's language and plot. Macbeth l'4l mately 1777 lines) and The Tempest (approximately 2062 lines) are shorter, and Julius Caesar (approximately 2477 lines) is the only other tragedy with fewer than 3000 lines. Brief as a play, Macbeth also has many brief scenes. Traditional division produces scenes which average about 75 lines: 'This multiplicity of scenes must be a deliberate dramatic device to give an impression of rapid and bustling action, as in Antony and Cleopatra\ where scenes average 'no more than 73 lines'. The 'shortest scenes in Macbeth have 12 and 10 lines: Antony and Cleopatra has two scenes of 4 lines only'.1 How powerfully this brevity and rapidity may affect an audience appears in Maurice Morgann's eighteenth-century comment on Shakespeare's practice: The Understanding must, in the first place, be subdued; and lo! how the rooted prejudices of the child spring up to confound the man! The Weird sisters rise, and order is extinguished. The laws of nature give way, and leave nothing in our minds but wildness and horror. No pause is allowed us for reflection: . . . daggers, murder, ghosts, and inchantment, shake and possess us wholly . . . we, the fools of amazement, are insensible to the shifting of place and the lapse of time, and till the curtain drops, never once wake to the truth of things, or recognise the laws of existence.2 Event and image - 'daggers, murder, ghosts, and inchantment' - crowd one another and subdue Enlightenment rationality. '[R]ooted prejudices', here associated with the pre-rational child, domineer over adult understanding, which recognises 'the laws of existence', and make spectators 'the fools of amazement'. Since Shakespeare explores humanity-in-time through narratives of royal succession, birth and death in time, or since Shakespeare dramatises narratives of royal succession and thereby explores the paradoxes of humanity-in-time, the way Shakespeare orders those narratives has special importance, and the ordering of Macbeth proves rather strange. George Walton Williams claims that King James's intellectual and dynastic interests influenced Shakespeare 'in so commanding a manner as severely to strain the coherence of the play'.3 Williams sees two conflicting narratives ('two parallel fables') and two conflicting political interests in Macbeth. One narrative is the kinging and unkinging of Macbeth; the other narrative is the attack on Banquo's line and that line's eventual accession and supposed Jacobean survival through Malcolm's successful counter-attack on Macbeth.4 The former narrative places our first view of King Macbeth at the play's centre and in the middle of the audience's temporal experience, the banquet scene (Act 3, Scene 4); untypically for Shakespeare's dramaturgy, the regicide occurs quite early in Macbeth (Act 2, Scene 3), a subordinate dramatic position rather than in the 'middle' or at the 'end' of the play (as in Julius Caesar and Richard II respectively) - both more 'important' locations for Shakespeare's dramaturgy.5 1 Greg, First Folio, p. 389 and nn. 1 and 3; line counts and comparisons here are Greg's. Knight, Imperial, pp. 327—42, extensively compares Macbeth and Antony. 2 Maurice Morgann, An Essay on the Dramatic Character of Sir John Falstaff, 1777, sig. F3r. 3 George Walton Williams, ''Macbeth: King James's play', South Atlantic Review 47.2 (1982), 12-21; quotation from p. 13. 4 Ibid., p. 14. 5 Ibid., p. 16. The earliest theatrical scripts of Richard II, Julius Caesar, and Macbeth almost certainly were not divided into 'Acts', but rather (at most) 'Scenes'; the later, printed, act and scene divisions, however, The second narrative emphasises Malcolm's revenging of Duncan's death, a revenging which (according to Holinshed's narrative and James's legendary descent from Banquo's son, Fleance) eventually led from Malcolm's kingship to a descendant of Fleance becoming the father of King Robert II, 'the first of the Stuart kings',1 and therefore to James's ancestor. The new King James I of England, insecure as King of Scotland throughout his reign there, could hardly have enjoyed a narrative of eleventh-century Scottish king-killing, but he might have welcomed a competing narrative of his own supposed ancestry, leading to the 'show of kings', where Banquo's and Fleance's and James's line stretches out, as Macbeth fears, 'to th'crack of doom' (4.1.116) and culminates in Malcolm's final triumph and thus in James's dynastic claims and present rule. Though I doubt that Shakespeare very much tailored Macbeth to James's special interests - the play contains too many subversive possibilities for that - Williams identifies a central structural problem in Macbeth. There are two competing narratives. One subordinates Duncan's death to Macbeth's becoming king; the other, contradictorily, elevates (in the apparitions and kingly show of Act 4, Scene 1) the future greatness of Banquo and therefore of his descendants, the Stuarts.2 Williams's proposals are literary and historical, readerly and source-influenced. Emrys Jones's study of Macbeth stresses theatrical 'rhythms' (the prosodie or musical metaphor is at once appropriate and distracting) and finds a 'three-part division' in the play: Part One ('Duncan') occupies Acts One and Two, Part Two ('Banquo') Act Three, and Part Three ('Macduff) Acts Four and Five. The first and second of these three parts are followed by a marked pause . . . Act Three forms a fairly short unit in itself... the opening of Act Four has an inevitable recapitulatory effect, taking us back to the beginning of the play with its similar witchcraft concerns . . .3 Jones here mixes structural or rhythmical insights with unprovable suggestions about intermissions or 'intervals' in Jacobean performances (that is, moments when the play ceases and non-dramatic or more everyday events - having a drink, eating an orange or some nuts, going to the toilet, hearing a musical interlude - can occur). Nevertheless, Jones's insights do identify a tripartite theatrical structure or rhythm that valuably counterpoints Williams's equally persuasive bipartite narrative structure. And the play's language seems to endorse both views through its constant counterpoint of merely number a spatial and temporal sequence: however artificial ''Macbeth Act 3, Scene 4' is as a reference, the text it delimits is still about the 'middle' of a knowledgeable audience's temporal experience of the play, just as 'Julius Caesar Act 2, Scene 3' is earlier than the 'middle' of an audience's experience of the entire play. Here and elsewhere I assume an audience, presumably Shakespeare's own earliest audience, long accustomed to the rhythms of early modern London theatre. 1 Williams, 'Play', p. 18. 2 Ibid., p. 19: 'By inserting the legend of Banquho into the middle of the legend of Mackbeth, Shakespeare has strained the traditional structure of this sort of play. He has transferred the murder of the king from its accustomed position in the middle of the play to a location of secondary significance, and he has inserted the murder of Banquo in the king's rightful and central place.' 3 Jones, Scenic, pp. 195-6; Jones's chapter 7 contributes essentially to the study of Macbeth. Mark Rose, Shakespearean Design, 1972, pp. 160-2, claims that the banquet scene (3.4) divides the play into two 'movements' and 'each movement has its own centerpiece, the murder scene [which Rose, pp. 39-43, regards as an undivided 2.1-2.3] coming just in the center of the first and the England scene [4.3] in the second' (p. 161). Macbeth [26] doubleness and triplicity. When Macbeth reminds himself that Duncan is his guest in 'double trust', he cites three, not two, relations of trust: He's here in double trust: First, as I am his kinsman and his subject, Strong both against the deed; then, as his host, Who should against his murderer shut the door, Not bear the knife myself. ( 1.7.12-16) And then he immediately says, 'Besides, this Duncan / Hath borne his faculties so meek . . .' Having made 'double' into three reasons, he now adds a fourth. Multiples - doubles, triples, quadruples - are deeply characteristic of the play's language, most famously in the sisters' 'Double, double toil and trouble' (4.1.10), but multiplying verbal play with singles and doubles also appears in a highly polite, emotionally charged moment when Lady Macbeth turns an excessively arithmetical compliment to the man and king she has already prepared to kill: All our service, In every point twice done and then done double, Were poor and single business . . . (1.6.15-17) 'Twoness' - multiples of 'two' (here, 'twice done', 'done double') - appears often in Macbeth; James Nosworthy also identifies triadic elements - the three sisters themselves, for instance, and their 'Thrice to thine . . .' (1.3.33-4) o r tne i r three threes in 'nine times nine' ( 1.3.21) - 'in contexts that are evil, and usually satanic'.1 In an early, apparently straightforward narrative moment, we hear a 'report' confounding easy mathematics where 'double' becomes 'doubly redoubled' and more: If I say sooth, I must report they were As cannons over-charged with double cracks; So they doubly redoubled strokes upon the foe. (1.2.36-8) Are the cannons 'over-charged' twice, or four times, or eight times, or sixteen times ('double', 'doubly', 'redoubled')? These numberings are faint echoes of the sisters' doublings and of the equivocal double meanings of these juggling fiends . . . That palter with us in a double sense, That keep the word of promise to our ear And break it to our hope. (5.8.10-22) Numbers and numbering recur throughout Macbeth. How many times does a bell ring for Macbeth or Lady Macbeth, how many kings stretch out before Macbeth in Act 4, Scene 1, how many gashes are enough to kill a man, how often will the dead rise up in Act 3, Scene 4, and after? Each of these timings and each of these numberings finally reduces to a character's (especially Macbeth's) linguistic attempt to make time numerable. Were time or timing (an actor's and a dramatic character's special need) 1 J. M. Nosworthy, ''Macbeth, Doctor Faustus, and the juggling fiends', in Mirror, p. 221. See also e.g. 1.2.37-8n., i.6.i6n. and 4-i.2n. below. [27] Introduction so submissive to number, they might also submit to a human ordering or even to human control. Time, however, can be neither numbered nor controlled, as Macbeth manifests. Like literary critics, theatrical critics have puzzled over the structure of Macbeth and its special challenges for actors. Without the language of rhythm or of bipartite or tripartite structure, James Agate shouldered the journalist's burden of instant criticism and identified a capital problem: I have to admit that for the first time in my experience Macbeth [here, John Gielgud] retained his hold upon this play till the end. There is a technical reason for the difficulty, the fact that Macbeth is given hardly anything to grip the play with. With the banqueting scene [Act 3, Scene 4], which is only half-way, the part is almost over. After that we have the apparition scene [Act 4, Scene 1], in which Macbeth is virtually a spectator. Then comes the murder of Lady Macduff [Act 4, Scene 2], the long business about Malcolm, the revelation to Macduff [i.e. Act 4, Scene 3], and the sleep-walking scene. Macbeth's next appearance is with Seyton, and whether the play is to stand or fall depends upon the power of the actor to suggest the ravages of mind, soul, and even body endured since we saw him last.1 From an actor's point of view, Michael Redgrave echoed Agate's worries,2 but critics have found Act 5 'a carefully thought out and superbly rhythmical solution to a large structural problem'. This 'solution' is 'a ritualistic unfolding: everything is taken in its due time', a structure 'which gives this final phase a movement suggestive of preordained ceremony'.3 The Macbeth here rhythmically and structurally described is also a play deeply committed to order, the order of refined dramatic structure and the order of political and historically endorsed orthodoxy. Most unusually for a Shakespearean tragedy, Macbeth contains little overt comedy (principally the Porter in Act 2, Scene 3) and little bawdy (principally the Porter, again, and the sisters in Act 1, Scene 3, and in Act 4, Scene 1, where the lines may not be Shakespeare's at all).4 The absence of comedy may result from the absence of a subplot. While it is true, and consonant with Renaissance learned theory, that Shakespeare's tragedies often contain but do not develop stunted or stifled gestures toward sub-plots, and while Macbeth is also arguably Shakespeare's most history-playlike tragedy, his 'true' histories spawn additional plots great and small. Here are no 1 James Agate, review of Macbeth, directed by Harcourt Williams, 19 March 1930, Old Vic (London), rpt. in Agate, Brief Chronicles, 1943, p. 227. Agate goes on to praise Gielgud's Macbeth in Act 5. To some degree, Agate here complains about a fact of early Stuart drama: Antony is absent from the final act of Antony and Cleopatra and the Duchess is missing from the last act of Webster's The Duchess of Malfi; Coriolanus has relatively few lines in the last act of Coriolanus. 2 See p. 56 below. 3 Jones, Scenic, pp. 223-4. 4 On theatrical attempts to introduce comedy, see p. 68 below, and for the original Porter, see Appendix 1, p. 264. Very rarely, Macbeth himself is a successful comic. In Adrian Noble's RSC production (with Sinead Cusack as Lady Macbeth), a 'Freudian study in childlessness' (Michael Billington, The Guardian, 27 September 1995), for instance, one critic found Jonathan Pryce (Macbeth) 'a bogeyman, a joker, a card, a childless husband who delights in the company of children. In the banquet scene [3.4], flailing his hands and shaking his head like a dog coming out of water, he clowns his way out of a real fit into a false one so plausibly that though we know the jest will be shattered on the third [sic] appearance of Banquo's ghost, the foaming fury of Macbeth's reaction prickles the scalp when it comes' (The Observer, 16 September 1986). For a general view of this production, see Roger Warren, 'Shakespeare in England, 1986-87', SQ 38 (1987), 363. Macbeth [28] tavern roisterers (Falstaff, Poins, Bardolph, and their ilk), hardly any common, nonaristocratic characters, no sybaritic hangers-on, no bastards, few talkative, satirical soldiers, no brawlers of whatever social status, no social or cultural outsiders. Except for the three sisters, the reporting soldier of Act 1, Scene 2, the Porter (briefly), and the Old Man of Act 2, Scene 4 (also briefly), Macbeth largely lacks the commonsensical, humorous, salacious, scatological, 'foreign' or non-naturalised voices that typically diminish and thereby evaluate the speech, values, and behaviour of highstatus, 'heroic' characters in Shakespeare's other tragedies and histories.1 When Macduff threatens to make dead or captured Macbeth 'the show and gaze o'th'time', a 'rarer monster . . . / Painted upon a pole' (5.8.24-0),2 he offers a humiliation Cleopatra fears (see p. 7 above), but not a 'popular' re-evaluation of Macbeth's deeds. Macduff s imagined carnivalesque display diminishes Macbeth without judging and therefore without valuing his acts: the victim (Macbeth) is diminished, the audience amused but unenlightened. 'Except for the three sisters'. The sisters - only once named 'witch' (1.3.5) m the dialogue, though always Witch and Witches in speech headings and stage directions - provide the ironic and satiric, the unconventional or demystifying, views otherwise almost absent from Macbeth, barring the highly personal, psychological modes of Lady Macbeth's somniloquy (Act 5, Scene 1) and her husband's increasingly grim reflections on what he has done and has to do.3 Terry Eagleton declares 'that positive value in Macbeth lies with the three witches' and that 'The witches are the heroines of the piece', because they 'expose a reverence for hierarchical social order for what it is' and inhabit 'their own sisterly community' on that social order's 'shadowy borderlands', though he does not explain what 'positive value' or the sisters' status as 'heroines' might mean.4 These imagined 'sisters', with their communal and antimilitaristic values, may be contrasted with the comic (or perhaps anxiously dismissive) treatment of witches and witchcraft in other early modern English plays and with Samuel Johnson's view of the comic, 'ridiculed' witches that prevailed in the 1 Among Shakespeare's other tragedies, Cleopatra's conversation (Ant. 5.2.242-79) with the countrymanclown who provides the asp that poisons her most nearly approaches the dramatic effect - high seriousness clashing with humdrum concerns laconically expressed - of the Porter's monologue with himself. That the Porter's speeches are monologue rather than dialogue, however, forces the audience to join disparate verbal and emotional registers and, as so often in Macbeth, denies the audience even minimal guidance from the dramatist; see Appendix 1, p. 264 below. In the handling of comic viewpoints that both deflate high seriousness and evaluate it, Macbeth and Antony and Cleopatra represent one range of dramaturgical choices, Lear (with the Fool) and Coriolanus (with the Citizens and tribunes) another. 2 On this speech, see 5.8.25-7n.; see also Halio and p. 7 above. 3 Lady Macbeth's actions have been found a 'sub-plot': 'In Macbeth there is a great deal of focus devoted to the actions of the tyrant to the exclusion of any sub-plot activity, but we are concerned also with the power of Lady Macbeth in urging on her husband and then with the decline of her influence and its consequences as he isolates himself from her' (Anthony Brennan, Onstage and Offstage Worlds in Shakespeare's Plays, 1989, p. 308). 4 Terry Eagleton, William Shakespeare, 1986, p. 2. Frances E. Dolan, Dangerous Familiars: Representations of Domestic Crime in England 1550-1700, 1994, pp. 224-5, agrees that 'the drama frequently locates witches in a space apart, a female-dominated world placed both outside of the household and at the margins of dramatic representation' but argues that 'in Macbeth, unlike [Thomas Middleton's] The Witch or [John Marston's] Sophonisba, the boundary between the world of the witches and the world of the other characters is indistinct'. fo>] Introduction eighteenth-century theatre Johnson knew.1 One way of dealing with a real or perceived fear of witchcraft is to make witches not fearsome but silly, comic, and ridiculous; the eighteenth-century English theatre typically took this course, perhaps unthinkingly, perhaps out of the practical need to provide work for the company's comic actors. In nineteenth-century productions, the witches eventually achieved both respectful and terrific treatment. PROSPECT OF BELIEF: WITCHES, WOMEN, AND MEDIATED KNOWLEDGE For most audiences of Macbeth, the ideas of witchcraft, more particularly the violent and sometimes socially pervasive persecutions of the 'witch' those ideas sponsored (and that prevailed in Europe and North America from the fifteenth to the eighteenth century), are incomprehensible, repellent, temporally 'foreign' and even alien. And yet rural and/or unlettered people and the most intellectually sophisticated European élites accepted the existence of witches and witchcraft and proceeded, more often legally than illegally, to impose their beliefs, with fatal results. Stuart Clark eloquently rebukes the unthinking modern view: The idea of witchcraft was not then a bizarre incongruity in an otherwise normal world; like all manifestations of misrule it was that world mirrored in reverse, and the practices of the alleged witches were no less (and no more) meaningful than those of ordinary men and women.2 Persecution of the witch and of witchcraft made 'meaningful' the ordinary, seemingly natural, daily practice of the great mass of individuals - learned or not, poor or rich, influential or powerless, or somewhere among these classifications - who defined themselves as not-witch, not practising witchcraft, not politically and socially aberrant or, in Clark's terms, not 'inverted'. In early modern England, witches and witchcraft were political matters as well as personal, familial, and communal ones. Biblical precedent identified witchcraft with treason: 'For rebellion is as the sinne of witchcraft' (i Sam. 15.23). Following that precedent as well as their own self-interested desire for public order, Tudor and Stuart governments sought to regulate and, if possible, extirpate various practices labelled 'witchcraft' by common folk, local magistrates, the legal apparatus, and learned authorities.3 Ordinary people, scholars, courtiers, and royalty all considered witches or other figures associated with a hard-to-define 'magic' or supernatural - 'cunning' or 'wise' women and men, magicians, sorcerers, etc. - to be sometimes useful, but often threatening, to a variety of familial, social, and political structures, assumptions, and values.4 1 See Dolan, pp. 217 and 220-3, an d headnote to 1.1 below. 2 Stuart Clark, 'Inversion, misrule and the meaning of witchcraft', P&P 87 (1980), 98-127; quotation from p. 127. 3 See Stuart Clark, 'King James's Daemonologie: witchcraft and kingship', in Sydney Anglo (éd.), The Damned Art: Essays in the Literature of Witchcraft, 1977, pp. 156-81, esp. p. 176, where Clark quotes a passage from William Perkins's Discourse of the Damned Art of Witchcraft comprehensively identifying enmity to the state with the witch's acceptance of the devil. Clark, 'Inversion', esp. pp. 117-19, elaborates this view. 4 The Introduction in Barbara Rosen, Witchcraft in England, 1558-1618, 1969, and Dolan, Dangerous Familiars, pp. 171-210, provide helpful guides to, and summaries of, contemporary, especially English, Macbeth [30} Historians find it difficult to decide whether the witch-persecutions of the late sixteenth century in England and Scotland were driven by popular or élite anxieties and purposes, varied as those anxieties and purposes were, and shifting, perhaps imponderable, as such designations as 'popular' and 'élite' prove to be.' What seems undebatable, however, is that post-Reformation Scottish beliefs about and attitudes toward witches, and conceptions of their supposed practices, were quite different from English ones, especially during the 1590s, a period when witch-prosecutions increased in both Scotland and England and a period that must have influenced Shakespeare and the audiences of the first performances of Macbeth. The main difference between Scotland and England in these matters 'was not in the content, but in the relative significance of diabolism in the two countries and in the relative ferocity of the punishments for convicted witches'.2 English 'witches' were typically old women without familial or communal support; their supposed 'crimes' were practical and often economically destructive - causing a cow to stop giving milk or some other domestic beast to die, causing butter not to churn properly, crops to fail - or highly personal - causing a family member to die inexplicably, or a man to become sexually incapable, or a woman to be infertile. According to both popular belief and legal claims, accused witches contracted their souls to the devil in return for a 'familiar', usually a common animal such as a toad, cat, fly, or dog, which assisted her (only rarely 'his') demonic designs. In 1590, King James VI visited Denmark to meet and marry King Christian IV's daughter, Anna. During that visit James may have learned and certainly debated continental European witch-theories, which were much more virulent and lurid than contemporary English ones. He apparently took these ideas back to Scotland and there introduced them to public circulation.3 These beliefs included not merely the witch's contracting her or his soul to the devil, but a demonic 'pact' that involved sexual intercourse with Satan ('the witches' Sabbath'), the 'black Mass' and other inverted religious practices, and numerous activities such as stealing and eating children, exhuming bodies, parodying baptism using cats and other animals, flying through the air, and sailing the sea in sieves.4 How the play's 'sisters' are to be portrayed and understood has proved a continuing problem for both producers and readers of Macbeth. Indeed, critics and producers have puzzled over precisely why the sisters appear in the play. For much of the play's performance history, they have been comic figures, wearing 'blue-checked aprons' and 'high crowned black hats' even early in the twentieth century, and providing spectacle witch-beliefs and practices and details of witch-persecutions. For the more general ambivalence towards magical thought and practices, see Keith Thomas, Religion and the Decline of Magic, 1971, passim. 1 See e.g. Dolan, pp. 178-80, for an inconclusive summary and citations of the debate. 2 Christina Larner, Witchcraft and Religion, 1984, p. 77; on increased prosecutions, see ibid., p. 18. 3 Clark, 'King James's Daemonologie\ p. 157, and Larner, p. 10. See also Jenny Wormald, 'James VI and I: two kings or one?', History 68 (1983), 187-209. 4 On how the relatively benign, or at least less socially threatening, English 'pact' differed from that in continental witch-belief, see Rosen, pp. 15-17. Clark, 'Inversion', offers an elegant study of witchcraft and the discourses of inversion; for 'political' inversion, especially relevant to Macbeth, see ibid., pp. 111 - 17- /J/ J Introduction 4 The exhibiting of an enemy's severed head is an ignominious punishment that figures twice in Macbeth: see 1.2.23 an d 5-9-20 SD. This engraving from J. C. Visscher, Londinium Florentiss[i]ma Britanniae Urbs (1616), shows the heads of traitors displayed on London Bridge. A Swiss visitor who saw the bridge counted 'more than thirty skulls', boiled and tarred for preservation, 'of noble men who had been executed and beheaded for treason and other reasons' {Thomas Platter's Travels in England, 1599, trans. Clare Williams, 1937, P- 155) (they gave the performance song, dance, and occasions for ever more elaborate demonstrations of'flying' and other forms of'vanishing').1 Gradually, however, the theatre's witches grew more fearsome and demonic and consequently harder to integrate into conceptions of'heroic' behaviour and tragic responsibility. By the mid nineteenth century, they had achieved psychological status, at least for critics.2 1 Kalman A. Burnim, David Gamck, Director, 1961, p. 109. 2 See William Wetmore Story, cited at p. 71 below. Hazlitt had earlier recognised how important a 'serious' treatment of the witches was: 'The Witches .. . are indeed ridiculous on the modern stage, and we doubt if the Furies of Aeschylus would be more respected' (William Hazlitt, The Characters of Shakespeare Plays (1817), ed. A. W. Pollard, 1903, p. 19). Macbeth M Later critics unfamiliar with the theatre and without, seemingly, much interest in theatrical history have also puzzled over the witches. Willard Farnham's learned account finds them 'demons of the fairy order . . . fiends in the shape of old women who do evil wherever and however they can', though they do not 'resemble human witches' (i.e. the supposed 'witches' of Elizabethan and Jacobean prosecutions),1 and W. C. Curry, equally learned, imagines - from an arm-chair, not a place in the theatre - a stage-spectacle where beings he calls the 'Weird Sisters' (who have 'a dark grandeur, and a terror-inspiring aspect') 'surmise with comparative accuracy' Macbeth's 'inmost thoughts' 'from observation of facial expression and other bodily manifestations'.2 For G. L. Kittredge, 'The Weird Sisters . . . are the Norns of Scandinavian mythology. The Norns were goddesses who shaped beforehand the life of every man .. . for their office was not to prophesy only, but to determine.'3 Notoriously, Tyrone Guthrie cut the play's first (Folio) scene from his 1934 Old Vic production on the joint grounds that the scene was not by Shakespeare (an improbable claim) and that 'by making the three Weird Sisters open the play, one cannot avoid the implication that they are a governing influence of the tragedy . . . Surely the grandeur of the tragedy lies in the fact that Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are ruined by precisely those qualities which make them great. . . All this is undermined by any suggestion that the Weird Sisters are in control of events',4 and directors no less than critics5 have struggled with the sisters' part in the dramatic architecture as well as in the moral and tragic meanings of the play. Are the sisters, for instance, subordinate to other, still more powerful, demonic forces? Hecate, who clearly arrives to rebuke them as their superior in Act 3, Scene 5, may not have been part of the play's original conception, but what of'our masters' (4.1.62), perhaps the Apparitions or perhaps some force or forces sending the Apparitions? Glen Byam Shaw (Stratford, 1955) and Peter Hall (Stratford, 1967) sternly rejected the sisters and Lady Macbeth as determining forces. In Hall's words, It has been said that he [Macbeth] wouldn't have done it if he hadn't met the witches; but the witches are not the three Fates saying go and do it, they see into the seeds of time, they know what can happen and what Macbeth wants to happen, but they certainly don't make him do it.6 1 Willard Farnham, Shakespeare's Tragic Frontier, 1950, rpt. 1963, p. 99; Farnham's discussion of the play's possible sources (pp. 79-91) is valuable. 2 Walter Clyde Curry, Shakespeare's Philosophical Patterns, 2nd edn, 1959, pp. 77-8. 3 George Lyman Kittredge (éd.), Macbeth, 1939, p. xviii. 4 Programme note quoted in James Agate's Sunday Times review, 8 April 1934, rpt. in Brief Chronicles, 1943, p. 229; Agate comments acidly 'that the play is not a tract by Samuel Smiles but a tragedy by William Shakespeare'. 5 Farnham, Shakespeare's Tragic Frontier, p. 81: 'The witches . . . never, even by suggestion, bind him [Macbeth] to evil-doing . . . they tempt him to commit crimes for which he is to assume full moral responsibility . . .' 6 Peter Hall, rehearsal talk with the company, quoted in the programme, p. 3, of his heavily Christianised 1967 RSC production; see also Samuel L. Leiter (éd.), Shakespeare Around the Globe, 1986, p. 377. Contradicting centuries of stage practice, Hall continues: 'It has also been said that without Lady Macbeth he wouldn't have done it; but if you take that view you must endorse a weak vacillating Macbeth with a tough virago of a lady booting him from behind. I do not believe that either.' For Byam Shaw's view, see p. 82 below. Ï33l Introduction Spectators of Macbeth will probably agree, however, that 'he wouldn't have done it' - Macbeth would not have killed Duncan - without Lady Macbeth's urgent sexual taunts and insinuations: Was the hope drunk Wherein you dressed yourself? Hath it slept since? And wakes it now to look so green and pale At what it did so freely? From this time, Such I account thy love. Art thou afeard To be the same in thine own act and valour, As thou art in desire? Wouldst thou have that Which thou esteem'st the ornament of life, And live a coward in thine own esteem, Letting I dare not wait upon I would, Like the poor cat i'th'adage? . . . What beast was't then That made you break this enterprise to me? When you durst do it, then you were a man. And to be more than what you were, you would Be so much more the man. (Ï^SS - 4 5 , 47-51 ) 1 As motivation, these lines ally Lady Macbeth with the sisters, and early audiences might have understood Lady Macbeth as a witch, or as possessed by the devil, long before her sleepwalking in Act 5, Scene 1. Her extraordinary invocation of the 'spirits / That tend on mortal thoughts' (1.5.38-9) especially pleads: make thick my blood, Stop up th'access and passage to remorse That no compunctious visitings of nature Shake my fell purpose nor keep peace between Th'effect and it. Come to my woman's breasts And take my milk for gall, you murd'ring ministers, Wherever in your sightless substances You wait on nature's mischief. (1.5.41-8) Here Lady Macbeth invokes two 'unnatural' conditions: stopping up the circulation (or in Jacobean scientific terms, the ebbing and flowing) of blood that makes her more compassionate ('compunctious') than a male, and ending her menstruation ('visitings of nature'), the shedding of blood that typified a female in contemporary English culture and signified her ability to bear children.2 Pierre Le Loyer's French treatise on fantasy, translated into English and published (1605) about the time of Macbeth''s composition, discusses the unusual psychological state male doctors supposed a woman underwent when menstruation ceased: the blood of their monthly disease [i.e. unease, discomfort] being stopped from his course, through the ordinary passages and by the matrix dooth redound and beate backe again by the heart. . . Then the same blood, not finding any passage, troubleth the braine in such sorte, 1 Lady Macbeth's reference to 'the poor cat i'th'adage' is proverbial and 'common'; see p. 47 n. 2 below. 2 See 1.5.41-211. and OED Visit sb 4; Alice Fox, 'Obstetrics and gynaecology in Macbeth', S.St. 12 (1979), 127-41; Jenijoy La Belle, '"A strange infirmity": Lady Macbeth's amenorrhea', Si? 31 (1980), 381-6. Macbeth [34] that... it causeth many of them to have idle fancies and fond conceipts, and tormenteth them with diverse imaginations of horrible specters, and fearefull sights . . . with which being so afflicted, some of them doe seeke to throwe and cast themselves into wells or pittes, and others to destroy themselves by hanging, or some such miserable end.1 Like Le Loyer's normative amenorrheal woman, Lady Macbeth suffers 'diverse imaginations of horrible specters, and fearefull sights' in Act 5, Scene 1, and the play's most unreliable narrative moment claims that Lady Macbeth destroyed herself 'by hanging, or some such miserable end' (Le Loyer): the 'fiend-like queen', Malcolm says, 'as 'tis thought, by self and violent hands / Took off her life' (5.9.37-8).2 This same physical condition, or its absence, also linked women with witches. The valiantly sceptical Reginald Scot records medical scholars' claim that amenorrhea, the absence of menstruation that might mark menopause, also defines female witches, who constitute a sub-category of 'melancholike' persons: Now, if the fansie of a melancholike person may be occupied in causes which are both false and impossible; why should an old witch be thought free from such fantasies, who (as the learned philosophers and physicians saie) upon the stopping of their monethlie melancholike flux or issue of bloud, in their age must needs increase therein [i.e. in melancholy], as (through their weaknesse both of bodie and braine) the aptest persons to meete with such melancholike imaginations: with whome their imaginations remaine, even when their senses are gone.3 King James, sometimes notably rationalist, recognised and was puzzled by the fact modern scholars stress: accused witches were overwhelmingly female and usually old/ Shakespeare's earliest audiences might thus associate Lady Macbeth's invocation in Act 1, Scene 5, with an aberrant desire to be both a fantast (a 'melancholike') and a witch, a woman seeking to deny what her culture understood as a woman's defining 'nature' - her ability to bear children - and a woman seeking to become what established doctrine most feared, a renegade or 'wayward' woman, a witch or uncontrolled wife.5 Post-menopausal women - 'some of them beyng a while frutefull, but after widowes, and for that suppressed of naturall course [menstruation]' - were also, according to the surgeon-anatomist John Banister, supposed to 'have beardes . . . 1 Pierre Le Loyer [Loier], Treatise of Specters, trans. Z. Jones, 1605, ff. nor-v. See Patricia Crawford, 'Attitudes to menstruation in seventeenth-century England', P&P 91 (1981), 47-73. 2 Malcolm's 'as 'tis thought' is an extraordinary qualification, marking the narrative's uncertainty and, perhaps, Malcolm's politically motivated effort to portray the previous régime as insane or despairing. 3 Reginald Scot, The Discoverie of Witchcraft (1584), ed. Brinsley Nicholson, 1886, in, 9.1 owe this reference to Billy Phelan. For a sapient analysis of Scot's work, especially in comparison with Johan Weyer's De Praestigiis Daemonum, see Sydney Anglo, 'Reginald Scot's Discoverie of Witchcraft: scepticism and sadduceeism', in Damned Art, pp. 106-39. 4 Daemonologie, pp. 43-4; years later, when James questioned Sir John Harington on the point, Harington could only offer a coarse joke (see N. E. McClure (éd.), The Letters and Epigrams of Sir John Harington, 1930, p. no; letter 35 (.'December 1603)). For contemporary views of post-menopausal women as 'witches', see G. R. Quaife, Godly Zeal and Furious Rage: The Witch in Early Modern Europe, 1987, p. 163, and, more significantly, Ralph A. Houlbrooke, The English Family 1450-1700, 1984, p. 213. 5 '[T]he play [Macbeth] also offers, in the figure of Lady Macbeth, the drama's most vivid manifestation of the witch as a dangerous familiar and her witchcraft as "malice domestic," as an invasion of the household and its daily life' (Dolan, p. 226). ta] Introduction being then [as widows and non-menstruating women] bearded, hearie [hairy], and chaunged in voyceV The description may only hypothetically suit Lady Macbeth, but its most provocative claim - 'bearded, hearie' - concerning women whose 'naturall course' has been 'suppressed' anticipates Banquo's view of the sisters: You seem to understand me, By each at once her choppy finger laying Upon her skinny lips; you should be women, And yet your beards forbid me to interpret That you are so. (1.3.41-5) According to one popular play, 'the women that / came to us, for disguises must weare beardes, / & thats they saie the token of a witch'.2 Melancholy, fantasy, amenorrhea, bearded women form what seems a conventional series of cultural assumptions. They suggest that Lady Macbeth seeks to become, or is, what her culture considered a witch. She has also sought, or been associated with, characteristics traditionally 'male' - lack of compunction, a beard, no menstruation. Macbeth makes some of these associations clear: Bring forth men-children only, For thy undaunted mettle should compose Nothing but males. (1.7.72-4) Another Shakespearean character explicitly joins ideas of witchcraft with a woman's 'unfeminine', 'masculine' behaviour when Leontes angrily derides Paulina as 'A mankind witch' (Winter's Tale 2.3.67). Leontes' epithet combines humanity ('mankind') with a woman's 'male' ('mankind') aggressiveness and with demonhood ('witch'). Closer in time to Lady Macbeth's creation, the characterisation of Volumnia, Coriolanus's mother, shows a similarly complex - and arguably for Shakespeare and at least the male spectators a similarly disturbing - mixture of stereotypical gendertypes, though the added demonising quality of'witch' does not appear in Coriolanus.* Rather surprisingly, given the frequent application of 'witch' to Cleopatra and the word's use elsewhere as opprobrium (see 1.3.5 n.), n 0 speaker calls Volumnia 'witch'. Indeed, 'witch' does not occur in Coriolanus; there, the only 'witchcraft' is Coriolanus's own: I do not know what witchcraft's in him [Coriolanus], but Your [Aufidius's] soldiers use him as the grace fore meat, Their talk at table, and their thanks at end, And you [Aufidius] are darkened in this action, sir, Even by your own . . . (Coriolanus 4.7.2-6) John Banister, The Historié of Man, 1578, sig. B2v. Banister is never very original and cites pseudoHippocrates {Epidemics vi) here. On how hair might discriminate masculine from feminine, see Joan Cadden, Meanings of Sex Difference in the Middle Ages, 1993, pp. 181-3.1 owe these two references to Billy Phelan. The Honest Mans Fortune, ed. J. Gerritsen, 1952, 2.1.23-5. 1 For a survey, see Parker (éd.), Coriolanus, pp. 48-53, and Janet Adelman, Suffocating Mothers: Fantasies of Maternal Origin in Shakespeare's Plays, 'Hamlet' to 'The Tempest', 1992, pp. 147-9. Macbeth m 5 Sweno, the 'Norwegian lord' whose invasion of Scotland fails at the beginning of Macbeth, is remembered in the name 'Sueno's Stone', which is given to this pillar (dating from some time between the ninth century and the eleventh) which still stands near Forres in Scotland. See 1.2.58-63 and the Commentary at 1.2.31-62. This engraving from Vetvsta monvmenta (1747-1835), plate 49, shows the south face of the stone For some members of MacbetWs earliest audiences, another of Lady Macbeth's claims would have been memorable and unusual, to say the least. Urging Macbeth to kill Duncan, she invokes a terrible analogy: I have given suck and know How tender 'tis to love the babe that milks me: I would, while it was smiling in my face, Have plucked my nipple from his boneless gums And dashed the brains out, had I so sworn As you have done to this. (1.7.54-9) Special terror here depends upon the nursing mother's closeness to, and tenderness for, the suckling child. While '[cjontemporary opinion was strongly in favour of a \37\ Introduction mother feeding her own child',1 English royal, aristocratic, and 'gentle' women (i.e. members of the gentry) did not typically nurse their own children. Instead, they employed wet-nurses, lactating (usually lower-class) women who nursed the child.2 Elizabeth Clinton, dowager Countess of Lincoln, described and attacked the snobbery such nursing practices encouraged: And this unthankfulnesse [not breast-feeding], and unnaturalnesse is oftner the sinne of the Higher, and the richer sort, then of the meaner, and poorer, except some nice and prowd idle dames, who will imitate their betters, till they make their poore husbands beggars. And this is one hurt which the better ranke doe by their ill example; egge, and imbolden the lower ones to follow them to their losse . . ? We may suppose that the countess's remarks are deeply influenced by her elevated social class and its attendant privileges and contempts, not to mention her regretful admission that she did not breast-feed her own eighteen children.* Still and yet, Elizabeth Clinton's concern for babies remains, along with her stiletto dissection of upward mobility. Upper-class English women did not nurse their children, unlike the majority of mothers. The presumably wide knowledge of this practice - it marked social distinction (as Elizabeth Clinton demonstrates) and therefore must have been emphasised and publicised - supports Coleridge's independent, critical, unhistoricised comment when he disagreed with the then-prevailing view of Lady Macbeth as a monster.5 A possibly singular bequest may suggest the culture's general attitude. John Greene, a lawyer who eventually became Recorder of London, specified in his will that his daughters should have £1000 apiece 'except Margaret who was to have a further £100 "because her mother nursed her" '.6 Whatever the aristocracy's practice, indeed whatever the practice of those lower in the social order, a mother's nurturing attachment to her child affected in this single instance how a father bequeathed his wealth. In William Harrison's 'Description of Scotland' we read, as Shakespeare almost certainly did: sith it was [in ancient Scotland] a cause of suspicion of the mothers fidel[i]tie toward hir husband, to seeke a strange nurse for hir children (although hir milke failed) each woman would 1 Patricia Crawford, 'The sucking child: adult attitudes to child care in the first year of life in seventeenthcentury England', Continuity and Change 1 (1986), 31. 2 Regular playgoers would have been reminded of this aristocratic practice: see e.g. Giovanni of his mother, Isabella: 'I have often heard her say she gave me suck, / And it should seem by that she dearly loved me, / Since princes seldom do it' (Webster, White Devil 3.2.336-8), and Dekker, Westward Ho 1.2.117-20, for the supposed damage suckling did to a woman's beauty. In The White Devil, Richard Burbage, who may have been the first Macbeth, acted Ferdinand (see Appendix 1, p. 264 below, and Edwin Nungezer, A Dictionary of Actors, 1929). See, generally, Valerie Fildes, Breasts, Bottles and Babies: A History of Infant Feeding, 1986. 3 [Elizabeth Clinton], The Countesse of Lincolnes Nursurie, 1622, sig. C2r. 4 See ibid., sigs. DIV and C4r-v. 5 Lady Macbeth's assertion (1.7.54-9, quoted above), Coleridge said, 'though usually thought to prove a merciless and unwomanly nature, proves the direct opposite; she brings it as the most solemn enforcement to Macbeth of the solemnity of his promise'; she tries 'to bully conscience'. See Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Coleridge's Criticism of Shakespeare, ed. R. A. Foakes, 1989, pp. 105-6. 6 E. M. Symonds, 'The Diary of John Greene (1635-57 [*""> f°r !659]), Part m', EHR 44 (1929), 116. Macbeth m take intollerable paines to bring up and nourishe hir owne children . . . nay they feared least [lest] they should degenerat[e] and grow out of kind, except they gave them sucke themselves ..." Here, Harrison translates and distorts John Bellenden's Scots translation of Hector Boece's Scotorum historiae (1526, 1575), where Scottish mothers are specifically distinguished from English mothers. Bellenden writes: Ilk moder wes nurice to hir awin barne [Each mother was nurse to her own child]. It was ane suspition of adultre [adultery] aganis ony woman quhare hir milk failzeit, the wemen thocht yair barnis war not tender nor kyndly to thaym, bot gif thay war nurist als weill with the mylk of thair breist, as thay war nurist afore with the blude of thair wambe. Attoure [Moreover] thay held that thair barnis war dégénérât fra thair nature and kynd, gif thay war nurist with uncouth mylk.2 Harrison omits Boece's claim that where the mother's milk 'fails' ('quhare hir milk failzeit'), the failure signals the mother's adultery. Further, Boece and Bellenden claim, milk from any woman other than the biological mother made the child so nursed 'degenerate from their nature and kind' - that is, wet-nursing made the child nonnatural and from a genealogical or dynastic point of view invalid, a failed heir. However distortedly information about Scottish maternal practice may have descended to Shakespeare and his audiences, Lady Macbeth's claim was at once terrible and unusual. An aristocratic, a royal, woman had 'given suck' and that nurturance would have been foreign to English aristocratic practice and her rejection of the 'babe' repulsive. Considered within the play's arguments over various lineal successions - 'proper' dynastic orderings - Lady Macbeth's vow and threat (1.7.54-9) violate not only a local, 'strange' Scottish practice, but also invalidate possibly royal succession from her body. Her language and that of Boece and Bellenden return the audience to the succession-crises in Act 1, Scenes 3 and 4 , where the political conflicts with the familial and biological. Words and images of birth enter the play's dialogue often, but nowhere so complicatedly as in the choric Act 2 , Scene 4: Thou seest the heavens, as troubled with man's act, Threatens his bloody stage. By th'clock 'tis day And yet dark night strangles the travelling lamp. Is't night's predominance, or the day's shame, That darkness does the face of earth entomb When living light should kiss it? (2.4.5-10) The heavens' 'bloody stage' is, of course, the theatre where we learn of Duncan's murder and the theatre where the murderous battles of Acts 1 and 5 take place, but it is also the 'bloody' moment of birth: 'travelling lamp' (the sun) puns through the Folio's spelling ('trauailing') on 'travailing' (labouring), a word that includes the 1 Scotland, p. 21a; for Shakespeare's knowledge of this Harrison text, see 3.1.91-107n. below. In his dedicatory epistle, Harrison claims (ibid., p. 4) that 'the skilfull are not ignorant' of Hector Boece's Scotorum historiae (1526, 1575), but that Bellenden's Scots translation is known to 'verie few Englishmen . . . bicause we [English readers] want [lack] the books'. 2 John Bellenden, Hystory and Croniklis of Scotland (?i54o), sig. Dir [first sequence] (headed: 'Ane prudent doctryne maid be [by] the auctoure concernyng baith the new maneris and the auld [old] of Scottis'). [39] Introduction 6 A sixteenth-century 'card of the sea' by Sebastào Lopes, c. 1555, showing sea-routes and landmarks for voyages around the Mediterranean: see the First Witch's mention of'th'shipman's card' at 1.3.16. Here, 'Aleppo' (1.3.6) is marked, and a castle at the western end of the Mediterranean, indicating the mapmaker's native land, Portugal 'labour' or 'travail' of giving birth.1 Here, the 'travelling [or 'trauailing', birthing] lamp', the sun (or son), contends with strangling night. Soon, murderous dark kills the light - 'Who did strike out the light?' (3.3.22) - and the witches later invoke a 'birthstrangled babe', a child strangled in labour ('travail') or just after birth.2 In Act 3, Scene 3, Macbeth's hired murderers attack Fleance, a son who may grow up to be the 'sun' to darkened Scotland; so, too, 'dark night' strangles the moving ('travelling') light of the sun, which is also the 'travailing' source, the mother-giving-birth, and son/sun of hope for the future. Prophecy is perhaps the sisters' most significant contribution to the play's intellectual complexity and at the same time one of the play's most memorable theatrical and emotional effects. And the prophecies they offer are not only of future kingship ('All hail Macbeth, that shalt be king hereafter' (1.3.48)), but of secure future kingship: Be bloody, bold, and resolute; laugh to scorn The power of man, for none of woman born Shall harm Macbeth. (4.1.78-80)3 1 See OED Travail v and Travel v. z On the two possibilities, see 4.i.3on. below. 3 Discussing similar political prophecies in 2H6, Jean E. Howard, The Stage and Social Struggle in Early Modern England, 1994, p. 135, appropriately cites Howard Dobin, Merlin's Disciples: Prophecy, Poetry and Macbeth yo] Tragic plots deeply involved with prophecy - the plots of Sophocles' Oedipus Rex or Macbeth, for example - paradoxically confound tragedy and human speculation about the tragic.1 Macbeth himself early and late understands prophetic irony: If chance will have me king, why chance may crown me Without my stir. (1.3.142-3) And be these juggling fiends no more believed That palter with us in a double sense, That keep the word of promise to our ear And break it to our hope . . . (5.8.19-22) To recognise irony is not to escape either irony or the temptations of prophecy, as Macbeth's response to the sisters' display in Act 4, Scene 1, shows: Then live, Macduff, what need I fear of thee? But yet I'll make assurance double sure And take a bond of fate: thou shalt not live, That I may tell pale-hearted fear it lies, And sleep in spite of thunder. (4.1.81-5) Macbeth instantly acts to confirm what he believes needs no confirmation. His planned and accomplished action, the murder of Lady Macduff and her children, makes fatal reality out of his over-confidence and his insecurity. Doubt and deaths are the paradoxical result of prophecy and paltering. Macbeth's perceptions prove otherwise diminished and diminishing. The destructive actions they justify make Macbeth a destructive fool, or a dupe, or the self-aware automaton who says: I am in blood Stepped in so far that should I wade no more, Returning were as tedious as go o'er. (3.4.136-8) and Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow Creeps in this petty pace from day to day To the last syllable of recorded time; And all our yesterdays have lighted fools The way to dusty death. (5.5.18-22) Macbeth's reflections are trapped at the level of human agency. He understands, but understands only, the tactics needed to become king and fulfil what he construes as prophecy. He castigates himself not for seeking the murderous ends he sought but for seeking them in an ineffective way, as he had in lamenting the failure of 'our poor malice' (3.2.14). Power in Renaissance England, 1990; Dobin makes only passing reference to Macbeth. For the numerous and savage Tudor statutes attempting to control political prophecy and specifically prophecies concerning the monarch's death, see John Bellamy, The Tudor Law of Treason: An Introduction, 1979, passim. 1 For the issue in Sophocles' play and a summary of critics' puzzlement, see Richard A. McCabe, Incest, Drama and Nature's Law, 1993, pp. 71 ff.; for a most un-oracular oracle, one suited to romance rather than tragedy, see WT 3.2.132-6. w\ Introduction 7 Michelangelo's drawing of the 'Head of the Cumaean sibyl', depicting a legendary, aged, prophetic woman, was in fact modelled on an old man (see Michael Hirst, Michelangelo Draftsman, 1988, p. 40). Compare Banquo's puzzlement when he meets the bearded, ambiguous sisters at 1.3.43-5 Macbeth [42] Unexpressed in Macbeth's seemingly helpless ironic perceptions is a larger difficulty the prophecies pose - choice, or intended action, and hence responsibility for one's acts. If the prophecies are true before the play begins, or before Macbeth and Banquo hear them, or before Macbeth and Banquo have acted, where is the willed action that allows the audience to discover responsibility and hence to experience guilt? If Macbeth could never act otherwise, could never not choose to murder Duncan, and if, putatively, Banquo could never resist thoughts of usurpation, 'the cursed thoughts that nature / Gives way to in repose' (2.1.8-9), where is the tragedy, the dire consequence of an ignorant or misunderstood act, of these events? If, alternatively, the prophecies only become true when they are enacted by responsible and hence arguably tragic and guilty human agents, how may they be called 'prophecies' at all? From a Christian perspective, the likely perspective of both Shakespeare and most of the original audiences, this conundrum represents 'the great debate of the [European] sixteenth and seventeenth centuries on the freedom of the will being turned into drama', as Helen Gardner remarked in a classic essay.1 According to Gardner, 'It never occurs to us that Macbeth will turn back, or indeed that he can . . . [A]long with this incapacity for change to a better state, or repentance, go two other closely related ideas': The initial act [i.e. the murder of Duncan] is an act against nature, it is a primal sin . . . and its author knows that it. . . [is] so. It is not an act committed by mistake; it is not an error of judgment, it is an error of will. The act is unnatural and so are its results; it deforms the nature which performs it. The second idea is the irony of retributive justice. The act is performed for an imagined good . . . but a rigorous necessity reigns and sees to it that. . . the desire is only granted ironically . . . [because] the desire is for something forbidden by the very nature of man.2 While we should not unthinkingly assent to Gardner's Christian assertion (or assumption) of 'the very nature of man', it seems unquestionable that Macbeth has not, as Gardner says of Marlowe's Dr Faustus, 'escaped the necessity of choice'.3 Questions of the individual's freedom or boundedness in action and questions of the individual's responsibility or submission to some external agent (God, Fate, Necessity) are the basic but not simple questions any prophetic act raises.4 By incorporating 1 Helen Gardner, 'Milton's "Satan" and the theme of damnation in Elizabethan tragedy', in F. P. Wilson (éd.), English Studies 1948, 1948, pp. 46-66; quotation from p. 50 n. 1. 2 Gardner, pp. 48-9. King-Kok Cheung, 'Shakespeare and Kierkegaard: "dread" in Macbeth', SQ_ 35 (1984), 430-9, considers Macbeth's and Lady Macbeth's fascinated compulsion to perform deeds they know are wrong, citing Kierkegaard's 'dread of sin produces sin' (p. 435). Macbeth's purported inability to turn back is one version of the deadly Christian sin of despair; see Bettie Anne Doebler, "Rooted Sorrow": Dying in Early Modern England, 1994, passim, but esp. pp. 173-80. 3 Gardner, 'Milton's "Satan"', p. 53. See Robert N. Watson, The Rest Is Silence: Death as Annihilation in the English Renaissance, 1994, chapter 4, esp. pp. 149 and 152. 4 See Jones, Scenic, p. 206, citing Susanne Langer's distinguished Feeling and Form (1953): 'in the case of Macbeth, at any rate in this first part of the play, the "virtual future" is not only the mode of the dramatic genre to which Macbeth belongs: it is also its subject. The early scenes of Macbeth are "about" the immediate future . . .' Compare G. K. Hunter's excellent discussion of the complex word 'security' (3.5.32) in his edition of the play, pp. 21-3, and the more general issue of whether the sisters act independently or as subordinates to still larger demonic energies. [«] Introduction prophecy in what the First Folio termed a 'Tragédie', Shakespeare, like Sophocles, presents but does not solve ageless human anxieties about how freely we may act in time. These anxieties are especially present for a Christian audience. A great deal of the play's emotional power derives from raising these complex anxieties and denying them resolution. Trying to decide whether the effect is 'tragic' or the play a 'tragedy' is beside the point. The point lies in the effort to resolve those questions, the effort to tame into thought and language what remains wild, inexplicable, compellingly disturbing. Indeed, the play achieves its effects by not solving its questions and by conveying their undecidability through a brutal plot, magnificent language, and above all, the sisters. 'WHAT DO YOU MEAN?': THE LANGUAGES OF MACBETH At least since the Restoration diarist Samuel Pepys recorded attending Macbeth - 'a pretty good play, but admirably acted'1 - on the fifty-ninth anniversary of the Gunpowder Plot, 5 November 1664, and undoubtedly long before that, audiences have enjoyed its theatrical spectacle, its marvels and magic - what Pepys later called 'variety' and 'divertisement'.2 Shakespeare's play has equal pleasures for the listening imagination. Despite the play's exciting linguistic variety, hostile comments from the seventeenth and the twentieth century attack its language. On unknown authority, John Dryden cited Ben Jonson, Shakespeare's greatest rival and (at least by the time he wrote a fine commendatory poem for the 1623 First Folio) eloquent admirer: 'In reading some bombast speeches of Macbeth, which are not to be understood, he [Jonson] used to say that it was horror; and I am much afraid that this is so.'3 Dryden himself asserted: he [Shakespeare] often obscures his meaning by his words, and sometimes makes it unintelligible .. . the fury of his fancy often transported him beyond the bounds of judgement, either in coining of new words and phrases, or racking words which were in use into the violence of a catachresis. 'Tis not that I would explode the use of metaphors from passions . . . but to use 'em at every word, to say nothing without a metaphor, a simile, an image, or description, is I doubt to smell a little too strongly of the buskin.4 1 Robert Latham and William Matthews (eds.), The Diary of Samuel Pepys, 11 vols., 1970-83, v, 314. On this anniversary of the Gunpowder Plot, Pepys almost certainly saw William Davenant's adaptation, quite possibly its première; see Arthur H. Scouten, 'The premiere of Davenant's adaptation of Macbeth'1 in W. R. Elton and William B. Long (eds.), Shakespeare and Dramatic Tradition, 1989, pp. 286-93. 2 Pepys, vu, 423 (28 December 1666), and vm, 7 (7 January 1667); Pepys describes William Davenant's adapted text which indeed contained, as he said, 'variety of dancing and music' (vm, 171; 19 April 1667). 3 John Dryden, 'Defence of the epilogue', in George Watson (éd.), Of Dramatic Poesy and Other Critical Essays, 2 vols., 1962,1, 173. Dryden may be putting words in an elder and deeply respected playwright's mouth here, but 'it was horror' is none the less a peculiar phrase, allowing one to imagine Dryden's 'Jonson' saying that the play's occasional linguistic confusion conveys 'horror' rather than that the play's language is horribly confused. 4 'The grounds of criticism in tragedy', prefixed to Troilus and Cressida (1679), in Watson (éd.), Of Dramatic Poesy, 1, 257. Dryden gives no examples, but Macbeth is full of evocative but logically confusing (and therefore neo-classically offensive) figurative language: 'Was the hope drunk / Wherein you dressed yourself? Hath it slept since? / And wakes it now to look so green and pale / At what it did so freely?' (1.7.35-8), for example. Macbeth U4\ A. C. Bradley, a sympathetic late-Victorian reader of Macbeth, partly agrees: 'The diction has in places a huge and rugged grandeur, which degenerates here and there into tumidity.'1 Almost two-and-a-half centuries after Dryden's death, James Thurber imagined himself marooned in a hotel with reading matter as random and ill-assorted as that found in a dentist's waiting-room. One fellow-resident was stuck with Macbeth, which she found, Thurber says, 'a Murder Mystery'. She especially notes the moment when Macduff describes finding Duncan's body: 'Macduff discovers it,' she said, slipping into the historical present. 'Then he comes running downstairs and shouts, "Confusion has broke open the Lord's anointed temple" and "Sacrilegious murder has made his masterpiece" and on and on like that.' The good lady tapped me on the knee. 'All that stuff was rehearsed,' she said. 'You wouldn't say a lot of stuff like that, offhand, would you - if you had found a body? . . . You wouldn't! Unless you had practiced it in advance. "My God, there's a body in here!" is what an innocent man would say.'2 The lady's complaint echoes Dr Johnson on Milton's Lycidas: 'Where there is leisure for fiction there is little grief.' Here, Thurber's reader concludes, where there is leisure for personification there is little personal feeling. Dryden's possibly fictitious Jonson, and Dryden himself, and Bradley, and Thurber's imaginary reader all hear the play's linguistic, especially metaphorical, volatility, a volatility that sometimes reaches near-incomprehensibility in marvellous but unparaphrasable language: this Duncan Hath borne his faculties so meek, hath been So clear in his great office, that his virtues Will plead like angels, trumpet-tongued against The deep damnation of his taking-off. And pity, like a naked newborn babe Striding the blast, or heaven's chérubin horsed Upon the sightless couriers of the air, Shall blow the horrid deed in every eye, That tears shall drown the wind. (1.7.16-25) Come, seeling night, Scarf up the tender eye of pitiful day And with thy bloody and invisible hand Cancel and tear to pieces that great bond Which keeps me pale. Light thickens, And the crow makes wing to th'rooky wood; Good things of day begin to droop and drowse, Whiles night's black agents to their preys do rouse. (3.2.46-53) Writers bold enough to comment on these speeches have generally admitted both defeat and admiration. Of the first passage, Dr Johnson said, 'the meaning is not very 1 Bradley, p. 265; in a later (p. 310) comparison of Macbeth with Seneca, Bradley describes some of the play's language as 'turgid bombast'. 2 James Thurber, My World-And Welcome To It, 1942, pp. 35-6. George Bernard Shaw achieves a similar effect in a burlesque of Act 1, Scenes 5 and 7, where Lady Macbeth's lines are mostly intact and Macbeth's are modern and colloquial (e.g. 'What the devil is a limbec?'); see Bernard Dukore (éd.), George Bernard Shaw, 'Macbeth Skit', Educational Theatre Journal 19 (1967), 343-8. [45] Introduction clear; I have never found the readers of Shakespeare agreeing about it'.1 The play has language to puzzle not only Johnson, but anyone. Rather than offer yet another interpretation of Macbeth's extraordinary speech on 'pity, like a naked newborn babe', a speech eloquently discussed by Cleanth Brooks and Helen Gardner among many others,2 1 offer a shorter example, equally condensed and equally typical of the play's most complex way with words. When Ross and Angus ceremonially announce that Duncan has granted Macbeth a new title, 'Thane of Cawdor' (1.3.87-105), Macbeth divides into a public man, publicly acknowledging a deliberately public honour - 'Thanks for your pains', 'I thank you, gentlemen' (1.3.116, 128) - and into a musing, reflective mind seeking the links among sudden, new honour and the sisters' earlier predictions: Two truths are told, As happy prologues to the swelling act Of the imperial theme. (1.3.126-8) This small portion of Macbeth's speech shows the way the play's language, or, more precisely, the way this character's language, shifts from one verbal register or matrix to another. One matrix is the language of the theatre: 'prologues' are familiar introductory or explanatory figures who preface an entire play or an 'act' of one; after the prologue, an audience would expect the stage to fill (or 'swell') with other actors representing the persons and enacting the events the prologic character predicted or promised. Another matrix is the language of rhetoric and of music: 'theme' is a speaker's or thinker's subject or topic, or possibly (the meaning is barely established in the late sixteenth century) a recognisable - 'hearable' - set of repeated or varied notes.3 'Two truths', Macbeth says, introduce an extended passage (of thought, argument, music) leading metaphorically to empery or kingship, and the 'imperial theme' turns from static to active, from contemplation to incitement. From mentally debating what it might be like to be king, Macbeth's reflection (or rather the highly compressed language Shakespeare gives the character) now introduces the possibility of acting to achieve kingship.4 A final linguistic matrix arises from the 'swelling' of a pregnant woman's body. Speaking to Banquo - 'Thou shalt get kings, though thou be none' (1.3.65) - the sisters raise the play's most intractable and profound issue, the questions of generation, children, inheritance, the prolonging of a familial line. Their emphasis is almost but not quite unremarked - 'Do you not hope your children shall be kings, 1 On the first speech, see also Cleanth Brooks, The Well Wrought Urn, 1947, pp. 21-46. On the second speech, see William Empson, Seven Types of Ambiguity, 1930, 3rd edn, 1953, pp. 18-20 and 81-2, and R. A. Foakes, 'Poetic language and dramatic significance in Shakespeare', in Philip Edwards et al. (eds.), Shakespeare's Styles, 1980, pp. 79-83. On their Hebridean walking tour, Samuel Johnson had to endure James BoswelPs numerous quotations ofMacbeth; see James Boswell, Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides, ed. Frederick A. Pottle and Charles H. Bennett, 1961, passim, but esp. the entry (29 August 1773) recording their visit to 'Macbeth's Castle'. 2 See Brooks, pp. 21-46, and Helen Gardner, The Business of Criticism, 1959, pp. 52-61. 3 On the musical meaning of 'theme', dated to 1597, see OED Theme 4; the rhetorical meaning (see 1.3.128 n.) is far older. 4 This shift or glide from a more or less abstract and static mental consideration to an active intention occurs often in the play; see, e.g., 1.5.14-23 and n. Macbeth 146} 8 'memory . . . Shall be a fume, and the receipt of reason / A limbeck only' (1.7.65-7). The two limbecks shown here illustrate alchemical distillation in The Works ofGeber (1678), reproducing an image from the Latin edition of 1545. The limbeck on the right is set on a furnace. See Gareth Roberts, The Mirror of Alchemy, 1994 / When those that gave the Thane of Cawdor to me / Promised no less to them?' (1.3.117-19) - but with 'swelling' (of pregnancy or of impregnating penis) this brief passage acknowledges the possibility that the 'imperial' or royal goal might be barren, that the sisters 'Upon my head . . . placed a fruitless crown / And put a barren sceptre in my gripe'(3.1.62-3). In these passages, the play's language moves rapidly among many images and many linguistic possibilities; this shifting brings together the eloquent, the homely, the proverbial, and the brilliantly theatrical helter-skelter. Among many extraordinary verbal effects in Macbeth's reflection upon killing Duncan (i.7.i2ff.), for example, 'waked newborn babe* subtly patterns the sounds of n and of />, making a rhetorical chiasmus of the middle term, 'newborn', where the sounds 'cross' and coexist.1 This later passage, when Macbeth has determined to kill Banquo and Fleance, begins with Macbeth's intimate endearment, 'Be innocent of the knowledge, dearest 1 A similar, more extended antimetabole using d and h appears in 'I will not be afraid of ane / Till .Sirnam Forest come to Dunsinane' (5.3.60-1). Compare the different but similar auditory experience of'bear [bare?] the knife myself (16) and 'borne his faculties' (17). \47\ Introduction chuck, / Till thou applaud the deed' (3.2.45-6). If a 'noble' hero may be so tender amidst the slaughter past and to come, and so bourgeois as to use 'chuck', a 'citizen' term,' then so too the man and child he would kill employ an innocently 'humble' diction: BANQUO How goes the night, boy? FLEANCE The moon is down; I have not heard the clock. BANQUO And she goes down at twelve. FLEANCE I take't, 'tis later, sir. (2.1.1-3) And when Banquo dies, a single pentameter unites a passing comment about the weather with the command for his death: BANQUO It will be rain tonight. FIRST MURDERER Let it come down. (3-3-i8) With little help from the dialogue, the actor playing Lady Macbeth must shift the audience's imagination from plot-orientated fact to gnawing moral self-examination: LADY MACBETH Is Banquo gone from court? SERVANT Ay, madam, but returns again tonight. LADY MACBETH Say to the king, I would attend his leisure For a few words. SERVANT Madam, I will. Exit LADYMACBETH Nought's had, all's spent Where our desire is got without content. 'Tis safer to be that which we destroy Than by destruction dwell in doubtful joy. (3.2.1-7) Almost at once, Lady Macbeth must turn from self-reflection and seek to assuage Macbeth's scorpion-filled mind. Lady Macbeth's couplets (3.2.4-7) have a quasi-proverbial force, and many wellknown lines quote proverbs or have a substratum of proverbial language or thought.2 One proverb, 'Things done cannot be undone', contributes to three strategically placed moments, at the beginning, the middle, and the end of the play: If it were done when 'tis done, then 'twere well It were done quickly. (1.7.1-2) Things without all remedy Should be without regard; what's done, is done. (3.2.11-12)3 Come, come, come, come, give me your hand; what's done cannot be undone. To bed, to bed, to bed. (5-1-57-8) Sedimented, even ossified, commonplaces of wisdom or observation, proverbs and proverbial language make ordinary the play's events and the speakers' reactions while 1 For the social connotations of endearments, see Supplementary Note 3.2.45, p. 243 below. 2 For the first act alone, see the notes to 1.2.67, 1-3-123 and 145, 1.4.11-12, 1.7.44-5. 3 These lines include another proverb: 'Where there is no remedy it is folly to chide.' Macbeth US] simultaneously and starkly showing how far beyond the ordinary, the proverbial, the stony, these events and attitudes are: proverbs toll through important moments in Act 3 - 'Men are but men'; 'Fair face foul heart'; 'And there's an end'; 'Blood will have blood.' The language of Macbeth combines sublime magniloquence - which the neoclassical critics Ben Jonson, Dry den, and Dr Johnson found distasteful - with everyday language that also has great theatrical power. After Duncan's murder is discovered, Macbeth has two speeches that certainly 'say nothing without a metaphor, a simile, an image': Had I but died an hour before this chance, I had lived a blessed time, for from this instant, There's nothing serious in mortality. All is but toys; renown and grace is dead, The wine of life is drawn, and the mere lees Is left this vault to brag of. (2.3.84-9) And then: Who can be wise, amazed, temp'rate, and furious, Loyal and neutral, in a moment? No man. Th'expedition of my violent love Outran the pauser, reason. Here lay Duncan, His silver skin laced with his golden blood And his gashed stabs looked like a breach in nature, For ruin's wasteful entrance. There the murderers, Steeped in the colours of their trade; their daggers Unmannerly breeched with gore. Who could refrain, That had a heart to love and in that heart Courage to make's love known? (2.3.101-11) These speeches mix Macbeth's sorrow, which may be genuine, or partly so, with the lies needed to conceal guilt and win the kingship. In the brief interval between Duncan's murder and its discovery, Shakespeare faced a different dramatic problem. As in the aftermath of the discovery, Macbeth must conceal and deceive, but here - before Duncan's death is known - the problem is more acute because the moment (the porter with a hangover, the impatient noblemen) has a lower emotional temperature. Plainer, everyday language and rhetoric must convey the deceit. Thus, Macbeth's simple answer to Macduff's 'Is the king stirring, worthy thane?' so perfectly mixes deceit and truth that it deserves the gasp the line sometimes earns: 'Not yet' (2.3.38). 'Not yet' means, of course, both 'Duncan has not awakened until now' and 'Duncan will never again stir.' ('Not yet' = 'not so far' and 'no longer'.) The effect is repeated and intensified when Lennox asks, 'Goes the king hence today?', and Macbeth replies, 'He does - he did appoint so.'1 Once again, Macbeth deceives and tells the truth as the witches do. He is the serpent but looks like the flower. The nerve-wrenching sequence concludes with Lennox's grand catalogue 1 'Goes the king hence' is a euphemism for 'Does the king die'; see 1.5.57^ [49\ Introduction of portents, to which Macbeth replies truthfully and laconically, "Twas a rough night' (2-3-53)-1 In the following act, similarly complex verbal simplicity greets the murderers: 'Well then, now have you considered of my speeches?' (3.1.77). Those first three words offer the actor an enormous range of possibilities.2 Are they off-hand conversational filler ('Stand at ease', or 'Please be seated', or 'Listen to me', or 'Thank you for coming'), or the hesitant stutterings of a man ordering death, or the abrupt autocratic directions of a feared tyrant? At Stratford in 1955, Laurence Olivier stood centre-stage . . . The murderers stood down-stage, left and right respectively. Olivier glanced arrogantly from one to the other, crooked the index finger of each hand in terrible invitation and made 'well' into a question. He paused. The murderers looked at one another. The index fingers swept downwards and pointed straight at the floor on each side of him. He said 'then' as a command. They moved slowly towards him like frightened stoats. Almost humorously, but with an edge of impatience, he said 'now', and an act of hypnosis was completed.3 Simple language, particularly euphemistic or indefinite language, continually counterpoints the play's extravagant rhetoric and dense metaphor. Thus, murder appears as 'it' - 'If it were done' (1.7.1), 'so, it will make us mad' (2.2.37), 'Thou canst not say I did it' (3.4.50) - and the grooms' guilt-dispelling drunkenness joins Lady Macbeth's half-manic excitement at committing murder as 'that' - 'That which hath made them drunk, hath made me bold' (2.2.1). Later, death is 'absence' (3.1.135) and 'safe' (3.4.25), and 'sent to peace' (3.2.20), dead. A related linguistic register makes such indefinition a source of comedy: millions of obscene jokes and hundreds of dramatic scenes turn upon double, triple, or uncertain referents for 'it', or 'that', or equally innocuous words and phrases. While Macbeth has few comic moments and its wordplay is more often grim than fanciful, the way language blurs rather than clarifies, confuses rather than makes plain, connects paltering sisters and self-deceiving criminals and jokey Porter. Thus, the Porter's words - 'come in', 'stealing out', 'it' (again), 'lie' (and 'lye'), 'shift' - duplicate, make more intense and trivial and painful, the same linguistic acts when Macbeth and his lady speak them. Appropriately for a play where prophecy and misunderstanding propel the action, paradox, oxymoron, antithesis, and self-contradiction fill the dialogue: One of the play's most haunting and pervasive stylistic characteristics is a speech-rhythm that constantly contracts into self-checking half-rhyming half-lines: a device, surely, that realizes the foreshortening, the terrible presentness which Macbeth forces on himself, an existence without breadth and without perspective.4 Speaking this line, David Garrick 'shew[ed] as much self-condemnation, as much fear of discovery, as much endeavour to conquer inquietude and assume ease, as ever was infused into, or intended for, the character' (Thomas Wilkes, A General View of the Stage, 1759, p. 249). 2 Their punctuation, or editorial repunctuation, is therefore uncertain. 3 Gareth Lloyd Evans, 'Macbeth in the twentieth century', TQ 1, 3 (1971), 39. After Olivier drew the Murderers to him, 'the three figures stood in a black-cloaked huddle, looking as sinister a group as the three Witches of Act 1' (R. A. Foakes (éd.), Macbeth, 1968, p. xxiv). 4 Everett, p. 89. See also Eagleton, William Shakespeare, pp. 2-4; Margaret D. Burrell, ''Macbeth: a study in paradox', Shakespeare jfahrbuch 90 (1954), 167-90; Madeleine Doran, 'The Macbeth music', S.St. 16 (1983), 156. See Textual Analysis, pp. 251-5 below, for the play's half-lines. Macbeth [SO] 9 This fresco of hell imagined as a castle was formerly in the Chapel of the Holy Cross, Stratford-uponAvon. It includes various devils, one of them perhaps a devil 'porter of hell-gate' as at 2.3.1-2. See Glynne Wickham, 'Hell-castle and its door-keeper', in Kenneth Muir and Philip Edwards (eds.), Aspects of 'Macbeth', 1977, pp. 39-45 [y] Introduction Macbeth echoes the 'paltering' sisters - 'Fair is foul, and foul is fair' (1.1.12) - when he observes that the pathetic fallacy has failed: 'So foul and fair a day I have not seen' (1.3.36). It is a stormy yet victorious day, but victory and storm has each its place, its category, and neither can influence or change the other. They coexist, but they do not interpenetrate, and only the musing mind would or could find sunshine and victory appropriate, if unpredictable, companions. By contrast, the words Macbeth unconsciously echoes are not a stable antithesis, a conversational bon mot as his remark is, but rather a worrying, endless, finally 'tedious' (3.4.138) and idiot-like (see 5.5.26) alternation: 'Fair is foul, and foul is fair' (1.1.12). For the witches, distinction exists only in its annihilation by or in alternation with its opposite. Categories - fair, foul - exist, but rather than being defined by difference or opposition, each is the other. Macbeth's speech absorbs the 'sickening see-saw rhythm'1 of witch-language - 'This supernatural soliciting / Cannot be ill, cannot be good' (1.3.129-30) - and he accurately echoes witch-thinking when he claims, 'nothing is, / But what is not' (1.3.140-1), a formulation precisely anticipating the Second Apparition's promise that 'none of woman born / Shall harm Macbeth' (4.1.79-80) and encapsulating at this moment and the later one time, birth, imagination, ambition, and their various defects. The initial paradox (how can one predicate anything of 'nothing'?) is explained by a further paradox (all that is, is not), and both are understood when we recognise that Macbeth speaks of the difference between 'present' conditions and 'imaginings' of the future, though the former are 'fears' and the latter 'horrible'.2 None the less, his phrase denies reality or existence to both that which is and that which is not, to what he fantasises and what he imagines, to killing the king and being the king. In a play where submitting to or commanding time becomes a dominant issue, rhetorical conflict invades even the act of telling the time: echoing Banquo (2.1.1), Macbeth asks, 'What is the night?', and his wife replies, 'Almost at odds with morning, which is which' (3.4.126-7). Struggling with time and its consequences - birth and death, usurpation and punishment - Lord and Lady Macbeth sense time 'at odds' with itself, time now conflicting with time then and time to come. Lady Macbeth's 'which is which' echoes the play's varied use of repetition, ranging from alliteration and assonance to repeated words and phrases, and rhyme.3 Rhymes are the most easily heard and most easily remembered repetitions. They fill the sisters' speeches, which generally use trochaic tetrameter couplets, 'the fairy dialect of English literature', and Macbeth has more scenes that end with one or more couplets than any other Shakespearean play - both a higher proportion of such scenes, and the highest 1 Knights, p. 20. 2 Much later, Lady Macbeth speaks a similarly self-cancelling phrase, "Tis safer to be that which we destroy' (3.2.6). Here, the word 'present', as in 'Present fears', has already been used once of death (1.2.64) an d onc e of the honours Duncan bestows on Macbeth (1.3.53) an d therefore represents both foul and fair. In Poets' Grammar, 1958, pp. 48-57, Francis Berry argues that 'the whole play is Future minded' and that the future indicative, especially associated with Lady Macbeth, 'drives the play', while Macbeth in this speech and elsewhere (e.g. 1.7.1 ff.) employs the future subjunctive. 3 On verbal repetition, see Maynard Mack, Jr, Killing the King, 1973, pp. 160-4, 173—4; Doran, pp. 150-60; G. W. Williams, '"Time for such a word": verbal echoing in Macbeth', S.Sur. $rj (1994), 153- 9- Macbeth [52] 10 'The King' by Hans Holbein the Younger (1538): an image from the 'dance of death', showing Death as a skeleton pouring wine for a king. Compare King Macbeth and Banquo's Ghost in Act 3, Scene 4, and see the Commentary at 3.4.37 SD absolute number of them.1 As well as rhyming, witch-language also alliterates - 'nine times nine . . . peak, and pine' (1.3.21-2) - but so does Macbeth's language: I had else been perfect; Whole as the marble, founded as the rock, As broad and general as the casing air: But now I am cabined, cribbed, confined, bound in To saucy doubts and fears. (3.4.21-5) Beside the alliteration on c ('casing . . . cabined, cribbed, confined') and the abrupt tremor, ck, in 'rock', this passage exemplifies many of the play's more subtle verbal effects: the way 'doubts' echoes the ds of the past participles and the vowels of'bound' and 'founded', for example, or the way the 5-sound runs from 'else' to 'as' to 'casing' to 'saucy' and 'fears'.2 The word 'perfect' repeats more largely in the play and weaves ' See Edwin Guest, A History of English Rhythms, ed. W. W. Skeat, 1882, p. 179, and D. L. Chambers, The Metre of'Macbeth', 1903, pp. 19-23. On the witches' rhythms, see also 3.54n. 2 Alliteration, here in Macbeth's speech and later (5.1) in his wife's, is the verbal equivalent of a human's inability to change or evolve through time; the recurrence to a letter or a sound voices an inability to escape [yj] Introduction solicitation and over-confidence with guilt and death: it begins in Macbeth's 'Stay, you imperfect speakers' (1.3.68), continues in his letter ('the perfectest report' (1.5.2)), reappears in Banquo's death, which will make Macbeth's health 'perfect' (3.1.107) and require 'the perfect spy o'th'time' (3.1.129), and concludes in the Messenger's assurance that he is 'perfect' in Lady Macduff's 'state of honour' (4.2.63).' 'Issue' also occurs frequently in the play. Before Act 5, Scene 4, we have heard it five times, each time with the meaning 'progeny' or 'children'; Siward then uses the word to mean 'result, outcome': 'But certain issue strokes must arbitrate. / Towards which, advance the war' (5.4.20-1). At once, varied meanings - children, the future, a dynasty's existence, the outcome of war against a tyrant - coalesce. Macbeth's fear of the 'unlineal hand' (3.1.64) depriving him of a 'fruitless crown' and Banquo's witchinspired hope of'children [who] shall be kings' (1.3.84) collide in 'issue', a word that now means not only 'children', but also victory or defeat, the result (the 'issue' and outcome) of an Anglo-Scottish war against Macbeth. These rhetorical, sonic, and logical devices spin the mind, whirl it into endless oscillation, but the play, brief and with an angrily forceful plot, also imposes a kind of imagistic claustrophobia. A. C. Bradley identified important features of the play's figurative language: Darkness . . . even . . . blackness, broods over this tragedy .. . it [gives]... the impression of a black night broken by flashes of light and colour, sometimes vivid and even glaring . . . above all, the colour is the colour of blood.2 Yet, like other critics eager to see bipolar oppositions in the play's language and structures, Bradley does not notice how complex the colour-associations are. Macbeth's famous Will all great Neptune's ocean wash this blood Clean from my hand? No: this my hand will rather The multitudinous seas incarnadine, Making the green one red. (2.2.63-6) powerfully puns on 'incarnadine', which means 'make red' and 'make flesh' or 'make flesh-coloured'. For a murderer, his own flesh, or his victim's, might be blood-red, or bloody, whatever the colour of the skin that covered that flesh. No simple code will decipher the play's chromatic figures. Black and darkness may often be evil, white and light good, red bloody, but the white of lily and linen is also cowardly, brightness a singular act - for Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, that act is murder - or move forward in time beyond or after the act. Compare Macbeth's soliloquy, 'Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow . . .' (5.5.18-27). 1 For a discussion of the play's uses of'clear', see Doran, pp. 163-5. 'Present' is another repeated word; see e.g. 1.2.64, I-3-53> I-3-I 36. Jûrgen Schàfer, Shakespeares Stil: Germanisches und Romanisches Vokabular, 1973, Appendix 2, details Shakespeare's characteristic pairing of Germanic and romance synonyms in the play. Among many other significantly repeated words in Macbeth, consider 'strange', used in Macbeth more frequently (sixteen times) than in any other Shakespearean text except The Tempest (eighteen times), and note that both The Tempest and Macbeth are unusually short Shakespearean plays (see pp. 23-4 above) and that the audience might therefore hear the word's repetition with unusual force. Only Measure for Measure (fifteen times), Antony and Cleopatra (fourteen times), and Much Ado About Nothing (eleven times) use 'strange' more frequently than ten times among the First Folio plays. 2 Bradley, pp. 266^-7. Macbeth \54\ Satanic, red the colour of courage and the 'painting' of a drunkard's nose, and dark night the time of restorative sleep.1 Shakespeare often uses repeated (or 'iterative') images and 'image clusters',2 and Macbeth brims with images of light and dark, of contraction and expansion (dwarf and giant, for example), of liquids (water, wine, milk, urine, blood), of horses that throw their riders or eat each other, of birds good and bad (owls, ravens, wrens, sparrows, hawks, eagles, martlets), of clothing (robes, seams, linings, sleeves, breeches), of procreation (children, eggs), and of sounds (knells, crickets, owls, clocks, bells, trumpets, knockings).3 Verbal and non-verbal sounds are especially prominent as fact and image in Act 2, Scene 2, where Macbeth hallucinates, it seems, a voice murdering sleep and Lady Macbeth hears both the sounds of nature (the owl's shriek, the crickets' cry) and her husband's steps as he returns from killing Duncan. The uncanny and indefinite 'voice' Macbeth hears (2.2.38) echoes the 'voice' of the crown Lady Macbeth hears, or says or thinks she hears, in Act 1, Scene 5. Later, with a gallantry both futile and ironic, Macduff tries to shield Lady Macbeth from knowledge of her crime: O gentle lady, 'Tis not for you to hear what I can speak. The repetition in a woman's ear Would murder as it fell. (2.3.76-9) 'Repetition in a woman's ear' murders as it falls again and again in Act 5, Scene 1, when Lady Macbeth repeats the echoing Knock of Act 2, Scene 3, and obsessively repeats words and actions: No more o'that, my lord, no more o'that. . . To bed, to bed; there's knocking at the gate. Come, come, come, come, give me your hand; what's done cannot be undone. To bed, to bed, to bed. (5.1.37-8, 56-8) Sound-as-sound and sound-as-image make a brief moment wonderfully evocative. Macbeth reassures his wife: ere the bat hath flown His cloistered flight, ere to black Hecate's summons The shard-born beetle with his drowsy hums Hath rung night's yawning peal, there shall be done A deed of dreadful note. LADY MACBETH What's to be done? MACBETH Be innocent of the knowledge, dearest chuck, Till thou applaud the deed. (3.2.40-6) 1 Notable productions or adaptations of Macbeth in Africa and elsewhere demonstrate the imagery's malleability; consider e.g. Adrian Stanley's so-called 'Zulu' Macbeth, Glamis («V!) Stadium, 1961, in what was then Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia (see Johannesburg Star, 5 April 1961, and The Sphere, 3 June 1961); The Black Macbeth, London, March 1972; Natal Theatre Workshop's production of Welcome Msomi's UMabatha, Aldwych Theatre, London, April 1972, which was revived at the Civic Theatre, Johannesburg, June 1995 (see Philip Revzin, 'A Zuluized "Macbeth'", The Wall Street Journal, 14 June 1995, p. A16). For U.S. examples, see Ruby Cohn, Modern Shakespeare Offshoots, 1976, pp. 60-73, starting with Orson Welles's 'voodoo' Macbeth (New York, 14 April 1936). 2 See Edward Armstrong, Shakespeare's Imagination, rev. edn, 1963. 3 See, generally, Caroline Spurgeon, Shakespeare's Imagery and What It Tells Us (1935), Wolfgang Clemen, The Development of Shakespeare's Imagery (1951), and M. M. Mahood, Shakespeare's Wordplay (1957). ISS] Introduction 11 Two witches insert a cock and a snake into a cauldron, invoking thunder and rain: an image from Ulric Molitor's De Latniis et phitonicis mulieribus (1489). See 4.1.1-34 Before Lady Macbeth may applaud, before she claps as a theatre audience might (or so Macbeth hopes), at the deaths of Banquo and Fleance, husband, wife, and audience must hear an insect's sleepy humming as the sound of a church bell ringing the death of a day's labour, or the death of a parishioner. Tolling, the bell's open 'mouth' seems a human yawn, but its sound - its 'note' - marks and invites murder, the dreadful deed, the 'dreadful note', and the notably infamous. Hearing another, not metaphorical, bell, Macbeth went to an earlier crime: The bell invites me. Hear it not, Duncan, for it is a knell That summons thee to heaven or to hell. (2.1.62-4) Macbeth [56] The 'knelP returns twice more, tolling for the dead of Scotland, especially Macduff s family and retainers (4.3.172-3), and then for Siward's son (5.9.17). With so much else that has become drained of meaning, sound loses its terror for Macbeth when he nears his end. Senses - taste, hearing, vision - marry in death: I have almost forgot the taste of fears; The time has been, my senses would have cooled To hear a night-shriek and my fell of hair Would at a dismal treatise rouse and stir As life were in't. I have supped full with horrors; Direness familiar to my slaughterous thoughts Cannot once start me. Wherefore was that cry? SEYTON The queen, my lord, is dead. MACBETH She should have died hereafter; There would have been a time for such a word. (5-5-9-1?) Macbeth's last phrase, 'a time for such a word', joins time with language, timing with speech, and directs us to the characters' recurrent failures to synchronise their words with events. There never should have been a 'time' for a word so infective as 'hail' - 'All hail Macbeth, that shalt be king' nor, Macbeth wishes, should there ever have been a time for so profoundly weary a word - 'She should have died' - as 'hereafter'. This moment's 'hereafter' became inevitable once there was a time when Macbeth heard the word first: 'All hail Macbeth, that shalt be king hereafter" (1.3.48; my italics). Macbeth in performance The history of Macbeth performed shows that there are only a few main production decisions. The answers make a performance taxonomy that persists through changes in costume and cast, changes in political and social emphases, changes in ideas of heroism, of the supernatural, and of the relation between women and men, parents and children, humankind and time. Equally, the history of Macbeth on stage shows how difficult theatrical interpretation, like dramatic criticism, has found those decisions. How should the sisters be represented? When did the idea of killing Duncan occur to Macbeth or Lady Macbeth? Which of the two is the stronger, the more resourcefully dedicated to death and supremacy? How should an actor perform what Michael Redgrave called the 'notoriously' difficult part of Macbeth? Redgrave specified the apparent contradiction that Macbeth 'is described as noble and valiant', although 'during the whole play we see him do nothing that is either noble or valiant'.1 Should the audience witness a palpable Ghost of Banquo in Act 3, Scene 4, or should the actor playing Macbeth in sheer imagination create the ghost as he created the dagger in Act 1 Michael Redgrave, 'Shakespeare and the actors', in John Garrett (éd.), Talking of Shakespeare, 1954, p. 138. Compare Bradley, p. 291: 'the first half of Macbeth is greater than the second, and in the first half Lady Macbeth not only appears more than in the second but exerts the ultimate deciding influence on the action'. M Introduction 2, Scene i? How is an actor to perform Macbeth after his long absence between Act 4, Scene 1, and Act 5, Scene 3?1 PERFORMANCE AND ADAPTATION BEFORE 180O Macbeth seems always to have been a popular play on stage and in print. It is one of Shakespeare's most frequently performed plays since 1660 in England and later in other places and has been often revised, reimagined, and adapted to other media (opera, crime and historical novels, popular songs, silent and sound films, television, video, etc.), travestied, burlesqued, used as a starting point for satire, and employed in political cartoons and commercial advertising.2 Although no one can know how Jacobean professionals presented Macbeth (see Appendix 1, pp. 264-7 below), it is one of the handful of Shakespearean plays for which an early eyewitness account survives. Dr Simon Forman - astrologer, quack, accomplice in the poisoning of Sir Thomas Overbury, adviser to the Privy Council during the investigation of the Gunpowder Plot3 - claims he witnessed a Globe performance of Macbeth, most likely in 1611: In Mackbeth at the Glob[e], 1610 [i.e. 1611?], the 20 of Aprill. . . [Saturday], ther was to be observed, firste, howe Mackbeth and Bancko, 2 noble men of Scotland, Ridinge thorowe a wod [wood], the[re] stode before them 3 women feiries or Nimphes, And saluted Mackbeth, sayinge, 3 tyms unto him, haille Mackbeth, king of Codon; for thou shalt be a kinge, but shalt beget No kinges, &c. Then said Bancko, What all to Mackbeth And nothing to me. Yes, said the nimphes, haille to thee Bancko, thou shalt beget kinges, yet be no kinge. And so they departed & cam to the Courte of Scotland to Dunkin king of Scotes, and yt was in the dais of Edward the Confessor. And Dunkin bad them both kindly wellcome, And made Mackbeth forth with Prince of Northumberland, and sent him horn to his own castell, and appointed Mackbeth to provid for him, for he would sup with him the next dai at night, & did soe. And Mackebeth contrived to kill Dunkin, & thorowe the persuasion of his wife did that night Murder the kinge in his own Castell, beinge his guest. And ther were many prodigies seen that night & the dai before. And when Mack Beth had murdred the kinge, the blod on his handes could not be washed of[f] by 1 Commenting on productions since 1955, Michael Billington offers this summary view: 'First, the play cannot work without a magnetic central pair: it is much more a star vehicle than a company show. Second, though it needs a consistent imaginative world, no amount of hectic design can compete with Shakespeare's poetic scene painting. Third[,] it is a play of breathless narrative excitement which appears broken-backed once you slice it in half [by introducing an interval]' (The Guardian, 27 September 1995). 2 See, for example, Arthur Colby Sprague, Shakespeare and the Actors: The Stage Business in His Plays 1660- 1905, 1944, chapter 5; Dennis Bartholomeusz, 'Macbeth' and the Players, 1969; Rosenberg; Bernice Kliman, Shakespeare in Performance: 'Macbeth', 1992; Cohn, chapter 2. There is no narrative history of Macbeth's uses in song, novel, advertisement, etc., but see Thomas Wheeler, 'Macbeth': An Annotated Bibliography, 1990, pp. 897-939. Kenneth S. Rothwell and Annabelle Henkin Melzer, Shakespeare on Screen: An International Filmography and Videography, 1990, pp. 147-71, lists film and video versions of Macbeth, which are second in number only to those of Hamlet. For actors' written discussions of the performed play, see Carol Jones Carlisle, Shakespeare from the Greenroom, 1969, chapter 5. Among many treatments see such novels (historical and mystery or thriller) as Marvin Kaye, Bullets for Macbeth (1976), Nigel Tranter, MacBeth the King (1978), Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (1982), Ngaio Marsh, Light Thickens (1982), Nicolas Freeling, Lady Macbeth (1988), and such plays as Gordon Bottomley, Gruach (1921), Barbara Garson, Mac Bird (1966), Charles Marowitz, A Macbeth (1971), Eugene Ionesco, Macbett (1972), Tom Stoppard, Dogg's Hamlet, Cahoot's Macbeth (1980). 3 See Beatrice White, Cast of Ravens, 1965, passim, and Mark Nicholls, Investigating Gunpowder Plot, 1991, P- 13- Macbeth m Any meanes, nor from his wives handes, which handled the bloddi daggers in hiding them, By which means they became both moch amazed & Affronted. The murder being knowen, Dunkins 2 sonns fled, the on[e] to England, the [other to] Walles, to save them selves, they being fled, they were supposed guilty of the murder of their father, which was nothinge so. Then was Mackbeth crowned kinge, and then he for feare of Banko, his old companion, that he should beget kinges but be no kinge him selfe, he contrived the death of Banko, and caused him to be Murdred on the way as he Rode. The next night, beinge at supper with his noble men whom he had bid to a feaste to the which also Banco should have com, he began to speake of Noble Banco, and to wish that he wer ther. And as he thus did, standing up to drincke a Carouse to him, the ghoste of Banco came and sate down in his cheier behind him. And he turninge About to sit down Again sawe the goste of Banco, which [afjfronted him so, that he fell into a great passion of fear and fury, Utterynge many wordes about his murder, by which, when they h[e]ard that Banco was Murdred they Suspected Mackbet. Then MackDove fled to England to the kinges sonn, And soe they Raised an Army, And cam into Scotland, and at Dunston Anyse overthrue Mackbet. In the meantyme whille Macdovee was in England, Mackbet slewe Mackdoves wife & children, and after in the battelle Mackdove slewe Mackbet. Observe Also howe Mackbetes quen did Rise in the night in her slepe, & walke and talked and confessed all, & the docter noted her wordes.1 Forman's description deviates from the Folio narrative (e.g. Macbeth as 'Prince of Northumberland' rather than Malcolm as Prince of Cumberland; Macbeth as 'king of Codon' rather than Thane of Cawdor; a scene of bloody handwashing after the murder) and records some questionable details - Raphael Holinshed's account of Macbeth's reign (read or remembered) apparently 'contaminates' Forman's diaryentry - but there can be little doubt that Forman saw Macbeth, probably on the day, month, and year (adjusted for an easy error)2 he says he did. Aside from Forman's account and the probable early revision of the play by Thomas Middleton (see Textual Analysis, pp. 255-9 below), evidence of the play's history before 1660 is mostly speculative: John Webster echoes Macbeth 2.2.57-8,4.3.221, and 5.1.37 in The White Devil (c. 1612); ghost-scenes in Thomas Middleton's The Puritan (1607) and Francis Beaumont's The Knight of the Burning Pestle (c. 1608, printed 1613) may record other dramatists' responses to Banquo's Ghost in Macbeth Act 3, Scene 4; the anonymous Thorny Abbey, or The London Maid (c. 1615, first printed in Gratiae Théâtrales, 1662) uses Holinshed's King Duff narrative, probably because Macbeth did; Middleton's A Game at Chess (1624) imitates Macbeth Act 4, Scene 3; Henry Killigrew's The Conspiracy (1635) may imitate the use of the Murderers in 1 Simon Forman, Booke of Plaies (Bodleian Library MS. Ashmole 208, folios 207r-v), as edited in E. K. Chambers, William Shakespeare: A Study of Facts and Problems, 2 vols., 1930,11, 337-8, slightly modernised. A facsimile of Forman's entry appears in S. Schoenbaum, William Shakespeare: Records and Images, 1981, illustration 3. 2 20 April was a Saturday in 1611, not 1610 (as Forman's manuscript has it): the error (if it is one) is plausible because Jacobeans dated the new year in two ways, from 1 January, the modern practice, and from 25 March (the legal year); if Forman thought about years in the latter style, '1611' would have been less than a month old on 20 April, and he might have made what is still a common mistake after the 'new' year begins. Forman's probable borrowings from Holinshed are discussed by Leah Scragg, 'Macbeth on horseback', S.Sur. 26 (1973), 81-8, and the critical significance of Forman's 'errors' by Stephen Orgel, 'Acting scripts, performing texts', in Randall McLeod (éd.), Crisis in Editing: Texts of the English Renaissance, 1994, pp. 268-72. \S9l Introduction 12 The Great Seal of King James I, from Francis Sandford, A Genealogical History of the Kings of England (1677), p. 514: the seal illustrates James I's ceremonial accoutrements: sceptre, ball, mound. See 4.1.120 and Supplementary Note, pp. 243-4 below. Sandford describes the 'Sceptre of the Flower-deLize . . . and .. . the Ball or Mound with a Cross on the top thereof in his History, p. 519 Macbeth.1 The possible 'echo' in The Knight of the Burning Pestle is particularly interesting because Jasper's entrance as a fake ghost may suggest how Richard Burbage, the actor who probably first played Macbeth (see Appendix 1, p. 264 below), 1 For the Webster echoes, see the respective Commentary notes; the Puritan 'reference' - 'weele ha the ghost ith white sheete sit at upper end a'th Table' (The Puritan, 1607, sig. HIV) - has been firmly disputed in R. V. Holdsworth, 'Macbeth and The Puritan', N&Q_2T,s (1990), 204-5, because similar material in other texts by Thomas Middleton seems to 'explain' the incident better than an allusion to Macbeth; for Thorny Abbey, see William M. Baillie (éd.), A Choice Ternary of English Plays, 1984, pp. 26-30 (date), 33 - 6 (links with Macbeth), 270-5 (Holinshed in Macbeth and Thorny Abbey); for A Game at Chess, see R. C. Bald's edn, 1929, p. 16, and Margot Heinemann, Puritanism and Theatre, 1980, p. 164; for Killigrew, The Conspiracy, see Martin Wiggins, Journeymen in Murder: The Assassin in English Renaissance Drama, 1991, p. 202. Macbeth [60] or another early actor of the part reacted to Banquo's Ghost, or how an early audience expected an actor to react upon seeing a stage-ghost: When thou art at thy Table with thy friends Merry in heart, and fild with swelling wine, Il'e come in midst of all thy pride and mirth, Invisible to all men but thy selfe, And whisper such a sad tale in thine eare, Shall make thee let the Cuppe fall from thy hand, And stand as mute and pale as Death it selfe.1 About 1639-42, John Milton jotted notes on subjects for plays or poems, including - after a detailed outline of'Adam unparadiz'd' - 'Scotch [histories or rather brittish of the north parts'. Among his proposed subjects were: Duffe, & Donwald a strange story of [deleted: revenging] witchcraft, & murder discover'd, & reveng'd. Scotch [hi]story. 149. &c. Kenneth who having privily poison'd Malcolm Duffe, that his own son might succeed is slain by Fenela. Scotch hist[ory]. p. 157. 158. &c. Macbeth beginning at the arrivall of Malcolm at Mackduffe. The matter of Duncan may be express't by the appearing of his ghost.2 Milton's numerals refer to pages in Holinshed's Chronicles (1587), and Milton's subjects include the three Holinshed-narratives Shakespeare apparently consulted in writing Macbeth. The note on 'Macbeth' envisages a Greek-derived tragedy, like Milton's Samson Agonistes, in which the action would begin with Macbeth Act 4, Scene 3, and use Duncan's ghost as a narrator of prior events.3 While these notes do not mention Shakespeare's Macbeth, Milton could certainly have known the performed and printed play; he wrote a splendid commendatory poem for the Second Folio (1632), and in his Poems (1645) famously described 'the well-trod stage' where 'sweetest Shakespear fancies childe / Warble[s] his native Wood-notes wilde' ('L'Allegro', lines 131 and 133-4). Milton's knowledge of both Shakespeare performed and the theatre may have been direct: his father (also John Milton) apparently served as a trustee of the King's Men's Blackfriars theatre property for Richard Burbage's widow Winifred and her children after the famous actor's death in 161 g.4 From the period of Milton, two important promptbooks of Macbeth have been identified: the 'Padua' promptbook of c. 1625-35 (a copy of the 1623 Folio named for 1 The Knight of the Burning Pestle, 1613, sig. r$r, slightly modernised. 2 John Milton Poems: Reproduced in Facsimile from the Manuscript in Trinity College, Cambridge, 1972, p. 41. See e.g. 'Milton's "Macbeth'", in John W. Hales, Folia Litteraria, 1893, pp. 198-219; E. E. Kellett, 'Macbeth and Satan', London Quarterly and Holborn Review,]u\y 1939, pp. 289-99; W. R. Parker, Milton: A Biography, 2 vols., 1968, 1, 190-1, and n, 843 n. 15. 3 Hales, Folia Litteraria, pp. 211-12, infers from Milton's separate notes on 'Duffe & Donwald' that Milton would not have combined that story with Macbeth's as Shakespeare did. 4 See Herbert Berry, 'The stage and boxes at Blackfriars' (1966), rpt. in Berry, Shakespeare's Playhouses, 1987, pp. 70-1. [6i] Introduction its present custodian, the University of Padua library) and the 'Smock Alley' promptbook of c. 1674-82 (a copy of the 1663-4 Folio named for the Dublin theatre in which it was performed).1 Although the Padua promptbook may not report the earliest public theatre-practices, it fascinatingly records a performance text predating those that the Restoration's very different cultural and professional circumstances created. Remarkably, the Padua promptbook anticipates later acting texts by reducing the Folio's verbal density: the 'hard' language of Macbeth's speeches in Act 1, Scenes 3 and 7, is trimmed; the Porter's part is cut entirely, as is Macbeth's interview with the murderers in Act 3, Scene 1; in Act 4, Scene 2, Ross loses his most impenetrable language (from 'I dare not speak' to 'Each way and none'); Macbeth's powerful soliloquy (Act 5, Scene 3) on 'the sere, the yellow leaf is cut; the other three Witches of Act 4, Scene 1, disappear, though Hecate may remain. Political or religious concerns may have motivated some of these and other cuts: Macbeth's soliloquy on royal pathos ('To be thus is nothing . . .') in Act 3, Scene 1, is harshly treated, and his now celebrated soliloquy, 'I have lived long enough . . .' (5.3.22 ff.), implying a desire for death, may have been cut for the same reason; concerns about blasphemy, profanity or simply 'inappropriate' comedy might account for the Porter's disappearance here as they seem to do in later theatrical versions. Padua also makes more obviously practical (and later very popular) cuts: Act 3, Scene 6, is deleted, for instance, and Act 4, Scene 3, loses more than sixty lines, though part of the English Doctor episode remains. The Padua promptbook is also the first known document to specify a 'Cauldrone' in the opening stage direction for Act 4, Scene 1, and interestingly directs Macbeth to enter before the last line of Lady Macbeth's opening speech of Act 2, Scene 2, 'Whether they [the comatose grooms] live or die'.2 The Smock Alley promptbook has been influenced by William Davenant's Restoration adaptation, possibly as seen in the theatre rather than read in the 1674 text. Like Davenant, the persons who marked the Dublin promptbook reduced the Jacobean text's verbal complexity, cut or combined several of Shakespeare's thanes and messengers, and severely reduced the Porter's rôle, but allowed Lady Macbeth to appear in Act 2, Scene 3, as many later theatre texts did not. The adapters 'Clearly . . . have one aim in mind: entertainment at any cost'.3 The quarto Macbeth published in 1673 may represent a revised version performed before the theatres were closed in 1642 or just after professional playing legally resumed about 1660. William Davenant's adaptation, published posthumously in 1 See G. Blakemore Evans (éd.), Shakespearean Prompt-Books of the Seventeenth Century, 7 vols., 1960-89, 1, i (General Introduction, Introduction to Padua Macbeth, collations), 1, ii (facsimile of Padua Macbeth), and v, i (Introduction and collations to Smock Alley Macbeth) and v, ii (facsimile of Smock Alley Macbeth). My discussion depends upon Evans's superb work. Evans has also identified a 1694 version of Macbeth, based on F2 and probably prepared for amateur performance at an English Roman Catholic foundation in France; see G. Blakemore Evans, 'The Douai Manuscript - six Shakespearean transcripts (1694-95)', PQ.V (1962), 158-72, esp. pp. 171-2. 2 For a more comprehensive discussion of 'Padua', its cuts, and their significance, see Orgel, 'Acting scripts', pp. 255-8. 3 Evans, Shakespearean Prompt-Books, v, i, p. 19; for further details of the Smock Alley changes, see Evans passim. Macbeth [62] 1674, but probably performed in 'December 1666 or . . . [in] November 1664',' supplanted the Folio version until 1744, when David Garrick offered London audiences a text closer to the Folio.2 Thereafter, Davenant's version gave way slowly (Spranger Barry used it at Covent Garden in the 1750s, for example), and some of Davenant's lines and stage business have persisted into twentieth-century productions.3 Colley Cibber, who knew only Davenant's adaptation on stage, thought that Mrs Betterton, 'tho' far advanc'd in Years', outstripped her younger competitor Mrs Barry - superior in 'Strength, and Melody of Voice' - because Mrs Betterton commanded 'quick and careless Strokes of Terror, from the Disorder of a guilty Mind'.4 Samuel Pepys, also knowing only Davenant's adapted spectacle, identified a singular oddity: the play 'appears a most excellent play in all respects, but especially in divertisement, though it be a deep tragedy; which is a strange perfection in a tragedy, it being most proper here and suitable'.5 An anonymous pamphlet, An Essay on Acting. . . of a certain fashionable faulty actor. . . [with] A short criticism on his acting of Macbeth (1744), apparently David Garrick's effort to promote his own first appearance in the part (7 January 1744),6 satirises the acting tradition as Garrick found it. Garrick's contemporary rival was James Quin, and the pamphlet attacks Quin's Macbeth - a 'Man . . . out of his Depth' - in Act 2, Scene 2, by pretending to criticise Garrick's performance: he [the actor playing Macbeth] should not rivet his Eyes to an imaginary Object [the dagger], as if it really was there, but should shew an unsettled Motion in his Eye, like one not quite awak'd from some disordering Dream; his Hands and Fingers should not be immoveable, but restless . .. Come let me clutch theel is not to be done by one Motion only, but by several successive Catches at it, first with one Hand, and then with the other, preserving the same Motion, at the same Time, with his Feet, like a Man, who out of his Depth, and half drowned in his Struggles, catches at Air for Substance: This would make the Spectator's Blood run cold, and he would almost feel the Agonies of the Murderer himself.7 Whatever any spectator felt then, my blood runs as cold as Quin's must have done at this savaging of a style now found over-declamatory and over-acted. Garrick's own performance of the dagger soliloquy - when he 'rivet[ed] his Eyes to an imaginary 1 See Scouten, 'The premiere of Davenant's adaptation of Macbeth', pp. 290-1, though Q1673 is not quite 'Shakespeare's play' (Scouten, p. 290), since it makes some 'editorial' changes and includes two additional witch song-routines; see Appendix 2, pp. 268-70 below. Some of Davenant's changes are discussed in Appendix 2, but they are too extensive and interesting for easy summary; see, in part, Hazelton Spencer, 'D'Avenant's Macbeth and Shakespeare's', PMLA 40 (1925), 619-44, esP- PP- 628-41, and Richard Kroll, 'Emblem and empiricism in Davenant's Macbeth', ELH 57 (1990), 835-64. 2 By G. W. Stone's counts, Folio Macbeth has approximately 2341 lines, Davenant's version 2198, Garrick's 2072; see George Winchester Stone, Jr, 'Garrick's handling of Macbeth, SP 38 (1941), 609-28, esp. 621. For a slightly different count, see p. 23 above. 3 Bartholomeusz, p. 94; Burnim, David Garrick, p. no; Rosenberg, pp. 111-12. As late as W. C. Macready's farewell Macbeth in 1851, for example, all of Qi673's and Davenant's witch-song and witchspectacle still appeared; see Alan S. Downer, The Eminent Tragedian: William Charles Macready, 1966, pp. 318-38. 4 Colley Cibber, An Apology for the Life of Mr Colley Cibber, Comedian, 1740, p. 96. 5 Pepys, vin, 7 (7 January 1667). 6 For the attribution to Garrick, see Davies, Life, 1, 163-4. 7 [David Garrick?] An Essay on Acting, 1744, sigs. Dir-v. [6j] Introduction Object, as if it really was there' - became a kind of hallmark and travelling party-piece which received extravagant praise.1 Satire obscures Garrick's complaints, but he apparently attacks a traditional piece of business when he pretends to praise the way Macbeth first toasts the absent Banquo and then recognises the Ghost: the Glass of Wine in his Hand should not be dash'd upon the Ground, but it should fall gently from him, and he should not discover the least Consciousness of having such a Vehicle in his Hand, his Memory being quite lost in the present Guilt and Horror of his Imagination.2 This passage seemingly means that Garrick found Quin's nerveless 'Horror' inappropriate and preferred a violent dashing of the glass. Later anecdote records Quin's reactions to his young rival's performance, including surprise at the 'new' (actually Shakespearean and newly restored) imprecation, 'The devil damn thee black, thou cream-faced loon. / Where got'st thou that goose-look?' (5.3.11-12).3 Through superb talent, assiduous amateur scholarship, and adroit self-promotion, Garrick made himself a star not only in the theatre but among an Enlightenment constellation - Samuel Johnson, David Hume, Joshua Reynolds - that equalled any in the continental European galaxy. One contemporary is wholly adulatory and, significantly, praises Garrick's performance of the later acts: Garrick could alone comprehend and execute the complicated passages of Macbeth. From the first scene, in which he was accosted by the witches to the end of the part, he was animated and consistent.4 While Garrick's Macbeth exploited the best contemporary scholarship (that of Theobald, Johnson, Warburton, and Styan Thirlby),5 his text also made many of the same cuts as Davenant and included a good deal of Davenant's supposedly unacceptable writing.6 Davenant had Macbeth die on-stage with a single line, 'Farewell vain 1 On Garrick's second Parisian visit in July 1765, 'en chambre, dans son habit ordinaire, sans aucun secours de l'illusion théâtrale', Garrick delivered the speech to a rapt audience; see F. A. Hedgcock, Un Acteur cosmopolite: David Garrick et ses amis français, 1911, p. 25. On the same tour, Charles Collé's diary records another semi-private performance of the dagger-scene as 'une espèce de pantomime tragique' (Hedgcock, p. 65). Such recital-demonstrations, including scores of dagger-scenes where Garrick's powers before a non-English-speaking audience were especially praised, became common during his continental visits; see Hedgcock, pp. 115-19, for France, and Thomas Davies, Dramatic Micellanies [sic], 3 vols., 1783-4,11,141, for Italy. 2 An Essay on Acting, sig. D3r. The 'business' Garrick attacks may be Jacobean; see the quotation from Knight of the Burning Pestle, p. 60 above. 3 'And when he [Quin] heard Garrick declaiming: "The devil damn . . . that goose-look?" he asked him where he had found such strange language' (Percy Fitzgerald, A New History of the English Stage, 2 vols., 1882, 11, 162). Garrick's promptbook omits the oath, though it keeps the 'undignified' goose-reference (Bartholomeusz, p. 74). 4 Davies, Micellanies, 11, 133-4; eve n more fulsome descriptions appear in a work dedicated to Garrick: [Francis Gentleman,] The Dramatic Censor, 2 vols., 1770,1, 107-8. 5 See Stone, pp. 615-17, and Bartholomeusz, p. 46. What most scholars consider Garrick's 'promptbook', a marked copy of Macbeth in Bell's Edition of Shakespeare's Plays, 9 vols. (1773-4),l (I 773)» is no w m tn e Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington, D.C. (Burnim, p. 108). 6 Like Davenant, Garrick omitted the Porter of Macbeth 2.3, most of 4.2 (Lady Macduff and her son), most of Malcolm's self-accusation in 4.3, and 5.2; see Stone; Burnim, chap. 6, esp. p. 104; Bartholomeusz, chap. 4. Garrick also retained many of Davenant's genteelisms - e.g. replacing 'stool' (3.4.68) with 'chair', a change that remained in Macready's text (Downer, p. 332). Macbeth [64] World, and what's most vain in it, Ambition*, which Garrick replaced with his own execrable pastiche - a blend of Dryden and Marlowe: 'Tis done! the scene of life will quickly close. Ambition's vain, delusive dreams are fled, And now I wake to darkness, guilt and horror; I cannot bear it! let me shake it off- 'Two' not be; my soul is clogg'd with blood - I cannot rise! I dare not ask for mercy - It is too late, hell drags me down; I sink, I sink - Oh! - my soul is lost for ever! Oh!1 David Garrick's performances as Macbeth were supported by those of Hannah Pritchard as Lady Macbeth - he effectively abandoned the rôle after her retirement - and he remains perhaps the only English actor to have conquered the part (see illustration 13). Almost two centuries later, a distinguished critic succinctly praised and faulted Laurence Olivier by comparing him to Garrick: 'Since it would seem that with the exception of Garrick a great Macbeth has never been in the calendar, it is reasonable to expect that the new one should be lacking in perfect adequacy.'2 John Philip Kemble, eighteenth-century London's other memorable Macbeth, was, like Garrick, a distinguished actor-manager; like Garrick, Kemble rejoiced in a superb Lady Macbeth (Sarah Siddons, his sister); like Garrick, Kemble cultivated a reputation as a scholarly exponent of the 'true', as opposed to the adapted or revised, Shakespearean text. Contemporary accounts and Kemble's promptbook show that his performances, also like Garrick's, kept much of Davenant's adaptation and even further reduced the material which neo-classical taste found unacceptable. Kemble's performances also increased the spectacle: though Shakespeare's three witches were treated fairly seriously, Kemble deployed a chorus of fifty or more singing, dancing, comic witches from at least 1794 onward.3 Lady Macduff and her son vanish, and their deaths are reported only; the Porter is omitted. And, continuing long theatrical practice, the dialogue's coruscating metaphor is reduced yet further.4 Kemble was 'An actor whose style combined an unswerving, even regularity with occasional outbursts of great emotion'; his manner and physique made him an exceptional Coriolanus but a less exceptional Macbeth. Since, however, he 'specialized in 1 Bell's Edition of Shakespeare's Plays, 1, Macbeth pagination sequence, p. 69. 2 James Agate, reviewing Michel Saint-Denis's Old Vic production, 26 November 1937; see Agate, Brief Chronicles, 1943, p. 241. 3 See Joseph W. Donohue, Jr, 'Kemble's production of Macbeth (1794): some notes on scene painters, scenery, special effects, and costumes', ThN 21 (1966-7), 69, and J. C. Trewin, 'Macbeth in the nineteenth century', TQ_ 1, 3 (1971), 28. 4 Kemble cut 'in 1, 7 five lines developing the metaphor of "pity, like a naked new-born babe"; in 11, 2 five lines around the metaphor of "Sleep that knits up the raveled sleave of care'; in m, 1 seventeen lines of the comparison of men to dogs; in rv, 2 nine lines of meteorological violence culminating in "nature's germens tumble all together" . . .' (Charles H. Shattuck (éd.), John Philip Kemble Promptbooks, 11 vols., 1974, v, Macbeth promptbook, p. ii). Siddons's misquotations in her 'Remarks on the character of Lady Macbeth', in Thomas Campbell, Life of Mrs Siddons, 2 vols., 1834, 11, 10-34 _ e-g- 'I would scorn' for 'I shame' (2.2.67) _ probably reflect the text she performed rather than a poor memory. [65] Introduction 13 Henry Fuseli's representation, c. 1766, of David Garrick as Macbeth entering to Hannah Pritchard as Lady Macbeth after the murder of King Duncan, Act 2, Scene 2. For a discussion of this watercolour and another contemporary painting of the same performers, see Stephen Leo Carr, 'Verbal-visual relationships: Zoffany's and Fùseli's illustrations of Macbeth', Art History 3 (1980), 375-85 the subjective presentation of excited mental states in characters whose grip on exterior reality was at best tenuous',1 his Macbeth complemented Sarah Siddons's famous Lady Macbeth: Macbeth in Kemble's hand is only a co-operating part. I can conceive Garrick to have sunk Lady Macbeth as much as Mrs Siddons does Macbeth, yet when you see Mrs Siddons play this part you scarcely can believe that any acting could make her part subordinate . . . She turns Macbeth to her purpose, makes him her mere instrument, guides, directs, and inspires the whole plot. Like Macbeth's evil genius she hurries him on in the mad career of ambition and cruelty from which his nature would have shrunk.2 1 Joseph Donohue, 'Macbeth in the eighteenth century', in TQ, 1, 3 (1971), 23; for an extended analysis of Kemble's performance, see Donohue, 'Kemble and Mrs Siddons in Macbeth: the Romantic approach to tragic character', ThN 22 (1967-8), 65-86, and Donohue, Dramatic Character in the English Romantic Age, 1970, pp. 253-69. 2 H. C. Fleeming Jenkin, 'Mrs Siddons as Lady Macbeth. From contemporary notes by George Joseph Bell', The Nineteenth Century 3 (1878), 296-313, on Siddons's performance in Edinburgh c. 1809, as reprinted in Jenkin, Papers on Acting, m (1915), 25-68; quotation from pp. 35-6. Decades later, the 'evil genius' interpretation prevailed in a discussion of Henry Irving's Macbeth; see the anonymous pamphlet, Sheridan Knowles' Conception and Mr Irving's Performance of Macbeth, 1876, p. 19. Macbeth [66] The actor who - quite contrary to Garrick's lunging astonishment - greeted the sisters in Act i, Scene 3, 'with marked inattention and indifference .. . in a stately posture, waving the hand with studied dignity', became at the end of Act 1, Scene 5, a much subdued figure, with Siddons's Lady Macbeth 'Leading him out, cajoling him, her hand on his shoulder clapping him'.1 Returning with the bloody daggers and uncertain of the Lady's whereabouts, Kemble's Macbeth spoke the lines from 'Didst thou not hear a noise?' (2.2.14) 'like a horrid secret - a whisper in the dark' and at the end of the scene stood 'motionless .. . his eye fixed . . . quite rooted to the spot', and Siddons's Lady Macbeth repeats some of the action from Act 1, Scene 5: Then alarm steals on her, increasing to agony lest his reason be quite gone and discovery be inevitable. Strikes him on the shoulder, pulls him from his fixed posture, forces him away, he talking as he goes.2 Sarah Siddons's Lady Macbeth overshadowed her brother's Macbeth,3 though the turning-point in the characters' relative 'strength' occurred, in their performances as in so many others, during the banquet scene (Act 3, Scene 4). More than 150 years later, Edith Evans commented on Lady Macbeth's 'usually inexplicable collapse' in Act 3, Scene 4 (or somewhere unseen by the audience between that scene and Act 5, Scene 1), and explained why she had never taken the part: 'there's a page missing' - that is, Shakespeare did not supply the character with a bridge or motivation for the change.4 Kemble - repeating Garrick's business - violently threw his cup of wine when the Ghost first appears; one commentator sarcastically demanded a return to Quin's 'Horror of his Imagination'.5 On the Ghost's second appearance, Garrick's 1 A. B. G. [i.e. Augustus Bozzi Granville?], Critical Observations on Mr Kemble's Performances at the Theatre Royal Liverpool, 1811, p. 22, and G. J. Bell in Jenkin, p. 44 n. 19. For Garrick's reaction, see Bartholomeusz, p. 41. Nearly a century later, Ellen Terry repeated the gesture to her Macbeth, Henry Irving; see Alan Hughes, Henry Irving, Shakespearean, 1981, p. 100. 2 G. J. Bell in Jenkin, pp. 56-7 n. 44. Going to replace the daggers in Duncan's chamber, Mrs Siddons 'turn[ed] towards him [Macbeth] stooping, and with the finger pointed to him with malignant energy sa[id] "If he do bleed," etc' (Bell in Jenkin, p. 55 n. 43). Nearly two centuries later (1955), Vivien Leigh's Lady 'push[ed]' her Lord off-stage here (see Michael Mullin (éd.), Macbeth Onstage: An Annotated Facsimile of Glen Byam Shaw's 7955 Promptbook, 1976, p. 91). 3 Many observers commented on what one called Kemble's 'calm, slow, phlegmatic enunciation, oftentimes carried to affectation' and did not enjoy the way he spoke Macbeth's soliloquy opening Act 1, Scene 7: iike a speech to be recited' and 'the sedate, determined reasoning of a cool logician .. . the serene and calm reflection of a metaphysical speculator'. See, respectively, for the first and third quotations, A. B. G., Critical Observations, pp. 21 and 24, and for the second, G. J. Bell in Jenkin, p. 45. The same criticism was made much later of Henry Irving's delivery of this soliloquy as 'calm, cold, over-logical. . . passionless' {Sheridan Knowles' Conception, p. 13). 4 Edith Evans, quoted in Jack Tinker's review of the Dench-McKellen Macbeth, Daily Mail, 10 September 1976; Tinker continues: 'Miss Dench . . . lets us read that missing page. First, by exerting a powerful sexual sway over her husband . . . Then, finding her support brusquely rejected once he has come to power, she is a shattered ghost by the time she has to officiate at the otherwise ghostless feast.' The Edith Evans anecdote may well be apocryphal: another 'nice story' attributes her refusal to play Lady Macbeth to 'the lady's "lack of hospitality"' (Janet Suzman in Carole Woddis (éd.), 'Sheer Bloody Magic': Conversations with Actresses, 1991, p. 105). For other twentieth-century testimony here, see Maxine Audley (Lady Macduff, Stratford, 1955), p. 81 below. 5 A. B. G., Critical Observations, p. 25. Macready simply put his beaker down (Downer, p. 331). [67] Introduction practice seems to have been undecided, sometimes horrified and immobile, sometimes vigorously forcing the Ghost off-stage.1 The moment raises two further questions: does the audience see the Ghost? and how does Lady Macbeth respond to the Ghost? Literary and theatrical critics made the first choice turn on some over-realistic questions: if the Ghost of Act 3, Scene 4, is visible to Macbeth and the audience but not to the guests or to Lady Macbeth, then (critics agree) our awareness associates us with guilty Macbeth. Shakespeare was not so logically scrupulous. Both Banquo and Macbeth see the witches in Act 1, Scene 3, and the Folio text clearly expects the audience to see the witches in Act 3, Scene 5, and Act 4, Scene 1, though in the last case, Lennox has witnessed neither witches nor apparitions. If we believe Simon Forman's Jacobean account, the Ghost seems to have been visible from the earliest performances, but when Kemble reopened Drury Lane on 21 April 1794 with the young Edmund Kean, according to legend, as one of the many goblins, Kemble omitted a visible Ghost of Banquo and thus initiated a long theatrical and critical debate.2 Kemble 'chid and scolded' the Ghost, imagined or not, 'and rose in vehemence and courage as he went on', but Mrs Siddons, defying contemporary critics - who generally maintained that Lady Macbeth does not here know of Banquo's death and supposes Macbeth is reliving the murder of Duncan - 'imagined that the last appearance of Banquo's ghost became no less visible to her [Lady Macbeth's] eyes than it became to those of her husband'.3 Once the Ghost (invisible to the audience) is driven off and the guests are chaotically dismissed, Mrs Siddons's Lady Macbeth was 'Very sorrowful. Quite exhausted'. Kemble exited strongly, leaving her to follow.4 LATER STAGINGS AND VERSIONS The theatrical and critical history of Macbeth often reflects changing social attitudes towards women and towards the relations between women and men.s Even after David 1 See Bartholomeusz, pp. 67-8. 2 For the possibility that Kemble was the first producer to omit the visible ghost, and for Kean as 'goblin', see William Winter, Shakespeare on the Stage, series 1, 1911, pp. 461 and 466, respectively. For Banquo's Ghost, see Mrs Siddons's account in Campbell, Life, 11, 185-7. Kemble 'restored it [the Ghost] only some years later' (Donohue, 'Kemble and Mrs Siddons in Macbeth'1 , p. 82); the Ghost does not enter in the late Siddons promptbook (Mrs Inchbald's British Theatre, 1808, vol. 4, p. 44; compare Bell in Jenkin, p. 35) until about 3.4.88, but the Ghost's two entrances (3.4.37 SD and 3.4.88 SD) had been fully restored by 1811 (Donohue, Dramatic Character, p. 265 n. 59). So far as I can find, the experiment of omitting a visible ghost was next tried in a Drury Lane (London) revival, 2 December 1876, when Joseph Knight {Theatrical Notes, 1893, p. 162) objected to it, although Irving used some sort of optical illusion in 1875, later replaced with a physical actor (Hughes, Irving, p. 107), and still later replaced with another illusion (see p. 78 below). 3 See, respectively, G. J. Bell in Jenkin, p. 63, and Siddons, 'Remarks', in Campbell, Life, 11, 30. Siddons prefaces her conclusion: 'it is not possible that she [Lady Macbeth] should hear all these ambiguous hints about Banquo [in Act 3, Scene 2] without being too well aware that a sudden, lamentable fate awaits him'. On whose ghost the on-stage audience imagines, see also Robert F. Willson, Jr, 'Macbeth the player king: the banquet scene as frustrated play within the play', Shakespeare Jfahrbuch (Weimar), 114 (1978), 107-14. At Stratford in 1955, the Ghost exited (at 3.4.71) by walking between Lord and Lady Macbeth, thereby demonstrating that it is invisible to her; see Macbeth Onstage, p. 147. 4 See Bell in Jenkin, p. 65, and Donohue, 'Kemble and Mrs Siddons in Macbeth', p. 84. W. C. Macready used the same business (Downer, p. 333). 5 On this approach to theatre history, see: 'to recognise the limited and culturally bound character of the Macbeth [68] Garrick removed from the staged play some of Davenant's crowd-pleasing witchbusiness - they sang, they danced, they flew - the witches were still (in 1833) treated primarily as comic rather than as threatening, ominous, or indefinably evil: It has been always customary, - heaven only knows why, - to make low comedians act the witches, and to dress them like old fishwomen . . . with as due a proportion of petticoats as any woman, letting alone witch, might desire, jocose red faces, peaked hats, and broomsticks.1 If theatrical or cultural conceptions or prejudices stipulate witches who do not somehow radiate danger or threaten evil, productions will stress Lady Macbeth as instigator or promoter of regicide and violence. Alternatively, the less comical the witches, the more they appear causative. And the more they seem to be causative agents, the more they will be associated with, or represented as, demonic women.2 For more than 150 years after the Restoration, performances usually represented Lady Macbeth as a 'bloody-minded virago' or 'female fiend', driving her heroic, noble husband - 'even the dupe of his uxoriousness' - to more and more violent acts.3 Hannah Pritchard and Sarah Siddons adopted this characterisation, or so those who saw them thought, though in retirement Mrs Siddons described the character quite differently.4 The necessarily twinned possibilities that Lady Macbeth might be a tender, companionate wife, eager to advance her husband's career and to please him, and that Macbeth himself is not an heroic dupe and/or a superstitious warrior but the main, controlling criminal, arose in the aftermath of the long-dominant Pritchard-Siddons tradition.5 By the late 1830s and early 1840s, these ideas entered English-language criticism. William Maginn commented: evidence is not to despair of theatre history. Rather it serves to rescue it from mere antiquarian accumulation of memorabilia, providing a point of access into cultural history, a means of exploring the dynamic created by the interaction of the culture of the past on the culture of the present' (John Webster, The Duchess ofMalfi, ed. Kathleen McLuskie and Jennifer Uglow, 1989, p. 3), and for the wider implications of performances in the nineteenth century, see e.g. Nina Auerbach's characterisation of the Victorian woman-mythos: 'victim and queen, domestic angel and demonic outcast' (Woman and the Demon: The Life of a Victorian Myth, 1982, p. 9). 1 Fanny Kemble, Journal, 18 February 1833, quoted in Sprague, p. 224. Laughable witches - almost always men - persisted in the theatre partly because Macbeth provides few opportunities for a company's comic specialists. Powerful as modern audiences find his contribution, the Porter may have originated as a practical concession to the King's Men's main comic actor (see Appendix 1, p. 264 below). Like the Padua promptbook, many post-Restoration productions cut the Porter (probably for his obscenity), but (as compensation?) Davenant's ludicrous witches continued well into the nineteenth century, though performances as early as that of Powell and Yates on 20 January 1768 and those of Macklin in the next decade presented the witches 'seriously' (Bartholomeusz, pp. 95 and 89). 2 This latter reflection (not obvious to me), I owe to Christine Krueger; here, theatrical performance substantiates Adelman's critical approach to Macbeth. 3 See, respectively, [Francis Gentleman,] Dramatic Censor, 1, 87 and 89, and William Hazlitt, 'Mr [Edmund] Kean's Macbeth', The Champion, 13 November 1814, rpt. in Hazlitt, Dramatic Essays, ed. William Archer and Robert W. Lowe, 1895, p. 30. Significant portions of Hazlitt's review are reprinted in his Characters of Shakespear's Plays, 1817. Notably, the two 'historical' narratives in Holinshed's Chronicles that Shakespeare most relies on, the reigns of King Duff and King Duncan, both contain wives who are labelled as ambitious and homicidal. 4 See her 'Remarks' in Campbell, Life, 11, 10-34; among others, J. Comyns Carr, Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, 1889, notes (p. 11) the discrepancy between Siddons's 'Remarks' and her recorded performances; see also G. J. Bell in Jenkin, passim. 5 For an overview of how theatrical versions of the relation between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth changed, see Marvin Rosenberg, 'Macbeth and Lady Macbeth in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries', in m Introduction To a mind so disposed, temptation is unnecessary. The thing [the planned regicide] was done [in Act i, Scene 3]. Duncan was marked out for murder before the letter [of Act 1, Scene 5] was written to Lady Macbeth, and she only followed the thought of her husband. Love for him is in fact her guiding passion . . . Bold was her bearing, reckless and defying her tongue, when her husband was to be served or saved . . .' A few years later, presciently joining textual, critical, and theatrical insight, George Fletcher absolves the witches and Lady Macbeth and arraigns Macbeth, who has 'the purpose, not suggested to him by any one, but gratuitously and deliberately formed within his own breast, of murdering his royal kinsman .. . to usurp his crown'.2 Fletcher's essay is far more comprehensive, though less eye-catching, than Maginn's similarly character-centred, moralistic analysis. Fletcher wrote at a major turning-point in conceptions of Macbeth, and he advocates controversial propositions that governed criticism and performance well into the twentieth century,3 judging Macbeth a 'moral coward' given to ''poetical whining' (pp. 125 and 152). Lady Macbeth is a loving wife who 'covets the crown for her husband even more eagerly than he desires it for himself and wants to make him 'happier as well as greater' (pp. 119 and 118); she goes mad when she discovers 'that all she had mistaken in Macbeth for "the milk of human kindness" was but mere selfish apprehensiveness' and 'that he is capable of no true affection . . . even towards her' (p. 157). The weird sisters are neither comedians nor the phantoms of superstition, but 'spirits of darkness' which Shakespeare uses to develop 'the evil tendencies inherent in [Macbeth]' (pp. 143 and 141). Splenetically, Fletcher inveighs against the Davenant-Garrick-Kemble textual tradition: cutting the Porter 'destroys .. . the coherence and probability of the incident' (p. 163); keeping Lady Macbeth off-stage in Act 2, Scene 3, produces 'doubly gross improbability' (p. 164);4 suppressing 'the scenes [sic] in Macduff s castle' - the murder of Lady Macduff and her son - is 'most injurious of all' (p. 166). Fletcher admired Helen Faucit as Constance in King John and proposed her as a Lady Macbeth potentially greater than Sarah Siddons. London theatregoers could have seen Faucit's Lady Macbeth for one performance with William Charles Focus, pp. 73-86; on changing theatrical versions of Lady Macbeth, see Rosenberg, pp. 158-205. Donohue, Dramatic Character, pp. 257 and 268, sees 'conjugal love' as motivating Mrs Siddons's Lady; I do not. 1 William Maginn, 'Lady Macbeth', Bentley 's Miscellany 2 (1837), 550-67, as reprinted in Maginn, Miscellaneous Writings, ed. Shelton MacKenzie, 5 vols., 1855-7, n i (Ï8S6), 171-208; quotations from pp. 194 and 197. 2 George Fletcher, 'Macbeth: Shakespearian criticism and acting', Westminster Review 41 (1844), 1-72, reprinted and slightly revised as 'Characters in "Macbeth'" in his Studies of Shakespeare, 1847, pp. 109- 98; quotation from p. 113. Fletcher seems to be the first writer to claim that Macbeth planned usurpation prior to the action dramatised in the play. 3 Character-analysis dominates Fletcher's essay until its final sections on textual 'corruptions' and the acting tradition. Fletcher's views of the sisters partly arise from moral anxiety: 'we should not mistake him [Shakespeare] as having represented that spirits of darkness are here permitted absolutely and gratuitously to seduce his hero from a state of perfectly innocent intention . . . such an error . . . vitiates and debases the moral to be drawn from the whole piece. Macbeth does not project the murder of Duncan because of his encounter with the weird sisters; the weird sisters encounter him because he has projected the murder . . .' (p. 143). Parenthetical references in this paragraph are to Fletcher's Studies in Shakespeare. Fletcher's views reappear at least as recently as Byam Shaw's 1955 production; see p. 82 below. 4 Eighteenth-century productions, including those with Sarah Siddons, and many nineteenth-century ones cut Lady Macbeth from this scene: see Davies, Micellanies, 11, 152-3. Macbeth [70] Macready at Drury Lane on 17 April 1843, but reports from Dublin, Paris, and Edinburgh allowed Fletcher to add a postscript (21 December 1846): her possession of that essentially feminine person . . . together with that energy of intellect and of will, which this personation equally demands, - have enabled her to interpret the character with a convincing truth of nature and of feeling, more awfully thrilling than the imposing but less natural, and therefore less impressive grandeur of Mrs Siddons's representation. Her performance, in short, would seem to have exhibited . . . not the 'fiend' that Mrs Siddons presented to her most ardent admirers - but the far more interesting picture of a naturally generous woman, depraved by her very self-devotion to the ambitious purpose of a merely selfish man.1 Two decades later, Henry Morley confirmed these accounts: Faucit's Lady Macbeth is 'essentially feminine, too exclusively gifted with the art of expressing all that is most graceful and beautiful in womanhood, to succeed in inspiring anything like awe or terror'; at the end of Act 3, Scene 4, she 'collapse[d] into [the] weariness of life-long torture'.2 This production included the wholly unShakespearean but not entirely Victorian detail of Fleance's silent presence in Act 3, Scene 1, where Faucit's Lady Macbeth played 'her fingers about the head of the child Fleance . . . The fingers of the woman who has been a mother, and has murder on her soul, wander sadly and tenderly over the type of her lost innocence.'3 Just what this Victorian conception of Lady Macbeth as 'essentially feminine' meant, appears from Henry Morley's admiring description of Faucit's Imogen (in Cymbeline), 'the purest and most womanly of Shakespeare's women': all the qualities that blend to form a womanly perfection, - simple piety, wifely devotion, instinctive, unobtrusive modesty, gentle courtesy, moral heroism, with all physical cowardice, - no thin ideal, but a very woman, who includes among her virtues aptitude for cookery.4 Stereotyped and culturally determined as this view of'womanly perfection' is, Morley knew it deviated sharply from the Betterton-Barry-Pritchard-Siddons Lady Macbeth: Faucit offered 'a most harmonious interpretation of the part according to that reading which finds all its womanhood in Lady Macbeth's character'.5 Fletcher praised (9 October 1847) Samuel Phelps's then-new Sadler's Wells production for 1 Fletcher, Studies, p. 198; 'fiend' had been used by Siddons ('Remarks' in Campbell, Life, 11, 19) and her admirers. Other English-language critics found Faucit's Lady Macbeth revolutionary: see William Carleton to William Stokes, letter, Dublin, 27 November 1846, quoted in Helen Faucit, On Some of Shakespeare's Female Characters, enlarged edn, 1891, pp. 401-3, and Theodore Martin, Helena Faucit, 2nd edn, 1900, pp. 159-60 (an anecdote not substantiated by 'Christopher North' [i.e. John Wilson], 'Dies Boréales. No. V, Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine 66 (November 1849), 620-54). 2 Henry Morley, The Journal of a London Playgoer, from 1851 to 1866, 1866, pp. 350 and 353, discussing a Faucit-Samuel Phelps Drury Lane performance, 3 December 1864. Carol J. Carlisle, 'Helen Faucit's Lady Macbeth', S.St. 16 (1983), 205-33, reprints many contemporary criticisms with a scene-by-scene reconstruction of Faucit's performance; my account is independent of Carlisle's and sometimes disagrees with it. 3 Morley, pp. 352-3. Faucit apparently adopted the gesture from Macready (see Downer, p. 329). Sprague (pp. 247-8) reports that Kemble brought on Fleance in this scene, as did Herbert Beerbohm Tree (see Gordon Crosse, Shakespearean Playgoing, I8QO-IÇ52, 1953, p. 39), and Fleance appeared in 3.1 as recently as Byam Shaw's 1955 Stratford production (Macbeth Onstage, p. 118) and Roman Polanski's film of Macbeth (1971), where Macbeth tweaks Fleance's cheek at this moment. Late in her career, Faucit seems to have been the first English actress since before Garrick's time to appear in Act 2, Scene 3 (Carlisle, 'Helen Faucit's Lady Macbeth', pp. 218-19), and see headnote to Act 2, Scene 3. 4 Morley, p. 355. 5 Morley, p. 353, commenting on a return visit, 17 December 1864, to the Faucit-Phelps production. [//] Introduction 'dismissing in toto the operatic insertions, and restoring the suppressed characters, scenes, and speeches', though Fletcher still grumbled over Banquo's visible ghost and thought 'The "weird sisters," though divested in great part of their former grossness by Mr Phelps's treatment, still need a little more refining.'1 Theatre dotes on old tradition and new fashion. While some audiences, actors, and critics continued to espouse earlier ideas, theatrical and critical perception of the witches gradually changed in concert with Faucit's 'new', 'feminine' Lady Macbeth and the Lady's newly independent, criminal and/or cowardly husband. By the middle of the nineteenth century, William Wetmore Story's observations had become fairly conventional: Lady Macbeth, 'having committed one crime, dies of remorse'; Macbeth 'is a thorough hypocrite' and 'a victim of superstitious fears, and a mere coward'; 'The witches are a projection of his [Macbeth's] own desires and superstitions. They . . . prophes[y] in response to his own desires' and are therefore neither instigators nor determinants of his behaviour.2 Eighteenth- and nineteenth-century critics often compared Richard III with Macbeth - the two were the most notable Shakespearean villain-heroes - and Edmund Kean, the tragic actor whose brief career spanned the end of Kemble's and the beginning of Macready's, was an unsurpassable Richard III, but a relatively weak Macbeth, 'deficient in the poetry of the character'.3 Macready, unremittingly competitive and relentlessly self-critical, probably spoke true when he complained that 'a newspaper . . . gave me very moderate praise for Macbeth, observing that though good, it was not so good as Kean's, which was a total failure'.4 Macready was one of the few to criticise Helen Faucit, 'whom I do not like; she wants heart';5 he was also the earliest and finest Macbeth to play opposite her Lady Macbeth, and he generously recognised her new interpretation: Rehearsed Macbeth; was very much struck with Miss Faucit's rehearsal of Lady Macbeth, which surprised and gratified me very much. Acted [that night] Macbeth as well as my harassed mind and worn-down body would let me. Called for [by the audience] and well received. Would have taken on [stage, for a curtain call] Miss Faucit, but she [had taken off her costume] . . . Spoke . . . afterwards . . . with her about her acting, which was remarkably good.6 1 Fletcher, Studies, p. 383. Specifically, Phelps 'dropped the music and the interpolated words, restored Lady Macduff and her son, killed Macbeth off-stage and brought on his head on a pole'; see Muriel St Clare Byrne, 'Fifty years of Shakespearian production: 1898-1948', S.Sur. 2 (1949), 2. 2 William Wetmore Story, 'Distortions of the English stage as instanced in "Macbeth" ', National Review 17 (1863), 292-322, as reprinted in his Excursions in Art and Letters, 1891, pp. 232-86; quotations from pp. 240, 241, 246, and 264. See the discussion of Henry Irving's performances, pp. 77-8 below. 3 See Hazlitt, 'Mr Kean's Macbeth', pp. 30-1. For other comparisons of Richard III with Macbeth, see e.g. William Guthrie, An Essay upon English Tragedy, 1757, pp. 12-13; Elizabeth Montagu, An Essay on the Writings and Genius of Shakespear, 1769, p. 176; [Francis Gentleman,] Dramatic Censor, 1, 106; Thomas Whately, Remarks on Some of the Characters of Shakespeare, 1785; J. P. Kemble, Macbeth and King Richard the Third, 1786, enlarged edn, 1817; Winter, pp. 467-8; Farnham, Shakespeare's Tragic Frontier, pp. 104- 5; Donohue, Dramatic Character, chapter 8. The Richard Ill-Macbeth comparison is so ingrained that Davies, Micellanies, 11,168, attributes Macbeth 3.2.55 ('Things bad begun, make strong themselves by ill') to Richard III. 4 William Toynbee (éd.), The Diaries ofW. C. Macready, 1833-1851, 2 vols., 1912,1, 112(11 March 1834). 5 Ibid:, 1, 322 (1 June 1836). 6 Ibid., 11, 174 (Dublin, 6 June 1842), on Faucit's first public performance of Lady Macbeth; for other reactions to her performance, see p. 70 above, n. 1. Faucit and Macready had further successes in Edinburgh and Paris. Faucit's later Macbeth, Samuel Phelps, a manager justly honoured for recovering Macbeth [72} Macready compromised between the 'old' heroic Macbeth and the 'new' weak but criminal Macbeth.1 One 'judicious and effective innovation' was his 'air of bewildered agitation upon coming on the stage [in Act 1, Scene 5, presumably] after the interview with the weird sisters', and George Bell, an experienced playgoer, describes Macbeth facing Banquo's Ghost on its second appearance: Macready plays this well. Even Kemble chid and scolded the ghost out! and rose in vehemence and courage as he went on. Macready began in the vehemence of despair, but, overcome by terror as he continued to gaze on the apparition, dropped his voice lower and lower till he became tremulous and inarticulate, and at last uttering a subdued cry of mortal agony and horror, he suddenly cast his mantle over his face, and sank back almost lifeless on his seat.2 It is noticeable that Macready, the unnerved and superstitious victim, was quite ready to use his hero's truncheon on other actors or impertinent members of the audience (see illustration 14).3 Macready, having played opposite Faucit's 'new' Lady Macbeth, was also partner to one of his era's most violent (or 'most imperial')4 Lady Macbeths, the American Charlotte Cushman, whose style of acting, while it lacked imagination, possessed in a remarkable degree the elements of force . . . [s]he was intensely prosaic, definitely practical, and hence her perfect identity with . . . the materialism of Lady Macbeth . . . [Cushman exhibited] the coarse features and harsh voice of the heroine of a melodrama . . . Thus is one of Shakespeare's grandest dramatic conceptions dragged down to the lowest level of a mere sensational exhibition.5 After his first performance with Cushman in Boston, Macready commented: 'Miss Cushman . . . interested me much. She has to learn her art, but she showed mind and sympathy with me; a novelty so refreshing to me on the stage.'6 Macready grew more critical of Cushman, especially after her first, highly successful visit to England, but she learned from him and seems to have repeated some of his technique, and even in these early performances an English observer could consciously compare the two: Shakespeare's texts theatrically, was also, Faucit said, a 'very inadequate successor' to Macready, who himself regarded Phelps as an actor who was 'afraid to play the first and averse to take the second characters'. See Faucit, Shakespeare's Female Characters, p. 234, and Macready, Diaries, 1, 427. 1 See G. H. Lewes, On Actors and the Art of Acting, Leipzig, 1875 (not the '2nd edn' of London, also 1875), pp. 46-7: 'nothing could have been less heroic than his [Macready's] presentation of the great criminal. He [Macready] was fretful and impatient under the taunts and provocations of his wife; he was ignoble under the terrors of remorse; he stole into the sleeping-chamber of Duncan [2.2] like a man going to purloin a purse, not like a warrior going to snatch a crown.' 2 See, respectively, Morning Herald, 10 June 1820 (a review of Macready's first Macbeth) quoted in Frederick Pollock (éd.), Macready's Reminiscences, 2 vols., 1875, '> 2I4» an d G. J. Bell in Jenkin, p. 63 n. 58. Downer, pp. 318-38, reconstructs Macready's Macbeth, with its 'elaborate scenery and crowds of welldrilled supers' (Crosse, p. 35). 3 For the truncheon used to strike another actor, see James E. Murdoch, The Stage, or Recollections of Actors and Acting, 1880, pp. 104-6; as an implement to threaten riotous audience members, Macready, Diaries, 11, 425 (New York, 10 May 1849). At least once, the truncheon disconcertingly broke; see Macready, Diaries, 1, 75 (4 November 1833). See also Sprague, pp. 229 and 406 n. 18. 4 Winter, p. 500. 5 Murdoch, The Stage, pp. 240 and 242. 6 Macready, Diaries, 11, 230 (Boston, 23 October 1843); in December, the two performed Macbeth in New York. [73] Introduction 14 William Charles Macready (with heroic truncheon) as Macbeth Macbeth [74] with this great and cultivated artist she held her own. She had not had his experience, but she had genius. There were times when she more than rivalled him; when in truth she made him play second .. . I have seen her throw such energy, physical and mental, into her performance, as to weaken for the time the impression of Mr Macready's magnificent acting.1 Macready seems to have been proudest of his performance in the fifth act (after Lady Macbeth is finally off the stage!), where he emphasised both 'pathos' and a kind of desperate physical heroism.2 Macbeth is not the only Shakespearean play to have provoked riots, but it has occasioned several, including the most deadly one of all. Chance or commercial shrewdness may explain why Kemble chose Macbeth for the first night (18 September 1809) when new prices were demanded for many places in the rebuilt Covent Garden Theatre: the 'O. P.' ('Old Price') disturbances ensued for seventy days. Earlier, in October 1773, Charles Macklin, an actor then in his seventies and famed for comedy and for an innovative Shylock, had played Macbeth at Covent Garden. Macklin's enemies, perhaps a pro-Garrick group, and the partisans of 'Gentleman' Smith (the actor of Macbeth whom Macklin had displaced) objected and hired a claque who fomented another destructive but non-fatal riot at a performance of The Merchant of Venice (18 November 1773).3 If Charlotte Cushman was a throwback to earlier ideas of Lady Macbeth, her countryman Edwin Forrest, who also had a successful career in England, was 'the robust warrior'4 Macbeth in the older mould. In New York in 1849, he and Macready (who was appearing at the Astor Place Opera House) offered two directly competing interpretations, and the ensuing public disagreements, fuelled by the actors' well-publicised antagonism and by jingoistic, xenophobic, and dimly 'patriotic' energies, produced the 'Astor Place riot' in which twenty or more people died (10 May 1849).5 Although Helen Faucit's 'new' Lady Macbeth had been anticipated in Germany,6 the older conception of the part remained, and remains today, a living theatrical possibility. In 1857, Adelaide Ristori (illustration 15), then Italy's greatest tragedienne 1 Letter to a Boston, Massachusetts, newspaper, 1863, quoted without further identification in Emma Stebbins, Charlotte Cushman: Her Letters and Memories of Her Life, 1879, p. 32. On Cushman's learning from Macready, see Joseph Leach, Bright Particular Star: The Life and Times of Charlotte Cushman, 1970, pp. 120-1. 2 For 'pathos', see the Morning Herald review cited at p. 72 above, n. 2; for Act 5, see Macready, Diaries, 11, 495-6 (26 February 1851, his farewell). 3 See William W. Appleton, Charles Macklin: An Actor's Life, i960, pp. 178-86. 4 Winter, p. 474. My account slights North American performances in toto; for some redress, see Charles H. Shattuck, Shakespeare on the American Stage, 2 vols., 1976-87, and the comprehensive list and knowledgeable commentary in Thomas Wheeler, Macbeth: An Annotated Bibliography, 1990, pp. 767- 812, esp. pp. 807-12. 5 See Richard Moody, The Astor Place Riot, 1958, and the slightly pro-Macready discussion in Downer, pp. 290-310. Lawrence W. Levine, Highbrow/Lowbrow: The Emergence of Cultural Hierarchy in America, 1988, considers the riot 'a struggle for power and cultural authority . . . simultaneously an indication of and a catalyst for the cultural changes that came to characterise the United States at the end of the [nineteenth] century' (p. 68). See also Richard Nelson, Two Shakespearean Actors, 1990, a play about the actors' rivalry and this incident. 6 Rosenberg (pp. 175-8) finds the 'devoted wife' interpretation of Lady Macbeth several decades earlier in performances by Rosalie Nouseul and Frederike Bethmann and in criticism by Franz Horn and Ludwig Tieck in Germany. [75] Introduction 15 Adelaide Ristori as Lady Macbeth Macbeth 1/6] and first international star, and later to be mentioned by George Eliot and James Joyce, travelled to London with Macbetto, an Italian verse-adaptation by Giulio Carcano which Verdi used as a basis for his opera, Macbeth.1 Ristori gave a traditional, Siddonslike performance, albeit underplayed and nuanced so that critics were struck by her subtle facial and postural acting and the way she ignored traditional actor's 'points': Madame Ristori conceives Lady Macbeth as a woman who pens up her emotions, who is watchful, self-contained, who fights against compunctious visitings of nature without letting a stir be seen .. . [In Act i, Scene 6,] [t]here is .. . a false expression playing faintly now and then across her face . . . When at the close [of Act i, Scene 7] he [Macbeth], for the first time, speaks as an accomplice, her face brightens with exultation . . . and . . . she repeats the . . . exit [of Act 1, Scene 5].2 Having 'hurried over' Lady Macbeth's admission, 'Had he not resembled / My father as he slept, I had done't' (2.2.12-13), Ristori reacted emotionally to Macbeth's description of Duncan's body (2.3.104-7): 'and then the point is made that ninety-nine actresses in a hundred would assuredly have tried to make before'.3 Ristori performed Lady Macbeth in English in London (Drury Lane, 3 July 1882) and, later, in New York and Philadelphia with Edwin Booth, but she made her earliest impression supported 'feebly enough' by a cast speaking Italian before an English audience (who could refer, like some modern opera audiences, to a parallel-text Italian-English libretto).4 While that libretto by Carcano followed the Folio fairly closely, it was also severely cut: all of Lady Macbeth's scenes are present except Act 3, Scene 1; only the first seven lines of Act 3, Scene 2, remain. The libretto ends barely a page after Lady Macbeth's final appearance in Act 5, Scene i.s In this emphasis upon Lady Macbeth, in its consequent diminution of her husband's part, as well as in many other cuts and shifts of emphasis, the Ristori version echoes the greatest adaptation of Macbeth and the only one in which we may today 1 On Giulio Carcano and Verdi, see Laura Caretti, 'La regia di Lady Macbeth', in Laura Caretti (éd.), // Teatro delpersonaggio: Shakespeare sulla scena italiana dell'800, 1979, pp. 167-9. F° r Ristori's English and Irish tours, see Cristina Giorcelli, 'Adelaide Ristori sulle scene britanniche e irlandesi', Teatro Archivio 5 (September, 1981), 81-147, esp. pp. 103-8 and 128-9; PP- I 4 2 _ 5 identify Ristori in Eliot and Joyce. Tommaso Salvini and Ernesto Rossi also achieved considerable success as Macbeth in England and America; see Winter (an eyewitness of Salvini), pp. 486-9; Caretti; Marvin Carlson, The Italian Shakespearians, 1985, chapters 7 and 15. According to Henry James, Salvini was particularly effective because he did not rant; he also restored such frequently omitted characters as the Porter and Third Murderer (Carlson, pp. 94 and 96-7). For Rossi and Salvini, see Caretti and Giorcelli passim. 2 Morley, pp. 186-8 (25 July 1857); for the similarity of Ristori's and Siddons's performances, see Adelaide Ristori, Studies and Memoirs, 1888, p. 258. Giorcelli, 'Adelaide Ristori', offers a full selection of contemporary accounts. 3 Morley, p. 189; see 2.3.111 n. below. 4 See Carlson, p. 35; Adelaide Ristori, Memoirs and Artistic Studies, trans. G. Mantellini, 1907, p. 107; Henry Knepler, The Gilded Stage, 1968, p. 113; Morley, p. 218. Tommaso Salvini and Ernesto Rossi also performed in bilingual productions in the United States (Carlson, pp. 54-5). 5 See the Italian-French libretto, trans. Giulio Carcano and P. Raymond-Signouret, Répertoire de Mme A. Ristori, 1858; I have not seen the Italian-English 'libretto' Morley (p. 191) mentions, but it is likely to be identical with Macbeth (New York: Sanford, Harroun, 1866) 'adapted expressly for Madame Ristori'; the libretto published for the 1876 performances also survives (see William Weaver in David Rosen and Andrew Porter (eds.), Verdi's 'Macbeth', 1984, p. 148 n. 16). For further details, see Carlson, chapter 3, and, for the later New York version, Caretti, p. 169 n. 51 and p. 170. [77] Introduction have a sense of the play's nineteenth-century, and perhaps earlier, form and appeal: Giuseppi Verdi's Macbeth. '[T]he first Italian opera to make a real attempt to be Shakespearean', Verdi's Macbeth is not his finest operatic response to 'a favorite poet of mine, whom I have had in my hands from earliest youth, and whom I read and reread constantly' - Verdi's Otello and Falstaff are undeniably greater and usually more beautiful - but '[staging] ideas from London, where this tragedy has been produced continually for over 200 years' influenced his first Macbeth (1847), and Verdi apparently knew Macready's London performance and, certainly, Ristori's later ones, and they influenced the revised version (Paris, 1865).1 I n Verdi's opera, along with the intensification of Lady Macbeth there went an immediately controversial treatment of the witches and other supernatural or 'grotesque' material, redolent of Victorian non-musical stagings.2 After W. C. Macready, only two Victorian-Edwardian English actor-managers, Sir Henry Irving (the first theatre knight) and Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree (the second), contributed significantly to views of Macbeth. As a young actor, Irving had been 'instructed' by Charlotte Cushman,3 and in 1875 he offered a controversial, antiCushman interpretation when Kate Bateman was an undistinguished Lady Macbeth. Though his Lyceum Theatre became 'a national institution', this first Macbeth was instantly attacked: 'the irresolution' Macbeth 'displays in the earlier scenes' of the play arises from 'personal fear', and Irving's Macbeth is a 'cowardly, remorseless villain . . . from the very first'.4 In 1888 Irving played Macbeth again, in a fresh interpretation, with Ellen Terry as Lady Macbeth,5 and Percy Fitzgerald reviewed the new production more positively: 'The Scotch chieftain and his lady are shown, not simply as mere human, but almost creatures of necessity, subservient to the pressure of a weak, nerveless nature in the one case, and of a devoted conjugal affection in the other.'6 Some critical views changed between 1875 ana" 1888, and part of the reason must be the change from Kate Bateman to Ellen Terry, who had already established a reputation as 'feminine' and 'gentle' and claims in her diary that 'Those who don't like me in it [Macbeth] are those who don't want, and don't like to read it fresh from Shakespeare, and who hold by the "fiend" reading of the character.'7 Terry had no doubts about Irving's choices: 1 See, respectively, the following in Rosen and Porter: William Weaver (p. 147); Verdi to Léon Escudier, 28 April 1865 (p. 144); Verdi to Alessandro Lanari, 22 December 1846 (p. 27), and (on later stagings) Verdi to Escudier, 23 January 1865 (p. 90); Weaver (p. 144, on Verdi and Macready); Verdi to Escudier, 11 March 1865 on Ristori (p. n o and see p. in) . 2 For early Italian responses, see especially Marcello Conati in Rosen and Porter, pp. 231-3, and, for the genere fantastico, see Verdi to Lanari, 17 May 1846 (ibid., p. 4 and n. 1). For the emphasis on Lady Macbeth, see Jonas Barish, 'Madness, hallucination, and sleepwalking', ibid., pp. 149-55. 3 Leach, Bright Particular Star, p. 267. 4 See Crosse, p. 18, and Sheridan Knorvles ' Conception, p. 7. The anonymous author goes on to complain that Irving's Macbeth 'has no genuine conscientious scruples. He never really hesitates in his purpose, but simply lacks the pluck or the nerve necessary for its execution. Lady Macbeth is the opposite of all this - the man irresolute and weak, the wife strong and determined' (p. 15). 5 Hughes, Irving, p. 92. 6 Percy Fitzgerald, 'Macbeth', The Theatre n.s. 13 (February 1889), 101. 7 Ellen Terry, The Story of My Life, 1908, p. 306. Macbeth [78} His view of 'Macbeth,' though attacked and derided and put to shame in many quarters, is as clear to me as the sunlight itself. To me it seems as stupid to quarrel with the conception as to deny the nose on one's face. But the carrying out of the conception was unequal. Henry's imagination was sometimes his worst enemy.1 All the old arguments over the relative strengths and relative heroisms of Lord and Lady Macbeth returned. 'The reading of the character [Macbeth] is robbed of one of its most effective dramatic elements in the loss of the contrast between a noble and ignoble side of Macbeth's nature'; Ellen Terry's performance, though beautiful, is 'the whitewashing of Lady Macbeth'.2 Twenty years after she first played Lady Macbeth, Terry rebutted this view of Irving's Macbeth when she famously recalled him 'in the last act after the battle when he looked like a great famished wolf, weak with the weakness of a giant exhausted, spent as one whose exertions have been ten times as great as those of commoner men of rougher fibre and coarser strength'.3 After Macready withdrew from the stage, the nineteenth-century theatre saw increasingly tender, 'feminine', 'wifely' Lady Macbeths and increasingly criminal and violent Macbeths, in no small part because the play's spectacle was shifted from comic and mechanically equipped witches to witches, no less spectacular and no less equipped, but now having supernatural and demonic mystery. Whatever the complaints about Irving's cowardly Macbeth or Terry's too tenderly beautiful Lady Macbeth, critics agreed on the power of the witches in their performances: they are always enveloped in awe-inspiring gloom . . . or by . . . ruddy glow . . . even the nil admirari materialist spectator of today is more inclined to shudder than to sneer.4 And Irving found, when he took his Macbeth to the United States in 1895, a 'solution' to the problem of Banquo's Ghost - 'a greenish light shining on an empty stool' - that satisfied his audience.5 Herbert Beerbohm Tree, 'rising into the second place [after Irving] as a producer of Shakespeare'6 on the London stage, could have known A. C. Bradley's influential critical account (1904) of Macbeth. Tree is usually remembered for his elaborate and highly detailed illusionistic productions, in which he raised 'illustrative' Shakespeare to new and eventually self-defeating heights, taking hints from the text to produce finical, time-consuming, and unscripted tableaux vivants.1 Yet Ellen Terry's son, 1 Ibid., p. 303. For a representative attack on Terry's performance, see The Stage, reprinted in TQ_ 1, 3 (1971 ), 34. Hughes, Irving, chapter 3, analyses Irving's Macbeth in detail, and I draw upon that discussion extensively and gratefully. 2 Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News, 5 January 1889. 3 Terry, Story, pp. 303 and 306, respectively. According to William Poel's hostile account (The Times, 31 December 1888, quoted in W. Moelwyn Merchant, Shakespeare and the Artist, 1959, p. 139), Irving accepted Holinshed's chronology and played Macbeth as an old man in Act 5; the Byam Shaw production (Stratford, 1955) made the same choice (see p. 80 below, n. 3). 4 Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News, 5 January 1889. 5 Shattuck, Shakespeare on the American Stage, 11, 183; Shattuck's treatment (11, 176-83) of this production repays close attention. Compare Komisarjevsky's 1933 Stratford version of this episode (p. 79 below). 6 Crosse, pp. 18-19. 7 For the possibility that Bradley influenced Tree's production, see Michael Mullin, 'Strange images of death: Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree's Macbeth, 1911', Theatre Survey 17 (1976), 125-42, pp. 140 and 142 n. 22. Tree's may have been the earliest (1916) largely unadapted cinematic Macbeth; Robert Hamilton Ball, Shakespeare on Silent Film, 1968, pp. 229-35, amusingly recounts how London's West End met Hollywood. [79] Introduction Edward Gordon Craig, who played Malcolm in Irving's tours in the 1890s and was himself an innovative artist ahead of his time, originally designed (1908) the sets for what became Tree's 1911 Macbeth.1 Those designs never reached the stage, but they deeply influenced the production, helping to make it at least semi-expressionistic and to thrust the audience into an experience of the text as if from Macbeth's point of view: 'Our attempt. . . will be to create . . . that awe-inspiring atmosphere which is suggested by the poet.'2 Edward Gordon Craig, one hopes, had little to do with Tree's version of Act 1, Scene 7, where the dialogue 'was performed with the [audible accompaniment] .. . of Duncan and the court at dinner', or with Duncan's and his followers' silent appearance at the end of the scene, 'to give a blessing to his hosts and their house', followed by the cackling re-entrance of the witches.3 (Off-stage sounds of revelry here have since become commonplace.) Tree's 'Cauldron scene' (Shakespeare's Act 4, Scene 1), however, recalls productions stretching back to Kemble and before; the witches, omnipresent if unShakespearean witnesses throughout the play, now multiply into a demonic, ghostly chorus surrounding this scene.4 Weak, conventional, or unmemorable as Tree's performance as Macbeth may have been - few contemporary accounts even mention his Lady - his production did anticipate such theatrically important versions as Theodore Komisarjevsky's 1933 Stratford production, where the audience shared Macbeth's mental experience, including an Act 4, Scene 1, in which Macbeth spoke the Apparitions' prophecies during a dream-sequence.5 Following Irving's and Tree's, there are no enduringly important English-language stagings of Macbeth until Glen Byam Shaw's 1955 production at Stratford and Trevor Nunn's 1976-8 productions at Stratford and in London.6 Byam Shaw's production, explicitly 'starring' Laurence Olivier and Vivien Leigh (illustration 16), was much anticipated and people agreed that, once the 'strangeness' of the 'unfamiliar stresses' that Olivier gave the verse had worn off, it was 'much the best performance of the part 1 The fullest treatment of Craig's long interest in Macbeth is Paul Sheren, 'Edward Gordon Craig and Macbeth', Ph.D. dissertation, Yale, 1974; see Sheren's condensed discussion, TQ 1, 3 (1971), 44-7. 2 See Mullin, pp. 126-7; I re ly o n trn s essay's treatment of Tree's production here. Tree cut about one-third of the Folio text; for details, see Mullin, p. 141 n. 8. 3 See Cary Mazer, Shakespeare Refashioned: Elizabethan Plays on Edwardian Stages, 1981, p. 12; Crosse, p. 39- 4 For a photograph of Tree's scene, see Mullin, figure 2; this production seems to have been the singing witch chorus's 'positively . . . last appearance' (Byrne, p. 2). 5 See Crosse, pp. 97 and 136, and Michael Mullin, 'Augures and understood relations: Theodore Komisarjevsky's Macbeth', Educational Theatre Journal 26 (1974), 20-30. 6 This sentence uncharitably passes over many significant productions. For instance, F. R. Benson's earlytwentieth-century performances (see Crosse, p. 31); Barry Jackson's production (London, 1928), the first in modern dress, which also gave 'blasted heath' and 'bloody man' their modern British slang rather than their Jacobean resonances (see, in general, Michael Mullin, ''Macbeth in modern dress: Royal Court Theatre, 1928', Theatre Journal 30 (1978), 176-85); Komisarjevsky's production (Stratford, 1933), discussed above; Donald Wolfit's performances (see e.g. Crosse, p. 147); not to mention Christopher Plummer's widely admired performance (Stratford, Ontario, 1962; see Leiter, p. 375), or Maggie Smith's in the same place, 1978 (see Leiter, p. 385), or the Simone Signoret-Alec Guinness production (directed by William Gaskill, Royal Court, London, 1966), or Glenda Jackson's fascinating and Plummer's lamentable performances (New York and elsewhere in North America, 1988). Richard Eyre's otherwise undistinguished Royal National Theatre, London, production (1993) offered a fine Macduff (James Laurenson). For the remarkable changes in British Shakespearean productions from the mid nineteenth century to the mid twentieth, see Byrne and Crosse, passim Macbeth [80] 16 Act 2, Scene 3, in Glen Byam Shaw's 1955 Stratford Memorial Theatre production. Macbeth (Laurence Olivier) attends the fainting Lady Macbeth (Vivien Leigh) in our time', according to J. C. Trewin, who went on to say that it might even be 'the best since William Charles Macready's' (which Trewin could not possibly have seen); Olivier's 'interpretation of Macbeth met with the kind of consensus of approval among critics given in earlier years to players like Garrick and Mrs Siddons'.1 Leigh's 'frail, porcelain beauty' (much admired) and her 'kind of coldness, even hardness' (much criticised) did not satisfy those who expected Siddons-like domination, though one critic praised her for showing 'that Macbeth and his Lady were lovers before they were criminals'.2 Leigh's performance of Act 5, Scene 1, when, grey-haired and staring, she alternated 'senile and childish tones', was also effective.3 1 See George Scott, Truth 155 (17 June 1955), p. 770; J. C. Trewin, Birmingham Post, 15 June 1955 (second notice); Macbeth Onstage, p. [249], citing Richard David, 'The tragic curve', S.Sur. 9 (1956), 122-31, where the remark does not appear. Macbeth Onstage, p. 11 n. 3, lists 48 periodical reviews of the production. Byam Shaw's text closely paralleled Henry Irving's (see Hughes, Irving, p. 91). 2 See, respectively: Daily Mail, 8 June 1955; Patrick Gibbs, Daily Telegraph, 8 June 1955; Ivor Brown, Drama, Autumn 1955, p. 34. Leigh's performance of Lady Macbeth, like Ann Todd's (Old Vic, London, 1954, directed by Michael Benthall; see also David, 'Tragic curve') probably suffered from critics' assumptions or preconceptions based on the actress's cinematic appearances, especially in nonShakespearean roles; see, generally, Byrne, p. 11. 3 Patrick Gibbs, Daily Telegraph, 8 June 1955. Here Byam Shaw and Leigh duplicated the 1888 IrvingTerry production, where, more or less following Holinshed's account, many years were supposed to have passed between the end of the Folio's Act 3 and the beginning of its Act 5; see Hughes, Irving, pp. 109 and 112. [Si] Introduction Maxine Audley (Lady Macduff), one of the few actors praised for a supporting performance here,1 identifies a pattern that recalls many earlier productions: what I thought was so clever of Olivier was to realize that the part of Macbeth is one long build up to the end . . . it's a long, straight line upwards, ending with the great fight. . . When he comes to his wife [in 1.5], she's up, she goes completely the other way. I always feel very strongly he's at his lowest ebb and she's absolutely at her peak and they completely change over. I think they cross at the end of the Banquet Scene. She's geared herself and steeled herself to get through this terrific ordeal, and by the time . . . [the guests have] all gone, she has already gone. She's finished. And indeed Byam Shaw directed that Leigh 'sinks down on her knees leaning against Kings [sic] throne' before she manages to exit when Olivier, renewed, summoned her, 'Come, we'll to sleep . . .'2 This pattern necessarily meant that Olivier's Macbeth began quietly, with, for example, only a 'slight start' when all-hailed as 'king hereafter'; critics complained about this restraint, which extended until the discovery of Duncan's murder, the first great 'explosion' of this production, followed by two later peaks in the banquet scene and the final duel.3 Byam Shaw exploited the actor's great physical presence and gymnastic agility in these later climaxes. When the Ghost reentered Act 3, Scene 4, upstage and between two royal thrones, immediately after Macbeth's 'Would he were here', Olivier initially recoiled, but then, pushing Lady Macbeth and her excuses aside ('Think of this, good peers, / But as a thing of custom'), Olivier jumped upon the banqueting table in a great swirl of robes and desperate bravery.4 Byam Shaw's directorial notes stress how much he sought the audience's admiration for Macbeth and Lady Macbeth: After he has committed the crime .. . all that is bad in his character bursts out. . . but the magnificence & courage of his nature remain till the end. He never becomes a brutish villain like Iago [in Othello] or Aaron [in Titus Andronicus]. Her loyalty to her husband is magnificent. The way she behaves in the banquet scene is beyond praise. In spite of her complete lack of compassion & goodness of heart one cannot but have the greatest admiration for her courage & loyalty.5 Byam Shaw's comment on Lady Macbeth has a Victorian flavour, and in performance Vivien Leigh made a relatively weak and certainly a subordinate impression, but Olivier managed to fascinate, rather than repel, the audience, or at least the critics, right through the final, dangerously violent battle with Macduff. This concentration 1 Scott, Truth, p. 770. 2 Macbeth Onstage, pp. [251] and 153. In the Irving-Terry production Macbeth and Lady Macbeth 'crossed' (i.e. their respective strengths changed) at the beginning of Shakespeare's Act 3 (Hughes, Irving, p. 105) as they did in the 1996 Stratford production directed by Tim Albery with Brid Brennan and Roger Allam. 3 See, respectively: Macbeth Onstage, pp. 43 and [249], and Milton Shulman's famous remark, 'restraint run amok' (Evening Standard, 8 June 1955). 4 For the Ghost's and Macbeth's action, see Macbeth Onstage, p. 149; most contemporary critics praised Olivier's extraordinary effects here. 5 Macbeth Onstage, pp. 152-3. Commenting on Act 1, Scene 5, Shaw wrote: 'She has .. . an extraordinary intensity of purpose. She adores her husband. Her ambition for him is beyond everything' (ibid., p. 59). Macbeth [82] on flawed heroism meant in turn that the witches 'are certainly not the Fates. If we felt that Macbeth was, through them, fated to murder the King it would completely destroy the tragedy of the story'; yet, in keeping with Macbeth's paradoxical 'heroism', the witches 'should be terrible & yet strangely wonderful - because anything evil is, always, fascinating & wonderful in some way . . . They must have tragic stature.'1 At the first rehearsal, Shaw spoke frequently of hell, damnation, and the devil, and generalised still further, 'this is the most moral play, & is the strongest possible warning against evil & sin'.2 Only one other English-language staging since 1945 merits comparison with the 1955 Stratford production, and it could not be more different. Following an unsuccessful Christian-demonic production of Macbeth with Helen Mirren (Lady Macbeth) and Nicol Williamson (Macbeth), where 'sex [was] the essence o f the Macbeths' 'tragedy' (Stratford and London, 1974-5),3 Trevor Nunn directed Judi Dench (Lady Macbeth) and Ian McKellen (Macbeth) in a sternly 'ensemble', not 'star', production (1976-8), first at The Other Place (Stratford), later in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, later at the RSC's main house (also Stratford), and still later at the Warehouse, then a Royal Shakespeare Company London venue. Unlike most English-language productions since 1660, this one deployed a small cast, fourteen persons according to Nunn, but varying slightly from year to year.4 Nunn's production expressed the demonic freshly and seriously, making witchcraft vital in a way Orson Welles's 'voodoo' Macbeth (New York, 1936) did not and replacing Welles's more than faintly racist view with an anthropologically sophisticated version.5 These witches have true and complete powers. They cannot be distanced or ignored as 'primitive' or 'other'. They are at once psychologically explicable and irrational. A strongly marked chalk circle circumscribed the playing space (barely visible at the top of illustration 17), and the audience saw a rehearsal studio rather than a formal stage: actors not needed for the moment sat or stood circumferentially, sometimes reacting to the events within the circled 'acting' space, sometimes simply awaiting their moments to perform.6 Macbeth (McKellen) always traversed the circle anticlockwise or 'widdershins' - a reversal traditionally thought of as Satanic or unlucky - whereas other characters moved in a 'moral' or 'virtuous' clockwise way to their places and eventually their exits.7 Nunn's production made no attempt at realistic 1 Macbeth Onstage, p. 30; compare Peter Hall's view, p. 32 above. 2 Macbeth Onstage, pp. 16-17. 3 See Leiter, pp. 380-1, quoting Benedict Nightingale, New York Times, 23 May 1975. 4 '14 actors . . . involved in an intense debate . . . touching constantly on the question of whether there is a meaning to being alive' (Trevor Nunn, Royal Shakespeare Company newspaper, August 1976). Robert Cushman, The Observer, 12 September 1976, put the cast he saw at sixteen. 5 Nunn's version here, so different from the generally Christian interpretation he earlier adopted (Stratford, 1974), may owe something to Charles Marowitz's radical adaptation (Wiesbaden, May 1969; see next note). 6 Charles Marowitz's A Macbeth (1971), with a cast of eleven, including three Macbeths (representing 'the Timorous, the Ambitious, the Nefarious'), probably influenced this and other elements (e.g. the demonism permeating the cast) in Nunn's production. See 'Exercises to A Macbeth [sic\ in The Marowitz Shakespeare, 1978, pp. 70-9, and 'Introduction', p. 14; the quotation here is from 'Introduction', p. 15. 7 See 1.3.33 n. an d Clark, 'Inversion', pp. 122-5. [83] Introduction 17 Act 4, Scene 1, in Trevor Nunn's 1976-8 RSC production. The sisters (Marie Kean, Judith Harte, Susan Dury) present figures of the Apparitions to a drugged, hallucinating Macbeth (Ian McKellen). A strongly marked black circle circumscribes the playing space, and the audience sees a rehearsal studio rather than a formal stage illusion; when theatrical effects were needed, the audience saw how those effects - thunder, lightning - came about. A great 'thunder-sheet' was the stage's backdrop, and when thunder was needed, the audience saw it made. Paradoxically, the sensation was the reverse of artificial. Seeing sounds and lightning made, the audience understood they were not 'natural' but created, created - violently and with an absolute evil Macbeth [84] - by forces not theatrical but far beyond the theatre or indeed Shakespeare. These effects were not 'effects', but something, some things, happening outside human comprehension and beyond human explanation. In a further paradox, this extraordinary production did not relieve Macbeth and Lady Macbeth of responsibility. They discussed, undertook, consciously chose to perform terrible acts, but while they did so from calculated ambition they were also seen to be environed by forces which no audience could understand and no character resist. They were at once responsible and unknowing, in a powerful and ultimately tragic fashion. And still, the acts were committed. In a way quite beyond the reach of rational explanation, but a way also full of theatrical energy and emotional power, Nunn's production made Macbeth and Lady Macbeth simultaneously guilty agents and victims. Theatrical tradition is a powerful drug, narcotic or ecstatic. Henry Irving having once hoisted Macbeth's sword onto his shoulder in 1888, John Gielgud would consciously imitate him in 1930,1 and more than a century after Irving and more than half a century after Gielgud, so would Alan Howard (Royal National Theatre, London, 1993). Less happily, Davenant's spectacle and Davenant's witches, however transmogrified, always trivialising and intrusive, long plagued even the most distinguished performances: Garrick—Pritchard, Kemble-Siddons, Macready-Faucit. Sometimes leading, sometimes following theatrical practice, literary critics have been likewise bemused, likewise puzzled. And always the simplest questions have proved the hardest to answer in both performance and criticism. FURTHER VARIATIONS: KUROSAWA, POLANSKI, NINAGAWA There have been two distinguished cinematic versions of Macbeth, one a medieval Japanese adaptation, Kumonosu-ju (Throne of Blood in English, but more accurately and revealingly, The Castle of the Spider's Web) directed by Akira Kurosawa (1957), the other a film much closer to Shakespeare's text, Macbeth, directed by Roman Polanski (1971).2 The third 'variation' I consider here is Yukio Ninagawa's theatrical production, also placed in a feudal Japanese milieu. 1 See John Gielgud, Early Stages, 1939, p. 168, on his performance in the 1930 Harcourt Williams production at the Old Vic (London), and Sprague, p. 230. 2 In Kurosawa's film, Toshiro Mifune plays Macbeth and Isuzu Yamada, Lady Macbeth; in Polanski's, the roles were taken by two actors untraditionally young for the parts, Jon Finch and Francesca Annis. Other notable cinematic and television versions include: Orson Welles's Macbeth (1948), based on Welles's earlier theatrical production mentioned above; Joe Macbeth (1955; directed by Ken Hughes with Paul Douglas as Macbeth and Ruth Roman as Lady Macbeth); the later of two (1954, i960) Maurice EvansJudith Anderson Hallmark Hall of Fame television versions (i960, directed by George Schaefer); the Eric Porter-Janet Suzman Macbeth (1970, BBC TV, directed by John Gorrie); the Thames Television version (directed by Philip Casson, 1978) of the Judi Dench-Ian McKellen RSC theatrical production discussed above (for staged versus televised versions, see Michael Mullin, 'Stage and screen: the Trevor Nunn Macbeth\ ££) 38 (1987), 350-9); the Nicol Williamson-Jane Lapotaire television production in the BBC 'The Shakespeare Plays' series (1982, directed by Jack Gold); Men of Respect, 'Written and directed by William Reilly adapted from the "Tragedy of Macbeth" by William Shakespeare' (Columbia Pictures, 1990). For further details of, and a summary of critical reaction and printed responses to, all but the last, see Rothwell and Melzer, pp. 155 ff. Both Joe Macbeth and Men of Respect transpose Shakespeare's plot and characters into criminal environments roughly contemporary with the making of the two films [85] Introduction Kurosawa's subtle, learned adaptation of Macbeth is far too complex for summary, and I do not mention many of the film's extraordinary effects.1 To the dismay of many critics, Throne of Blood does not use Shakespeare's text, often replacing the most verbally complex moments with tiny, silent gestures and absences of movement. The film's visual imagery exploits the play's metaphors (of birds and their cries, for example, of a horse wildly uncontrolled, of darkness and light), but its narrative deletes entirely Shakespeare's Malcolm and related matters, including the 'English Scene' (Act 4, Scene 3) and the Porter (conversing soldiers fill some of the expository gaps). Captain Washizu (the figure equivalent to Macbeth) and Captain Miki (the figure equivalent to Banquo) encounter a single androgynous witch, spinning thread like a Greco-Roman Fate, in the 'Cobweb Forest' near the 'Cobweb Castle' all seek to control, and Washizu much later returns to the witch and her/his environment to hear a prophecy - Washizu will reign until the Cobweb Forest moves - recalling the Third Apparition's prediction in Macbeth Act 4, Scene 1. Toshiro Mifune (Washizu) offers a superb performance, combining vocal range with superlative physical acting; he is matched (at least for a western audience) by Isuzu Yamada (Lady Asaji, Washizu's wife and the figure equivalent to Lady Macbeth). She persuades Washizu to murder Tsuzuki (the film's equivalent to Duncan) by voicing the film's emphatic view of human submission to fate and prophecy when she points out that Tsuzuki 'killed his own master to become what he is now'2 (an observation true to Holinshed's narrative of Scottish history), and she persuades Washizu to persevere in killing Miki/Banquo and Yoshiteru/Fleance by telling him 'I am with child' when Washizu/Macbeth seeks to fulfil the witch's prophecy (and avoid any dire consequences) by appointing Yoshiteru/Fleance his heir. In a creative revision of Macbeth, Kurosawa finds the stillborn child of Asaji a source of the couple's political collapse and part of her subsequent madness. Kurosawa's film echoes Shakespeare's ghostly banquet (Act 3, Scene 4), but places the Murderer's announcement of Miki's death and Yoshiteru's survival after (not before, as in Macbeth) the gathered nobles have departed. Washizu (compare Kurosawa's similar translation to a period in Japanese history more-or-less analogous to medieval Scotland and Jacobean England, when the Duncan figure is as violently regicidal as the Macbeth figure). In Men of Respect, for example, Macbeth becomes 'Mike Battaglia [= Battle]' (John Turturro), Lady Macbeth, 'Ruth' (Katherine Borowitz), and Duncan, 'Charlie D'Amico [= Friend]' (Rod Steiger); here, the conflict lies among an entirely criminal or near-criminal cast, and D'Amico (Duncan) is just another crime-boss to be toppled. Thus, the characters equivalent to Lady Macduff and her son die in a car-bombing while the husband is detained by a chance telephone call; the witches are a palm-reader/ fortune-teller/tealeaf-reader and her husband (compare 'Rosie' in Joe Macbeth and see Rothwell and Melzer, p. 155); the Lady Macbeth character worries about cleanliness and walks madly around the restaurant the couple manage as a 'front' for their criminal activities, and she later commits suicide. Birnam Wood disappears, and the Shakespearean prophecy is changed to 'until the stars fall', which they do in a fireworks show. 1 See James Goodwin, Akira Kurosawa and Intertextual Cinema, 1994, pp. 169-91, for a basic analysis of the relations between Shakespeare's play and Kurosawa's film. Useful studies of Kurosawa's film (with references to the substantial number of other critical works) are: Anthony Davies, Filming Shakespeare's Plays, 1988, pp. 152-66, and Peter S. Donaldson, Shakespearean Films/Shakespearean Directors, 1990, pp. 71-91. 2 English quotations from the film's dialogue cite the sub-titles, translated by Donald Richie, of the vidéocassette (see Goodwin, p. 242 n. 11). For an English translation of the script by Hisae Niki, see Akira Kurosawa, 'Seven Samurai' and Other Screenplays, 1992. Macbeth [86] then kills the Murderer. Just as Kurosawa's later Ran (1985) combines Shakespeare's King Lear with Macbeth, Throne of Blood alludes momentarily to Hamlet when a Nohlike poet-dancer (in the scene that echoes Macbeth Act 3, Scene 4) tells an interrupted tale that anticipates or recalls or reveals Washizu's treasonable acts. Throughout the film, Lady Asaji's stillness of face and body and her almost mechanical movements, all of which recall or duplicate Noh conventions, are terrifying. Nearly silent, almost always inhumanly composed until the very end (though, for example, she dances frenziedly while Washizu kills Tsuzuki/Duncan out of the audience's view), she prompts Washizu to ever more horrific acts. Critics originally dismissed Roman Polanski's Macbeth (1971) as a serious presentation of Shakespeare's play because the participation of Hugh Hefner, the executive producer, and of Playboy Productions, seemed to be sponsoring a vulgarisation of the play - naked witches (in the film's version of Act 4, Scene 1) and a nude Lady Macbeth (in the equivalent of Act 5, Scene 1) do indeed appear - but later reflection shows this film to be the most distinguished cinematic version of the play, as the presence of Kenneth Tynan as co-author of the screenplay (with Polanski) suggests. Polanski and Tynan produce an illuminatingly creative revision and echo of theatrical performances, especially of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, while also adapting the play to film. Thus, as in many earlier theatrical productions, we see enacted, often violently, moments the Folio's text represents only verbally: the execution of Cawdor; the stormy night that accompanies Duncan's arrival at, and death in, Macbeth's castle; the banquet of Act 1, Scene 7; the drugging of the grooms and the murder of Duncan (where Duncan awakes to see his murderer's indecision before the bloody moment); the wakening grooms, looking at their smeared hands and faces before the avenging Macbeth grasps Lennox's sword to kill them; Duncan's funeral cortège (only alluded to, if that, in Act 2, Scene 4, of Shakespeare's text); Macbeth's installation as king at Scone; the extraordinarily violent murders of Lady Macduff, her children, and her retainers. Soliloquies in Shakespeare's text are sometimes represented as spoken, sometimes as 'voice-over' (where the actor does not visibly speak but the audience hears the actor's voice), sometimes as a combination of 'spoken' and 'over-heard' sounds. The film also reorders the play's scenes and the sequence of events within scenes. First Murderer self-satisfiedly reports his 'success' in killing Banquo (Shakespeare's Act 3, Scene 4) quite privately, for instance, before he and his murderous colleague are led away to incarceration, and, we assume, death, in an oubliette; the second appearance of Banquo's Ghost (in the Folio's Act 3, Scene 4) is omitted; Act 3, Scenes 5 and 6, are deleted from the Folio's sequence (the film moves directly from the banquet to Macbeth's last visit to the sisters) and lines from those scenes are inserted later; offering a cinematic, not theatrical, continuity, the film follows its version of Act 5, Scene 1, with Macbeth's medical-political conversation ('How does your patient, doctor?') from Act 5, Scene 3, and, reversing the Folio's order, the film then turns to an elaborate representation of the flight of the 'false thanes' (5.3.7). The film now introduces lines from the Folio's Act 4, Scene 3, including a powerful moment when Malcolm hands his own sword to the newly bereaved Macduff and says, 'Be this the [8/] Introduction whetstone of your sword' (4.3.231), and a plangent moment in which Lady Macbeth, distraught, reappears (as, of course, she does not in the Folio) to speak the lines from her husband's letter (Act 1, Scene 5) she had not spoken earlier. Almost at once, the film presents Lady Macbeth's corpse, to which Macbeth speaks 'Out, out, brief candle. . .' (5.5.22ff.). The film concludes with a sequence of violent, acrobatic, highly persuasive sword-fights, ending with Macbeth's decapitation and (in Grand Guignol style) the head's presentation on a pole. Macbeth remains resolute and, until his final moments, invulnerable, as the sisters and apparitions had promised. Polanski's film, or Polanski and Tynan's script, should be noted for several other innovations. It introduces a young central couple (Jon Finch and Francesca Annis), whose sexuality is an important dramatic element. It treats the Thane of Ross (played by John Stride) as a thoroughly self-serving figure, whose political behaviour repeats, emphasises, and contrasts with that of others (Macbeth, Lady Macbeth, Macduff, for instance): in the film, Ross is the Third Murderer of the Folio's Act 3, Scene 3, an accomplice in the deaths of Lady Macduff and her family and retainers, and he is an overt time-server in following Macbeth and then siding with Malcolm and Macduff. The film concludes with Donaldbain turning back to the witches, in evident hope that they will help him gain the throne (and therefore overthrow Malcolm), as they had earlier led Macbeth to the kingship. Yukio Ninagawa's Japanese adaptation of Macbeth came west in 1985 when Mikijiro Hira portrayed Macbeth and Komaki Kurihara Lady Macbeth at the Edinburgh Festival,1 and in 1987, when Masane Tsukayama replaced Hira, at the National Theatre, London.2 Ninagawa's 'achingly beautiful' production was not well received in Japan - it was regarded as a false version or translation of medieval Japanese culture - but in European theatres the production was greeted rapturously.3 Ninagawa said, 'It [the play, Macbeth] is set within a Buddhist family altar and everything happens within that frame. There is such an altar in all Japanese houses, but that does not mean that it is a religious frame. The altar is where your ancestors dwell, and the Japanese will talk to their ancestors within this setting quite naturally. It is a link between the living and the world of death . . .'4 This altar - 'a huge Butsudan . . . closed off downstage by a pair of slatted doors across the whole stage-width'5 - framed and enclosed the play's performance. The Butsudan's doors are moved 'by two aged 1 See Peter Whitebrook, The Scotsman, 24 August 1985. The play was translated into Japanese by Yushi Odashima. 2 See The Guardian, 18 September 1987. Pictures of this later production appear in Giles Gordon's thoughtful and not entirely complimentary review, Plays and Players 410 (November 1987), 18-19. Gordon notes (p. 18) that 'The musical score .. . is, somewhat deviously, derived from European composers . . .' 3 Michael Billington, The Guardian, quoted in Ronnie Mulryne, 'From text to foreign stage: Yukio Ninagawa's cultural translation of Macbeth?, in Patricia Kennan and Mariangela Tempera (eds.), Shakespeare from Text to Stage, 1992, pp. 131-43; quotation from p. 131. Mulryne's essay is the fullest western treatment of Ninagawa's production I have seen. For criticism of the production in Japan, see Tetsuo Kishi, ' "Bless thee! Thou art translated!": Shakespeare in Japan', in Werner Habicht et al. (eds.), Images of Shakespeare, 1988, pp. 245-50, esp. pp. 245 and 249. 4 Michael Leech, interview with Yukio Ninagawa, What's on in London, 17 September 1987. 5 Mulryne, p. 133. Macbeth [88] crones', who sometimes respond to the play's events1 and who are Ninagawa's version of the sisters and the Porter of Shakespeare's Macbeth, but the 'most pervasive visual image' of the production 'is cherry blossom'.2 These blossoms, beautiful, fragile, transitory, '[combine] regret at human madness and folly with awareness of earthly beauty'3 and also recall Kurosawa's cinematic emphasis upon fatality and Polanski's upon repetition. Macbeth in the mind and in performance: Act 4, Scene 3 Macbeth has some curious narrative discontinuities (or irregularities, or illogicalities), especially in the places - at the end of Act 3 and beginning of Act 4 - where material by another author (probably Thomas Middleton) has probably been inserted into a pre-existing and perhaps wholly Shakespearean text (see Textual Analysis, pp. 255-9 below). Such are the ills that any evolving theatrical text inherits as its producers seek to make it new, fashionable, and commercially attractive, but the dramatic rhythm here is also curious: first, a leisurely and cryptic conversation between Malcolm and Macduff, then an abrupt, even discontinuous, passage (the English Doctor and the King's Evil), followed by Ross's obliquely introduced and brutally announced news from Scotland concluded by the patently 'stirring' move to free Scotland from the tyrant's oppression. Act 4, Scene 3, may have been maladroitly revised to include references to a disease, the King's Evil, and the English monarch's supposed ability to cure it. King James was interested in this 'magical' power; and it attracted his subjects' attention throughout his reign.4 Whether or not it was revised, and whether or not it was well revised, Macbeth Act 4, Scene 3, poses some extraordinary theatrical, dramatic, and intellectual puzzles for producers, audiences, and critics. Before this conversation in the English court (Act 4, Scene 3), Malcolm last appeared discussing his father's murder with Donaldbain: MALCOLM [To Donaldbain] Why do we hold our tongues, that most may claim This argument for ours? DONALDBAIN [To Malcolm] What should be spoken here, Where our fate hid in an auger hole may rush And seize us? Let's away. Our tears are not yet brewed. MALCOLM [To Donaldbain] Nor our strong sorrow upon the foot of motion. (2.3.113-17) After this sotto voce conversation - the other characters are busy guessing at the murderer's identity and reacting to Macbeth's announcement that he has killed the grooms - the focus shifts to Lady Macbeth, who may faint here, or pretend to do so 1 Ibid., p. 135. 2 Ibid., p. 136. 3 Michael Billington, of Komaki Kurihara's performance as Lady Macbeth, The Guardian, 18 September 1987. On the performance of Kurihara - 'Young, beautiful, raven-haired' {ibid.), 'Her manner in the early scenes trembles uncontrollably between that of a coquettish sex-kitten and an unsmiling psychopath' {The Independent, 19 September 1987) - see Mulryne, pp. 139-40. 4 See Supplementary Note 4.3.148, p. 244 below; Textual Analysis, pp. 262-3 below; Hoeniger, Medicine and Shakespeare, p. 8 above, n. 2. [8g] Introduction (see 2.3.112 n.), and the other characters' decision to put on 'manly readiness'. The stage empties, leaving the two sons to make their decision. This dialogue of unbrewed tears and unmoved sorrow may be a later interpolation (see Textual Analysis, pp. 259-61 below); whether it is a second thought or not, one of its evident purposes is to explain the sons' passivity, or their cowardice, which 'generally create[s] laughter', according to an eighteenth-century critic.1 Their only previous contributions to the scene were two brief questions: Donaldbain's maladroit 'What is amiss?' (2.3.90) and Malcolm's grotesquely fatuous response to Macduff s 'Your royal father's murdered' - 'O, by whom?' (2.3.93). Malcolm and Donaldbain are otherwise silent, and some contributor to the Folio text apparently sought to explain that silence. Explanation paradoxically emphasises the passivity it would justify. What needs no excuse gets none; what does, does. True, the sons' pallid lines underscore the baroque imagery of blood, death, and Doomsday the other characters use, and true, they may indeed have awakened not from beds but graves as Macduff says (2.3.72-4), but it is true also that Donaldbain's fear over their 'fate hid in an auger hole' provides an adequate reason for their silence. As Lady Macbeth's sleepy remarks on knowledge and power suggest - 'Who knows it, when none can call our power to account?' (5.1.32-3) - it may be better to remain silent than to draw attention, even if, or especially if, one is Prince of Cumberland and Duncan's heir-designate (1.4.37-9). With this ambiguous prelude, the royal sons, now alone on stage, share their last exchange: MALCOLM What will you do? Let's not consort with them. To show an unfelt sorrow is an office Which the false man does easy. I'll to England. DONALDBAIN To Ireland, I. Our separated fortune Shall keep us both the safer. Where we are, There's daggers in men's smiles; the nea'er in blood, The nearer bloody. MALCOLM This murderous shaft that's shot Hath not yet lighted, and our safest way Is to avoid the aim. Therefore to horse, And let us not be dainty of leave-taking, But shift away. There's warrant in that theft Which steals itself when there's no mercy left. (2.3.128-39)2 Here the issue of self-preservation is palpably central, while in the earlier conversation it is only arguably so. Indeed, the first exchange may have been inserted to explain the second and to diminish what looks suspiciously like cowardice or at least political indifference and a rather unusual failure of the Shakespearean child to mourn its 1 See Francis Gentleman in Bell's Edition of Shakespeare's Plays, 1, Macbeth pagination sequence, p. 27: 'they [Malcolm, Donaldbain] generally create laughter, and their pusillanimous resolution of departure . . . deserves no better treatment'. Gentleman wrote in a theatrical era when Lady Macbeth's part (played by Sarah Siddons, no less) was cut from Act 2, Scene 3. Byam Shaw thought Malcolm and Donaldbain 'begin to panic' here (Macbeth Onstage, p. 103). 2 This passage is not so textually suspect as the sons' earlier conversation; Brooke seems to find this passage textually puzzling (see his notes ad loc. and his Appendix A, pp. 220-1), but erroneous line numbers make his views uncertain. Macbeth [go] parent.1 Besides his ugly punning on 'theft' and 'warrant', Malcolm makes one particularly Janus-faced remark: 'To show an unfelt sorrow is an office / Which the false man does easy.' Some members of the audience (especially, perhaps, the students at the Inns of Court, ever watchful for fashionable phrases) may have reached for their notebooks to record the speech under 'Hypocrisy', but the sententious remark really challenges all shows of sorrow and indeed all absences of shows of sorrow. Where does its stress lie? On 'unfelt', on 'false', or on 'easy'? Does the non-false man show an unfelt sorrow with great difficulty, but show it none the less? Does a son, like Malcolm, who is not showing sorrow for his father's death therefore qualify as nonfalse because his unshown sorrow is in fact unfelt?2 I propose that someone involved in the making of Macbeth thought an audience seeing Act 4, Scene 3, for the first time might find both Malcolm and Macduff somehow suspect or unfixed, their traits either vague or unstable.3 That 'someone' inserted two choric scenes to stabilise the audience's attitudes: in Act 2, Scene 4, we first hear Macduff characterised as 'good' (line 20), and the scene supports the adjective through his refusal to attend Macbeth's coronation; in Act 3, Scene 6, Lennox and an anonymous Lord testify to Malcolm's and Macduff s goodness and applaud their alliance with England's holy Edward. Unfortunately, this putative effort confuses the play's narrative, and one desperate critic goes so far as to claim that the pertinent lines of Act 3, Scene 6, are ironic and that Lennox tests the Lord as Malcolm will test Macduff.4 As with the epithet 'good Macduff, Act 3, Scene 6, proposes that Malcolm and Macduff hold Scotland's future hopes, but Macduff has fled under mysterious, if not morally ambiguous, circumstances, and his flight creates such extreme dramatic prob1 A telling analogy, if it is one, might be Hal's seizing the crown when he thinks Henry IV is dead; like Duncan's sons, Hal reacts pragmatically first and mourns later. See Giorgio Melchiori (éd.), 2H4, 1989, 4.2.167-73 and 211-16. 2 Note, too, the use of'office' with its plural significations: 'That which one ought, or has, to do in the way of service; that which is required or expected'; 'A position or place to which certain duties are attached'; 'A ceremonial duty or service' (OED Office sb 2, 4, 5, respectively). The dutiful and the potentially hypocritical elements in these definitions cut against both the 'false man' and the speaker. 3 So Barbara Riebling finds Malcolm at least; see 'Virtue's sacrifice: a machiavellian reading of Macbeth', Studies in English Literature, 1500-1 goo, 31 (1991), 277-9. What I have said and will say about Act 4, Scene 3, may seem no more than a footnote to the second section of Stephen Booth's 'King Lear', 'Macbeth ', Indefinition, and Tragedy, 1983; I hope not, but if so, it is an honourable estate. In Booth's view, the audience believes, falsely but for a time comfortingly, 'that the comprehensibility of the container [here, Macbeth] is of the nature of the thing ["tragedy"] contained' (p. 89), and he then argues, a little equivocally, 'that Macbeth is itself, as a whole, a kind of equivocation between the fact of limitlessness - indefinition, tragedy - and the duty of art to limit and define' (p. 98). I propose that Macbeth represents or dramatises this equivocation and therefore smudges, however momentarily, the difference that Booth finds between the play and the experience of it, between tragedy represented or dramatic tragedy experienced in retrospect, and tragedy experienced in life — the fire that destroys a family Christmas, the golden wedding anniversary heart-attack. That is, Macbeth knows what it is doing and what Stephen Booth is thinking; on the other hand, 'If audiences were led to take conscious notice of the inconsistency in their evaluations . . . they would presumably set about rationalizing .. . in an effort to make their responses consistent' (p. 115), and I may be doing just that. 4 See Paul, p. 276, where he claims that Lennox is 'ironical' in Act 3, Scene 6, because 'Lennox knows that Macduff has fled to England but is cautiously trying to find out whether the other lord knows this, and what he thinks about it. . .' [ci] Introduction lems that William Davenant rewrote this section of the play and inserted a scene elaborately justifying MacdufPs abandonment of his family.1 According to Davenant, regicide is the unacceptable alternative to flight, and his solution to the problem anticipated Nahum Tate's 1681 revision of King Lear, where Gloucester's good son (Edgar) and Lear's good daughter (Cordelia) fall in love, partly to give 'Countenance to Edgar's Disguise [as Tom o'Bedlam], making that a generous Design that was before [in Shakespeare's play] a poor Shift to save his Life'.2 Davenant and Tate justify or palliate what they construe as the 'poor Shift[s]' Shakespeare's characters employ 'to save [their lives]' - that is, Davenant and Tate justify or palliate the characters' represented cowardice. In Macbeth Act 4, Scene 3 - 'slow', 'perverse', 'irritating', 'frustrating', and 'unpleasant' as it is3 - Malcolm elaborately indicts himself of hyperbolic evil: there's no bottom, none, In my voluptuousness: your wives, your daughters, Your matrons, and your maids could not fill up The cistern of my lust, and my desire All continent impediments would o'erbear That did oppose my will. . . With this, there grows In my most ill-composed affection such A stanchless avarice that, were I king, I should cut off the nobles for their lands, Desire his jewels, and this other's house, And my more-having would be as a sauce To make me hunger more, that I should forge Quarrels unjust against the good and loyal, Destroying them for wealth. (4.3.60-5, 76-84) Malcolm finally declares he has none of the 'king-becoming graces', but abounds In the division of each several crime, Acting it many ways. Nay, had I power, I should Pour the sweet milk of concord into hell, Uproar the universal peace, confound All unity on earth. (4.3.96-100) Malcolm claims these evils, it seems, because he distrusts Macduff, particularly because Macduff abandoned 'Those precious motives, those strong knots of love' (4.3.27), his wife and children. Having answered Malcolm's earlier suspicions with blunt denial - 'I am not treacherous' (18) - and plaintive resignation - 'I have lost my 1 Compare Adelman, pp. 143-4; Macduff and his flight are among the few embarrassments to Adelman's persuasive argument. 2 Quoted from Tate's dedication to Thomas Boteler, Esq., in Christopher Spencer (éd.), Five Restoration Adaptations of Shakespeare, 1965, p. 203; I have converted Tate's italic to roman. 3 Booth, pp. 107-10; John Munro (éd.), The London Shakespeare, 6 vols., 1957, vi, 1088, summarises earlier negative reactions. Many critics find the scene satisfactory; see, for example, Knights, pp. 27-9; Lily B. Campbell, 'Political ideas in Macbeth IV.iii', SQ2 (1951), 281-6; Irving Ribner, The English History Play in the Age of Shakespeare, 1957, pp. 256-9; Richard S. Ide, 'The theatre of the mind: an essay on Macbeth', ELH42 (1975), 361 n. 30. Macbeth [ç2] hopes' (24) — Macduff now foresees a desperate, bloody, and tyrannical future. He prepares to go: Fare thee well, lord, I would not be the villain that thou think'st For the whole space that's in the tyrant's grasp, And the rich East to boot. (4.3.34-7) Just as Macduff himself had earlier been carefully ambiguous about his attitudes toward the new king when talking with Ross and the Old Man (2.4.21 ff), Malcolm here intersperses placating or exculpating remarks, remarks that will save him should Macduff prove either adherent or enemy to Macbeth: 'it may be so perchance' (11); 'Let not my jealousies be your dishonours' (29); 'Be not offended' (37).' Malcolm's most notable attempt to have it both ways confounds dramatic representation and the audience's credulity: That which you are, my thoughts cannot transpose; Angels are bright still, though the brightest fell. Though all things foul would wear the brows of grace, Yet grace must still look so. (4.3.21-4) In one powerful sense, the sense the play would have us understand as the only sense, this remark is true: Macduff may be an honourable man whether or not Malcolm thinks he is, just as angels are bright though Lucifer fell. Unfortunately for trust and reason, the brightest did fall, and in life as in Hamlet, thinking makes it so. If Malcolm or the audience thinks Macduff dishonourable, an agent provocateur, then effectively Macduff is so, and the campaign to depose Macbeth ends before it starts, along with the audience's certitude. For the audience, the paradox of Act 4, Scene 3, is the flip side to Lady Macbeth's politically and epistemologically abhorrent confidence - 'Who knows it, when none can call our power to account?' (5.1.32-3) - because the audience has now been placed in the situation of those Scots who think they know but cannot speak and cannot therefore act on their knowledge and its implications. In the end, Act 4, Scene 3 attacks not just the characters' represented capacity to know one another, but the audience's capacity to discriminate ethically and politically among the represented personages. The scene attacks the bases of drama and admits that attack when the unexpected reversal, equivalent to a sonnet's volta, finally arrives and Malcolm chooses to believe MacdufPs honesty, his exasperated patriotism and his desperate disappointment: Macduff, this noble passion, Child of integrity, hath from my soul Wiped the black scruples, reconciled my thoughts To thy good truth and honour. (4.3.114-17) Malcolm believes 'this noble passion, / Child of integrity' on evidence no better than, nor different from, the grounds he had for doubting MacdufPs earlier asseverations. 1 Ian Richardson's brilliant performance in Peter Hall's 1967 Stratford production 'offered an unconventional Malcolm with an inkling of evil deep inside' (Leiter, p. 378). [çj] Introduction The better the actors are at deceiving each other, the better they inevitably are at deceiving the audience, and vice versa, as some celebrated actors have acknowledged.1 Suspicion and trust here both arise from a character's ethos, and Macduff justly remarks, 'Such welcome and unwelcome things at once / 'Tis hard to reconcile' (138— 9). Indeed, 'tis. The scene has made every assertion, every trust, every doubt 'hard to reconcile'. Here, humans palter with each other just as Macbeth claims the 'juggling fiends' did with him, and just so the play palters in performance and on the page. 1 Trader Faulkner, who played Malcolm in the 1955 Stratford production, recalls arguing with Keith Michell (Macduff), Laurence Olivier (Macbeth), and Byam Shaw (the director): 'They said, "You're too convincing in the two contradictory aspects of the character. You're convincing when you say you're true and you're totally convincing when you say I didn't mean a word of it" ' (Macbeth Onstage, p. [252]). Macbeth [94] Scotland, showing place names mentioned in the text of Macbeth NOTE ON THE TEXT The First Folio (F) of Shakespeare's plays (1623) contains the earliest surviving text of The Tragédie of Macbeth, where it is sixth among the tragedies, printed between Julius Caesar and Hamlet; this text is probably derived from a Jacobean playhouse script rather than from a literary or reading text. The theatrical tradition produced two other important seventeenth-century printed texts: a quarto Macbeth in 1673 (Q1673) published without Shakespeare's name but generally following F with some additional material and several fascinating 'editorial' readings; and William Davenant's adaptation of Macbeth, printed in 1674 and here designated 'Davenant'. Appendix 2, pp. 268-72 below, discusses the relation of Q1673 to F and to Davenant's 1674 version. Q1673, Davenant's play, and Folio Macbeth almost certainly include the work of Thomas Middleton, a distinguished younger contemporary of Shakespeare. All modern editions of'Shakespeare's' play, including this one, should therefore be considered editions of 'Macbeth by William Shakespeare and adapted by Thomas Middleton', as the 1986 Oxford edition of the Complete Works puts it. The Folio text of Macbeth contains many moments where the staging is debatable; this edition pays special attention to such moments. Modern editions differ principally on two matters: first, lineation, particularly in the first half of the play, and second, the treatment of passages almost certainly written by Middleton. Both subjects are discussed in the Textual Analysis, pp. 251-9 below, as are the questions of'copy' for the Folio, the compositors and printing of F, and the possible revision of F. The Textual Analysis also describes the editorial procedures I have employed and, more important, explains this edition's silent (that is, uncollated) changes to the text as it appears in F. Shakespeare's plays swoop disconcertingly from language and action that appear unconstrained by time or place to highly precise (and, we must admit, sometimes now unfathomable) references to particular words, customs, ideas, and preoccupations of early modern England. This oscillation especially characterises his tragedies, and Macbeth is a supreme example. I have reluctantly offered notes on the play's imaginary locations, which may be in a notional eleventh-century Scotland and England, but were once also on the Globe's stage and were therefore once part of early-seventeenthcentury London. Only an Enlightenment editor or reader might guess where the witches are. This text is a modernised one. For words that are now archaic, the modern equivalent appears if it does not disturb the metre, rhyme, or wordplay; where earlier editions have treated verbal changes as emendations, the collation records the change as a modernisation. Thus, at 1.7.6 this text reads 'shoal' and the collation records F'S 95 Macbeth [ç6] archaic form, 'Schoole' (which could, of course, at first seem to be the modern word 'school'): shoal] F (Schoole) For more complicated changes, the collation begins with the reading accepted into the text followed by the source of that change, then by the Folio reading, and (in chronological order) any other plausible but rejected readings. Thus, a more complicated example (2.2.66) might read: green one red] Q1673, F4 (Green one Red); Greene one, Red F; green, One red Johnson which means that this text adopts a (modernised) reading shared by the theatrical quarto of 1673 and F4, the Fourth Folio (1685), that is the equivalent of the First Folio according to modern punctuational conventions, and that Samuel Johnson's edition (1765) repunctuated the phrase and changed its meaning. Another example appears at 2.34-5 : Come in time - ] Brooke; Come in time, F; Come in, time, Q1673; Come in, Time; Staunton; come in, time-server; NS; Come in farmer, Blackfriars (conj. Anon, in Cam.) This collation means: this text adopts Brooke's reading, a modernisation of F'S text; Q1673 repunctuated the phrase; Howard Staunton, apparently unaware of Q1673, conjectured the same reading as Q1673 and made 'time' an abstraction; John Dover Wilson (in the New Shakespeare edition) offered an interesting emendation, as did Robert Dent in the Blackfriars edition, following an earlier conjecture. When this text follows F in a phrase longer than one or two words, but other editions have made different choices, the collation records only those places where F differs from the text offered here. Thus the collation for the stage direction at 4.1.131 reads: F {Musicke . .. Dance . . .); Globe adds / with Hecate indicating that this text differs from F only in the spelling and capitalisation of two words, but that the Globe editors appended a further direction to the original one. NOTE ON THE COMMENTARY More frequently than any earlier edition, the Commentary here cites the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) and other lexical sources, using the OED\ terminology for parts of speech (sb for 'substantive', a noun; v for 'verb', a for 'adjective', ppl a for 'participial adjective', vbl sb for 'verbal substantive', etc.) and the numbered and lettered sub-divisions in its entries. Exploiting Jùrgen Schàfer's and Bryan A. Garner's work on the OED and later texts antedating its citations and adding to these works, the Commentary draws attention to words that may be Shakespearean coinages and notes those places where Macbeth is the first text cited for a use or definition. Other editions and earlier students of Shakespeare's language have not always recorded the play's verbal inventiveness; where appropriate, glosses and citations from OED and of proverbial language therefore suggest where the play innovates or echoes earlier usage by remarking how frequently a word or phrase occurs, or the date of the first recorded use. This information may be wildly inaccurate, however, since much lexicographical work remains to be done. When I cite Macbeth, references are to lines as numbered here unless otherwise noted; Shakespeare's other plays are cited from the Riverside edition, text éd. G. B. Evans, 1974. Other editors' references to Shakespeare are similarly normalised, as are their references to works where I cite different (and more accurate) editions. (See the List of Abbreviations and Conventions, pp. xi—xxii above, for the works and editions mentioned here, in the Commentary, and in the collation.) Greek and Latin texts are cited from the appropriate Loeb edition with only the translator's name mentioned; unattributed translations are mine. Unless otherwise noted, the Bible is quoted from the so-called 'Bishops' Bible' (1568). 97 Macbeth LIST OF CHARACTERS Speaking characters in order of first appearance: Three WITCHES DUNCAN, King of Scotland MALCOLM, Duncan's elder son, later Prince of Cumberland, later King of Scotland CAPTAIN m the Scottish forces LENNOX, a thane ROSS, a thane MACBETH, Thane ofGlamis, later Thane ofCawdor, later King of Scotland BANQUO, a thane ANGUS, a thane LADY MACBETH, Countess ofGlamis, later Countess ofCawdor, later Queen of Scotland ATTENDANT in the household of Macbeth FLEANCE, Banquo's son PORTER in Macbeth's household MACDUFF, Thane of Fife DONALDBAIN, Duncan'syounger son OLD MAN Two MURDERERS employed by Macbeth SERVANT w ffe household of Macbeth THIRD MURDERER employed by Macbeth HECATE, goddess of the moon and of sorcery A LORD, a Scot, opposed to Macbeth FIRST APPARITION, an armed Head SECOND APPARITION, a bloody Child THIRD APPARITION, a Child crowned LADY MACDUFF, Countess of Fife SON to Macduff and Lady Macduff MESSENGER, a Scot Two MURDERERS, who attack Lady Macduff and her Son DOCTOR at the English court DOCTOR OF PHYSIC at the Scottish court WAITING-GENTLEWOMAN who attends Lady Macbeth MENTEITH, a thane opposed to Macbeth CAITHNESS, a thane opposed to Macbeth SERVANT to Macbeth SEYTON, gentleman loyal to Macbeth si WARD, general in the Anglo-Scottish forces [IOI] List of characters MESSENGER in Macbeth's service YOUNG SIWARD, Siward's son, in the Anglo-Scottish forces Silent characters: Attendants in Duncan's entourage Musicians (players of hautboys) Torch-bearers . , , , . , , , , , o in Macbeth s household Sewer Servants and Attendants Ghost ofBanquo Three Witches, accompanying Hecate Eight kings, appearing to Macbeth Drummers and bearers of colours (flags) in the Anglo-Scottish forces Soldiers in the Anglo-Scottish forces Drummers and bearers of colours (flags) in Macbeth's forces Soldiers in Macbeth's forces Notes F does not provide a list. These notes principally concern the semi-legendary and historical individuals dramatised in Macbeth, along with information about how proper names might have been pronounced in Shakespeare's theatre. DUNCAN Historically, Duncan I (reigned AD 1034-40). MALCOLM Historically, Malcolm III (reigned AD 1057-93). LENNOX His remark, 'my young remembrance' (2.3.54), ma v indicate his age. ROSS Executed, according to Holinshed (Scotland, p. 171b), during the ten-year period of Macbeth's reign as a good king. MACBETH Historically, Mormaer of Moray; reigned AD 1040-57. Simon Forman (see pp. 57-8 above) once spells the name 'Mackbet', despite the evidence of the Folio (which rhymes it with 'heath' at 1.1.7-8, and with 'death' at 1.2.64-5 an ^ 3-5-4~5) that the final th was sounded; the rhymes with 'death' also strongly imply a short e in 'Macbeth' (Cercignani, pp. 76-7). BANQUO Historically, Thane of Lochaber; Simon Forman's spellings (see pp. 57-8 above) - Bancko, Banko, Banco - may indicate Jacobean pronunciation. LADY MACBETH Historically, 'Gruoch', a descendant of either King Kenneth II (reigned AD 971-5) or of King Kenneth III (reigned PAD 997-1005). MACDUFF Historically, Thane of Fife; Simon Forman (see pp. 57-8 above) spells this name MackDove and Macdouee (i.e. Macdove), perhaps indicating Jacobean pronunciation; the name rhymes with 'Enough' at 4.1.70-1. DONALDBAIN The historical individual's name was also represented as Donaldbane, Donalbane, Donald Bane, or Donald Ban (i.e. 'Donald the Fair'). Reigned as Donald III AD 1093-7- CAITHNESS Executed, according to Holinshed (Scotland, p. 171b), during the ten-year period of Macbeth's reign as a good king. SEYTON For pronunciation of this name, see Supplementary Note on 5.3.19, p. 244 below. SIWARD Historically, an Earl of Northumberland who died in AD 1055, two years before Macbeth. MACBETH i . i Thunder and lightning. Enter three WITCHES FIRST WITCH When shall we three meet again? In thunder, lightning, or in rain? SECOND WITCH When the hurly-burly's done, When the battle's lost, and won. THIRD WITCH That will be ere the set of sun. FIRST WITCH Where the place? SECOND WITCH Upon the heath. THIRD WITCH There to meet with Macbeth. FIRST WITCH I come, Graymalkin. Title] The Tragédie of Macbeth F (title page and in running titles throughout); The Tragedy of Macbeth F (table of contents) Acti,Scene i I.I ] F (Actus Primus. Scoena Prima.) ISHFIRST WITCH] F (I.) throughout (sometimes as i) i again?] F (againe?),- again Hanmer 3 SH SECOND WITCH] F (2.) throughout (sometimes as 2) 5 SH THIRD WITCH] F (3.) throughout (sometimes as 3) Act 1, Scene 1 Perhaps the most striking opening scene in Shakespeare. Coleridge saw a particular contrast with Hamlet: 'In the latter the gradual ascent from the simplest forms of conversation to the language of impassioned intellect, yet still the intellect remaining the seat of passion; in the Macbeth, the invocation is made at once to the imagination, and the emotions connected therewith' (Coleridge, p. 106). This romantic view diverged sharply from that of Johnson, who defended playwright and witches with a relativistic argument, 'however they may now be ridiculed'. The setting is unlocalised, but at least since Komisarjevsky's production (Stratford, 1933) the sisters (or 'witches', see 0 SD n.) have sometimes been imagined as battlefield scavengers. 0 SD Thunder and lightning Witches were popularly supposed to 'send raine, haile, tempests, thunder, lightening' (Scot, in, 13); see 1.3.10-13 n. 0 SD WITCHES Only at 1.3.5 does the dialogue use the word witch; elsewhere they are named and name themselves 'weird sisters', although 'Witches' appears in many SDS. Male actors often play these parts (see C. B. Young in NS, p. lxxii, and e.g. Colin George's production, Sheffield Playhouse, October 1970). In his 1888 souvenir edn, Henry Irving claimed (p. 6), 'this is, I believe, the first time that the weird sisters have been performed by women'; on the eighteenth-century English stage, Ann Pitt was the only female witch (Carlisle, p. 338). See illustration 2, p. 18 above. For the witches' early costuming, see Supplementary Note, p. 239 below. 1 When The play's first word concerns time, a topic that will become increasingly important and is always more significant than place, 'Where' (6). 3 hurly-burly turmoil, tumult, especially of rebellion or insurrection. Reduplications with suffixed -y are common in English (e.g. topsy-turvy, handy-dandy, wishy-washy), but the see-saw childishness is here appropriate to the sisters' obscurely ominous way of speaking and the teetering confusion of opposites to follow. 4 battle conflict F'S 'Battaile' could also mean 'body .. . of troops . . . composing an entire army, or one of its main divisions' {OED Battle sb 8a), a meaning appropriate to the slaughter soon described. 4 lost, and won Possibly proverbial (Dent W408.1); see 1.2.67 n. 7 heath wilderness; uninhabited and uncultivated ground. 9 Graymalkin A cat's name. 'Malkin' is a diminutive of 'Maud' or 'Matilda' (see OED Malkin and Mawkin); 'malkin' is also slang for 'slut, lewd woman' (Williams). It was a 'peculiarly English notion' (Thomas, p. 445) that cats and toads (see 10 n.), as well as dogs, rats, and some insects, were Macbeth 1.2.2 SECOND WITCH Paddock calls. THIRD WITCH Anon. ALL Fair is foul, and foul is fair, Hover through the fog and filthy air. Exeunt 1.2 Alarum within. Enter King [DUNCAN,] MALCOLM, DONALDBAIN, LENNOX, with Attendants, meeting a bleeding CAPTAIN DUNCAN What bloody man is that? He can report, As seemeth by his plight, of the revolt 10-13 SECOND WITCH . . . air.] Singer1 (conj. Hunter, 'New', n, 165, subst.); All. Padock calls anon: faire is foule, and foule is faire, / Houer through the fogge and filthie ayre. F Act 1, Scene 2 1.2] F (Scena Secunda.) o SD. 1 King DUNCAN, MALCOLM] Capell; King Malcome F o SD.1-2 DONALDBAIN] F (Donaibaine) here and in SDS throughout o SD.2 CAPTAIN] F (Captaine); Sergeant Cam. 1 SH DUNCAN] F (King) here and in sus throughout likely to be witches' 'familiars', non-human agents of their deeds; see Scot, 1, 4 ; 'Familiar .. . a very quaint invisible devil' (Webster, Duchess of Malfi 1.1.259-60); 'familiars in the shape of mice, / Rats, ferrets, weasels' (Edmonton 2.1.103-4). 10 Paddock Toad. 12 Fair is foul, and foul is fair Proverbially, 'Fair without but foul within' (Dent F29); see 1.3.36 and 1.7.81-2 n. 13 fog An invitation to the audience's imagination, since fog-effects were not possible in early productions, though smoke (from burning resin) was. 13 filthy murky, thick (OED Filthy a ib, quoting this line). 13 SD Precisely how the witches depart here and at 1.3.76 (on foot, through a trap-door, or flying?) is complicated by Hecate's departure in 3.5, which may stipulate a flying exit but is also probably an addition by Thomas Middleton (see Textual Analysis, pp. 255-9 below); the sisters' departure in 4.1 - vanish (4.1.131 SD) - is also probably Middleton's. Wickham ('Fly', pp. 172-3, 177-8) concludes that Shakespeare's witches did not fly, but Middleton's (added) Hecate did. See also Textual Analysis, pp. 256-7. Eighteenth-century editors add SDS - fly away (Rowe), vanish (Malone) - recording later and certainly mechanised stage practice. Act 1, Scene 2 This scene condenses three conflicts - Macdonald's rebellion, and invasions by Sweno and by Canute - described in Scotland, pp. i68b-i7ob, where 'Norwegian' and 'Danish' are indiscriminately applied to the foreign forces; Shakespeare (or another author) leaves the third vaguest, perhaps because James VI and I's wife Queen Anne was Danish. The setting may be imagined as Duncan's command post, near a battlefield (as Alarum (o SD. I ) suggests), but distant enough from 'Fife' (48) to make that a plausible place of origin for Ross and Angus. Jones, Scenic, pp. 208-9, argues that this scene 'seems modelled on the opening scene of / Henry IV, and Mark Rose, Shakespearean Design, 1972, pp. 83-8, finds several complex patterns in the first act; thus, e.g., this scene and the following two are all 'field' scenes, followed by three 'castle' scenes. o SD. 1 Alarum A call to arms; a warning to give notice of danger (OED Alarm sb 4a and 5). 'Normally, the term [a variant spelling of 'alarm']. . . signifies a battle . . . and includes clashes of weapons, drumbeats, trumpet blasts, shouts - anything to make a tumult' (Long, p. 131). 'Every Souldier shall diligently observe and learne the sound of Drummes, Fifes, and Trumpets to the end he may knowe how to answere the same in his service' (Thomas and Leonard Digges, An Arithmetical Warlike Treatise named Stratioticos, rev. edn (1590), sig. 2C2r); see also Harbage, pp. 52-3. 0 SD.I within i.e. off-stage. In the Jacobean theatre, within indicates the tiring-house which formed the back wall of the stage. The actors entered from and exited to this space, where they also changed their costumes. o SD.2 meeting This direction may not be Shakespeare's; it seems likely to mean that the wounded speaker is on stage and the king's company enters to him. See Supplementary Note, p. 239 below. 2 seemeth . . . plight The first of many inferences (note 'seemeth'), some incorrect, from appearances visual and verbal; see e.g. 1.2.47 n - an d 1.4.11-12 n. 2 the revolt Macdonald's rebellion occurred in 1.2.3 Macbeth [104] The newest state. MALCOLM This is the sergeant Who like a good and hardy soldier fought 'Gainst my captivity. Hail, brave friend; Say to the king the knowledge of the broil As thou didst leave it. CAPTAIN Doubtful it stood, As two spent swimmers that do cling together And choke their art. The merciless Macdonald Worthy to be a rebel, for to that The multiplying villainies of nature Do swarm upon him - from the Western Isles Of kerns and galloglasses is supplied, And Fortune on his damned quarrel smiling, 7 SH CAPTAIN] F (Cap.), and throughout scene; Ser. / Cam., throughout scene 9 Macdonald - ] Oxford (after Keightley); Macdonwald F; Macdonnell F2-4/ Macdonel / Capell 13 galloglasses] F (Gallowgrosses),- Gallow glasses F2-4 14 quarrel] Hanmer; Quarry F 'Lochquhaber' (Scotland, p. 169a), modern Lochaber, the district including Ben Nevis in south Inverness-shire, many miles distant from Fife. See the map, p. 94 above, and headnote to this scene. 3 newest state latest condition. 3 sergeant A trisyllable (NS). 'In the 16th c. the title . . . appears .. . to have indicated a much higher rank than in later times' (OED Sergeant sb 9a), and two knights were 'Sargeaunts' at the Battle of Musselburgh (Patten, sig. H7V); 'captain' (as in o SD.2 and SHS throughout this scene) could be used rather vaguely: 'a military leader' (OED Captain sb 3). Holinshed mentions (Scotland, p. 168b) a 'sergeant at armes' killed by the rebels Macdonald commanded. 5 captivity capture. (OED has no apposite sense.) Holinshed mentions (Scotland, p. 169a) another Malcolm, not Duncan's son, whom Macdonald captured and executed in this battle. 5 Hail The word the sisters (1.3.46-8) and Lady Macbeth (1.5.53) wiH us e when they greet Macbeth. See 1.3.46 n. 6 broil tumult, quarrel {OED Broil sb1 1). 8-9 two . . . art i.e. two exhausted ('spent') swimmers grasp each other ('cling together'), hoping to survive, but each thus defeats the other's skill ('choke their art'), and both, paradoxically, drown. 9-13 The merciless . . . supplied Editorial repunctuation (including mine) here stipulates what F leaves fruitfully vague: how many clauses explain 'merciless' and whether 'swarm' ends a clause or anticipates one. 9 Macdonald F2-4 provide another modernisation-Anglicisation; the name means 'son of Donald'. 10 Worthy . . . rebel The combination of worth and rebellion would have been paradoxical to the early audiences; there could be no merit in treason. Compare Satan in Pandemonium: 'by merit raised / To that bad eminence' (Milton, Paradise Lost 11, 5- 6). 10 for to that to that end (Abbott 186); 'that' = Macdonald's 'worth' as a 'rebel'. 11 multiplying villainies of nature proliferating evils within creation. 12 swarm congregate, gather thickly. See OED Swarm v l 1—2, where the word is used concretely of bees and crickets. 12 Western Isles The Hebrides. See the map, p. 94 above. 13 kerns and galloglasses 'The Galloglass ar pycked and selected men of great and mightie bodies, crewell without compassion . . . the weapon they most use is a batle axe, or halberd . . . The kerne is a kinde of footeman, sleightly armed with a sworde, a targett [shield] of woode, or a bow and sheafe of arrows with barbed heades, or els 3 dartes . . .' (John Dymmok, 'A Treatice of Ireland' (c. 1600), ed. Richard Butler, in Tracts Relating to Ireland, 11 (1842), 7). Holinshed says the 'Kernes and Galloglasses' joined Macdonald 'in hope of the spoile' (Scotland, p. 169a). 14-15 Fortune . . . whore Proverbially, 'Fortune is a strumpet' (Dent F603.1). 14 quarrel dispute, F'S 'quarry' is a variant spelling for many meanings of'quarrel'; one meaning, 'a Macbeth 1.2.25 Showed like a rebel's whore. But all's too weak, For brave Macbeth - well he deserves that name - Disdaining Fortune, with his brandished steel, Which smoked with bloody execution, Like Valour's minion carved out his passage Till he faced the slave, Which ne'er shook hands, nor bade farewell to him, Till he unseamed him from the nave to th'chaps And fixed his head upon our battlements. DUNCAN O valiant cousin, worthy gentleman. CAPTAIN As whence the sun 'gins his reflection, 2 5 16 Macbeth - well. .. name - ] Keightley; Macbeth (well. . . name) F 21 ne'er] F (neu'r) 22 chaps] F (Chops) short, heavy, square-headed arrow or bolt. . . used in shooting with the cross-bow' (OED Quarrel sb] 1), may be relevant. 15 rebel's whore i.e. Fortune is sexually promiscuous as her lover, Macdonald, is politically errant. The opprobrium of each term reinforces that of the other, so that the phrase almost becomes an epithet. 15 all's all is; all his. 18 smoked sprayed (blood), perhaps also the effect of'steaming': see 'reeking' (39) and n. 19 minion dearest friend, favourite child (OED Minion sbl ib, quoting 1H4 1.1.81, 83: 'A son who is the theme of honour's tongue . . . Who is sweet Fortune's minion and her pride'). The word was, however, often used opprobriously (= 'paramour, mistress') and could always have some negative connotation; see Williams sv. 19 carved out his passage sliced his way. Cutting a route through living flesh adumbrates Macduffs Caesarian birth and his action in the play; see Watson, p. 100. 20 This short line has been much emended; it may be the consequence of deliberate or accidental omission. 20- 2 h e .. . slav e . . . hi m .. . h e .. . hi m Th e referents are not clear until Duncan acknowledges Macbeth's victory (24). Then we understand that 'slave' and 'him' (20, 22) = Macdonald, and 'he' (20, 22) = Macbeth. Compositor A (see Textual Analysis, p. 250 below) may have erred, but the passage conveys breathlessly broken grammar and unfixed identities, thus anticipating Macbeth's drift into treason, into being like Macdonald and Cawdor. 21 shook hands Elizabethans customarily shook hands upon meeting as well as parting; see Dent ss6 and e.g. Peele, David and Bethsabe line 566 (meeting), and Webster, Duchess ofMalfi 3.2.131-5 (parting). For civil Scots warriors, see p. 12 above. 22 unseamed him ripped him up. The image is from undoing a garment's seam and represents the body as clothing; the line offers an auditory pun (seem/seam) that may hint that Macbeth's violence defeated deception ('un-seemed'). 22 nave navel (umbilicus), probably; this line is the sole support for nave = navel in OED. Both 'nave' and 'navel' could also mean 'central part or block of a wheel' (OED Nave sb1 ia); compare OED Navel sb 3 and Hal's description of Falstaff as 'this nave of a wheel' (2H4 2.4.255). Figuratively, then, 'nave' may here refer to the crotch rather than the navel per se (see 19 n.). See illustration 3, p. 21 above. For the unusual act of unseaming upward, Steevens3 compared 'Then from the navell to the throat at once, / He [Neoptolemus] ript old Priam' (Marlowe, Dido, Queen of Carthage 2.1.255-6); as NS, p. xli, notes, Shakespeare apparently remembers this speech in writing the Player King's speech (see Ham. 2.2.471 ff.). 22 chaps jaws, F'S 'chops' has been superseded. 23 fixed . .. battlements A common practice: Macbeth 'caused the head [of Macdonald] to be cut off, and set upon a poles end . . . The headlesse trunke he commanded to bee hoong up upon an high paire of gallowes' (Scotland, p. 169a). See 5.9.20 SD n. Traitors' heads could be seen, weathering, impaled on London Bridge. See illustration 4, p. 31 above. 24 valiant cousin, worthy gentleman Holinshed (Scotland, p. 168b) describes Macbeth as a 'valiant gentleman' and explains that Macbeth and Duncan were cousins. See 1.7.16-20 n. 25-8 As.. . swells A complicated and ambiguous passage, but the main meaning is clear: in circumstances that seem positive, a threat unexpectedly appears. Two interpretations have been offered: (1) storms and thunder, like the Scandinavian invasion, come from the east, where i. 2.26 Macbeth [106] Shipwrecking storms and direful thunders, So from that spring whence comfort seemed to come, Discomfort swells. Mark, King of Scotland, mark, No sooner justice had, with valour armed, Compelled these skipping kerns to trust their heels, 30 But the Norwegian lord, surveying vantage, With furbished arms and new supplies of men Began a fresh assault. DUNCA N Dismayed not this our captains, Macbeth and Banquo? CAPTAI N Yes, as sparrows, eagles, or the hare, the lion. 35 If I say sooth, I must report they were As cannons over-charged with double cracks; So they doubly redoubled strokes upon the foe. 26 Shipwrecking] F (Shipwracking) 26 thunders,] F (Thunders:); thunders breaking F2-4; thunders break; Pope the comforting sun also rises (' 'gins his reflection'); (2) when the sun reaches the vernal equinox and returns ('reflection'), springtime storms (equinoctial gales) occur. The question turns on whether 'spring' = 'source of water' or = 'season of the year' and whether 'reflection' = 'shining' or = 'astronomical regression of the sun at the equinox'. There is no evidence for the last definition (first offered in Singer2 ), and 'swells' supports 'spring' = 'source of water'. 25 'gins begins (an aphetic form). 25 reflection shining (Lexicon); return, regression (OED Reflection 4c, citing this line as the first of only two quotations). 26 Shipwrecking Earliest known use of the participial adjective (Schàfer). 26 direful dreadful, terrible. 26 thunders The verb 'come' is understood here, though spoken only in 27. Many editors insert 'break'. 28 Mark Heed, pay attention. 28 King of Scotland The dialogue, for the first time, identifies Duncan as king. 29 valour The word recalls 19 and makes Duncan analogous to personified Justice, Macbeth to Valour. 30 skipping leaping in fright. See Wiv. 2.1.229 and Lear 5.3.278. 30 trust their heels run away. 'To trust to one's heels' was quasi-proverbial (Dent, PLED H394.11). 31-62 Historically, the 'Norwegian lord' (31) was Sweno (Svend Estridsen), who invaded in AD 1041 (Sugden); Sweno's invasion began victoriously in Fife and extended over a period of time (Scotland, pp. i69a-i7ob). The so-called 'Sueno's Stone' (dating from some time between the ninth century and the eleventh), an extraordinary carved pillar commemorating a battle, probably not this one, still stands just north-east of Forres. See illustration 5, p. 36 above. 31 surveying observing, perceiving (OED Survey v 4c, quoting this line). 31 vantage advantage, benefit (OED Vantage sb 1a). 32 furbished renovated, revived (OED Furbish v 2); fresh, new. 32 supplies additional troops (OED Supply sb 5). 35 The sergeant, or captain, speaks ironically: Banquo and Macbeth were not 'dismayed', but the subsequent unexpected inversions anticipate the disorder Macbeth and Lady Macbeth will introduce into Scotland, where all 'natural' orderings are overturned. 35 sparrows, eagles .. . hare, the lion In each pair the first is traditionally weak or fearful, the second, strong and brave; for the second pair, see Dent H147 and L307.1, respectively. 36 sooth truth. 36 report tell, state. The word is also a pun on the sound ('report') of the cannons as they fire. 37—8 These lines seem to describe cannon loaded with four (or eight?) times the usual amount of powder and (?) shot, conditions that would have destroyed most Renaissance weapons, but the language echoes the play's insistence on doubling and doubleness. See pp. 25—7 above. 37 cracks cannon-shots (OED Crack sb ib, quoting this line as its earliest post-1400 example). 38 So Thus. 38 doubly redoubled strokes eightfold blows. Steevens cites 'doubly redoubled' (R2 1.3.80). Compare 'blows, twice two for one' (3H6 1.4.50) and see 1.6.16 n. [io/] Macbeth 1.2.50 Except they meant to bathe in reeking wounds Or memorise another Golgotha, 40 I cannot tell. But I am faint, my gashes cry for help. DUNCA N So well thy words become thee as thy wounds; They smack of honour both. Go get him surgeons. [Exit Captain, attended] Enter ROSS and ANGUS Who comes here? MALCOLM The worthy Thane of Ross. 45 LENNOX What a haste looks through his eyes! So should he look That seems to speak things strange. ROSS God save the king. DUNCAN Whence cam'st thou, worthy thane? ROSS From Fife, great king, Where the Norwegian banners flout the sky And fan our people cold. 50 44 SD.I Exit Captain, attended] Malone (subst.); not in F omitted by Steevens3 and SD follows here (45) 39 Except Unless. 39 reeking steaming or smoking with blood (OED Reek v ] 2c, quoting JfC 3.1.158: the assassins' bloodied 'hands do reek and smoke'). 40 memorise another Golgotha commemorate a second Calvary (i.e. create a place like that where Jesus was crucified). See 'And he [Jesus] bare his crosse, & went forth into a place, which is called ye place of dead mens skulles, but in Hebrue Golgotha: Where they crucified hym' (John 19.17- 18) and 'The field of Golgotha and dead men's skulls' (R2 4.1.144). 42 gashes .. . help Shakespeare and other dramatists often represent wounds as mouths. For Antony, dead Caesar's wounds 'like dumb mouths do ope their ruby lips' (JC 3.1.260), a Roman citizen suggests, 'we are to put our tongues into those wounds and speak for them' (Cor. 2.3.6-7), and John Beane's many wounds are 'fifteene mouthes' accusing his murderer (Warning, sig. HIV). Here, the captain's wounds are speech, as Macbeth's words to his wife (in 1.5) and hers to him (in 1.7) will also be speeches, which are, or lead to, wounds. 44 smack savour, taste (OED Smack v l 2), mixed figuratively with the 'sharp noise' (OED Smack v 1 1) the lips make in tasting, hence 'smack' = the sound of the wounds' words. 44 SD.2] F; after strange (47) Dyce 44 SD.2 and ANGUS] F; 44 SD.2 For the placing of this SD, see Textual Analysis, pp. 246-7 below. Editors often delete Angus because Malcolm (45) identifies Ross only, and Angus does not speak; Ross and Angus jointly fulfil Duncan's command (64-5) in the next scene ('We are sent' (1.3.98)), however, and enter as a pair in 1.4 and 1.6. 45 Thane Head of a clan; a Scottish rank. A thane owed fealty to the king rather than to another noble, and held lands directly from the king. 46 looks through is visible through (OED Look v 20b), appears. Ross, like the bleeding captain (1 - 2), seems easily interpreted from his appearance. Compare 'Her business looks in her / With an importing visage' (AWW 5.3.135-6) and 'There's business in these faces' (Cym. 5.5.23). 47 seems appears (OED Seem v 2 4b). Ross has the appearance of a person whose looks portend strange matters. 48-58 From Fife .. . fell on us Ross's narrative recommences the battle; see 31-62 n. 48 Fife County on the east coast of Scotland between the Firths of Forth and Tay (Sugden). See the map, p. 94 above, and 2.4.36 n. 49 flout mock, jeer (OED Flout v\ quoting this line). The banners mock through waving, as 'fan' (50) makes clear. i. 2.51 Macbeth [108] Norway himself, with terrible numbers, Assisted by that most disloyal traitor, The Thane of Cawdor, began a dismal conflict, Till that Bellona's bridegroom, lapped in proof, Confronted him with self-comparisons, Point against point, rebellious arm 'gainst arm, Curbing his lavish spirit. And to conclude, The victory fell on us - DUNCAN Great happiness ! - ROSS That now Sweno, The Norways' king, craves composition. Nor would we deign him burial of his men Till he disbursed at Saint Colm's Inch Ten thousand dollars to our general use. DUNCAN No more that Thane of Cawdor shall deceive Our bosom interest. Go pronounce his present death And with his former title greet Macbeth. ROSS I'll see it done. 55 6o 56 point, rebellious] F; point rebellious, Theobald 58 us - ] Keightley (subst.); us. F 58 happiness! - ] This edn; happinesse. F 59 Norways'] F (Norwayes) 61 Colm's] F (Colmes); Colum's Oxford 51 Norway The King of Norway. 52-3 traitor .. . Cawdor Holinshed's account merely notes that Cawdor was 'condemned at Fores of treason against the king' (Scotland, p. 171a), but does not involve him in the military rebellion. 54 Bellona Roman goddess of war. 54 bridegroom i.e. Macbeth, who has advanced in marital status from being Valour's minion (19). 54 lapped enfolded, wrapped (Clarendon). 54 proof armour. 55 self-comparisons comparisons with himself (Macbeth, 'Bellona's bridegroom' (54)). Cawdor is forced into an unequal competition ('a dismal conflict' (53)) with Macbeth, but the phrase 'self-comparisons' implies that some common basis exists for comparing the hero and his enemy. 56 Point Sword tip. 56 point, rebellious Editors have changed F'S punctuation unnecessarily: one arm or one sword needs to be identified as belonging to the rebel Cawdor; no matter how punctuated, the line will always and ambiguously half-refer to Macbeth as 'rebellious'. Some editors identify 'him' as Norway in order to rationalise 1.3.70-1 (see n.) and 1.3.106, but 'rebellious' better suits the native Cawdor than the invading, and foreign, King of Norway. Compare 20-2 n. 57 Curbing Restraining, controlling. A rider controls a horse through the 'curb', part of the bridle and bit. 57 lavish unrestrained, impetuous (OED Lavish a ib, quoting this line). 58 Duncan interrupts Ross's report extrametrically. 59 Norways' Norwegians', F'S form, retained here for the metre, is obsolete (see OED Norway2 ). 59 craves composition i.e. seeks to make peace, surrenders. 60 deign condescend to grant (OED Deign v 2a, quoting this line as its second instance after one in 1589)- 61 Saint Colm's Inch Inchcolm, an island in the Firth of Forth near Edinburgh; see Patten, sigs. Mi-iv, and the map, p. 94 above. 'Colm' (named for St Columba) is disyllabic; Oxford prints 'Colum's' to indicate that fact. 62 dollars 'The English name for the German thaler, a large silver coin' (OED Dollar 1). 64 bosom interest intimate or confidential concern (not quoted at OED Bosom sb 8d). 64 present instant, immediate. 65 former title i.e. Thane of Cawdor, but Ross has most recently named him 'most disloyal traitor' (52), as Macbeth will soon prove also. [ioç\ Macbeth 1.3.5 DUNCAN What he hath lost, noble Macbeth hath won. Exeunt 1.3 Thunder. Enter the three WITCHES FIRST WITCH Where hast thou been, sister? SECOND WITCH Killing swine. THIRD WITCH Sister, where thou? FIRST WITCH A sailor's wife had chestnuts in her lap And munched, and munched, and munched. 'Give me', quoth I. 'Aroint thee, witch', the rump-fed runnion cries. Act 1, Scene 3 1.3] F (Scena Tertia.) 4 munched] F (mouncht) 4 'Give me',] Capell (subst.); Giue me F 'Aroint. . . witch'] Capell (subst.); Aroynt. .. Witch F 5 runnion] F (Ronyon) 67 lost.. . won Transfer of the title (and the treason) from Cawdor to Macbeth exemplifies how something may be both lost and won, the witches' paradox (1.1.4). The line elegantly varies the proverb 'No man loses but another wins' (Dent M337)- Act 1, Scene 3 As with all the witch-scenes, the location here is vague (a 'heath' ( 1.1.7)); Macbeth and Banquo seem to be travelling to Torres' (37), perhaps from 'Fife' (1.2.48), many miles distant geographically if not dramatically. For the intersection of human curiosity with prophecy, see Ant. 1.2.1-78. Forman (11, 337) apparently says he saw Macbeth and Banquo on horseback, not an impossible stage effect (see Woodstock 3.2.132-73), but an unlikely one here (see Leah Scragg, 'Macbeth on horseback', S.Sur. 26 (1973), 81-8). See 3.3.11-14 n. o SD the F'S article (absent in 1.1.0 SD, but present at 3.5.0 SD and 4.1.0 SD) may suggest revision or a theatrical sense of the witches as a dramatic unit or force. Compare 2.1.20 and 4.1.38 SD. 2 Killing swine English witches were often accused of harming domestic animals. 4 munched 'A Scottish word signifying to eat with the gums when toothless' (Travers), but 'where shals all munch' (Dekker [and Thomas Middleton], The Roaring Girl 2.1.356), a question about where to eat, suggests a more general and English usage. 5 Aroint The word's meaning is unknown, and Poor Tom's 'aroynt thee Witch, aroynt thee' (Lear TLN 1903) is the only other early recorded instance (Schàfer); contextually, it seems to mean 'avaunt! be gone!' Dent W584 cites John Ray, Collection of English Proverbs (1679): 'Aroint thee, witch, quoth Besse Locket to her mother.' 5 rump-fed A puzzling phrase whose literal meaning is 'fed on rump'. 'Rump' = the hind quarter of both humans and the animals they eat, and the 'rumpe or buttocke peece of meat' (John Florio, A Worlde of Words (1598), under Groppone, antedating OED Buttock sb 2 by twenty-five years) was a desirable cut. Shakespeare elsewhere imagines the 'devil Luxury [Lechery], with his fat rump' (Tro. 5.2.55); given the sexual innuendo of the next lines, 'rump-fed' might thus also mean 'fed [i.e. fattened] in the rump, lecherous' (compare Marston's The Dutch Courtesan (1605), where the title's courtesan is described as 'a plump-rump'd wench' (Dutch Courtesan 4.3.2)), and by the Restoration 'rump' had numerous bawdy meanings (whore, genitals, copulate: see the article 'Rump' in Williams), and scatological vocabulary frequently blurs and exchanges words for fundament and genitals (see e.g. the article 'Arse' in Williams). A link between feeding and lechery has strong biblical precedent: 'when I had fed them to the full, they then committed adulterie, and assembled themselves by troupes in the harlots houses' (Jer. 5.7, AV). Shakespeare's two other uses (1H4 2.2.84, MND 2.1.45) of phrases compounding a noun with '-fed' are active and support instead the meaning 'fed on rump'; compare 'lust-dieted' (Lear 4.1.67). From the witch's point of view, therefore, it may be that the sailor's wife is enviable, selfish, lecherous, and (possibly) sexually satisfied. Perhaps alliteration (rump, runnion) is more important than denotation. See next note. 5 runnion Abusive term applied to a woman (OED Runnion 1, citing only this line and Wiv. 1.3.6 Macbeth [no] Her husband's to Aleppo gone, master o'th'Tiger: But in a sieve I'll thither sail, And like a rat without a tail, I'll do, I'll do, and I'll do. SECOND WITCH I'll give thee a wind. FIRST WITCH Thou'rtkind. THIRD WITCH And I another. FIRST WITCH I myself have all the other, And the very ports they blow, All the quarters that they know I'th'shipman's card. I'll drain him dry as hay: Sleep shall neither night nor day Hang upon his penthouse lid; He shall live a man forbid. 6 Tiger] F (Tiger) 11 Thou'rt] Capell; Th'art F 15 know] Capell; know, F TLN 2067-8: 'you Witch, you Ragge, you Baggage, you Poulcat, you Runnion'). Williams (under 'Runnion') defines the word as 'penis' and claims the use in Wiv. is 'an abusive term . . . comparable to casual use of prick today'. The same might be true here. See preceding note. 6 Aleppo Inland trading city in northern Syria, part of the Turkish empire from 1516 to 1918. Its port was Iskanderun (Sugden). 6 master captain, commanding officer. 6 Tiger Common name for a ship. The name also appears in TN 5.1.62 and many other contemporary texts. E. A. Loomis, 'Master of the Tiger\ SQ 7 (1956), 457, showed that the calamitous Far Eastern voyage of one Tiger, lasting from 5 December 1604 to 27 June 1606, equalled 567 days or 81 weeks (i.e. 7 X 9 X 9, or 'Weary sennights nine times nine' (21)). 7 sieve Sailing in sieves was supposed to be a common witch-practice; it was one of the accusations against the Scottish witches King James personally interrogated in 1590-1 (Nerves, pp. 13-14). 8 rat . . . tail Steevens observes that witches sometimes turned themselves into rats, but had no body part to match the tail; see also 1.1.9 a 9 do act; fornicate. 'Many dramatizations of witches as powerful, dangerous agents associate their agency with female sexual desire' (Dolan, p. 212). 10—13 Witches were imagined to control the wind and might sell this power on request; see Newes, p. 17 (Scottish witches were accused of interfering with James's return from Denmark with Anne, his bride), and what seems to be Thomas Nashe's allusion to that event: 'as in Ireland [i.e. Scotland?] and in Denmark both / Witches for gold will sell a man a wind' (Nashe, in, 272). Muir cites many other references to such witch-practices. 14 Even places of refuge ('ports') cannot escape the winds' ferocity. (OED Blow v ] has no apposite meaning.) 15 quarters geographical directions. 16 Although the witches speak a distinctive metre and irregular rhyme, this line is unusually short and another line, rhyming with 'card', may have been omitted. 16 card chart; circular piece of stiff paper (the 'mariner's card' or 'card of the sea' showing the customary 32 points of the compass). OED Card sb1 3b, 4a admits that the two meanings were not fully distinguished at this date. See illustration 6, p. 39 above. 17 drain him If the first witch intends to be a succubus, her demonic sexual intercourse (see 'do' (9)) will exhaust her sailor-victim. 17 dry as hay A very old simile (Dent H231.1). 18 Sleep . . . day Like the sailor, Macbeth will later (3.2) find sleep difficult, and Lady Macbeth will walk in her sleep (5.1). 19 penthouse lid eyelid. The image derives from analogy between the eyebrow and the projecting second storey ('penthouse') of many Elizabethan buildings. 'Penthouse' could = iean-to shed' (Hunter), but Shakespeare's non-figurative uses of the word (Ado 3.3.103, MV 2.6.1) do not employ that meaning. 20 forbid cursed (OED Forbid v 2f, quoting only this line and another, using 'forbidden', from 1819). [///] Macbeth 1.3.37 Weary sennights nine times nine, Shall he dwindle, peak, and pine. Though his bark cannot be lost, Yet it shall be tempest-tossed. Look what I have. SECOND WITCH Show me, show me. 25 FIRST WITCH Here I have a pilot's thumb, Wrecked as homeward he did come. Drum within THIR D WITC H A drum, a drum; Macbeth doth come. A L L The weird sisters, hand in hand, 30 Posters of the sea and land, Thus do go, about, about, Thrice to thine, and thrice to mine, And thrice again, to make up nine. Peace, the charm's wound up. 35 Enter MACBET H and BANQU O MACBET H So foul and fair a day I have not seen. BANQU O How far is't called to Forres? What are these, 21 sennights] F (Seu'nights) 27 Wrecked] F (Wrackt) 27 SD] F (at right margin opposite come) 30 weird] Theobald; weyward F. See Commentary 37 Forres] Staunton (after Pope); Soris F 21 sennights weeks, F'S 'Seu'nights' (seven each individual into the group. Jonson's witches nights) shows the etymology. danced 'back to back and hip to hip, their hands 22 peak, and pine waste away and languish (vir- joined, and making their circles backward, to the tual synonyms with 'dwindle'). left hand, with strange fantastic motions of their 23 bark small ship. heads and bodies' (Queens 330-2; see also Jonson's 27 SD Drum within Editors and producers have note, ibid., pp. 541-2, and more generally, Clark, worried whether the drum indicates an accompany- 'Inversion', pp. 122-5). ing army; on the contrary, it is a conventional Jaco- 34 nine An action is repeated three times for each bean way to introduce an important martial witch. character, though Davenant and others added text 35 wound up placed in readiness (OED Wind v l and business to indicate an off-stage army, or to 24 f, quoting this line). The figurative use probably accommodate a silent one on-stage. derives from tightening the strings on a musical 30 weïrd 'claiming the supernatural power of instrument, but the witches may have 'wound' dealing with fate or destiny' (OED Weird a 1); see themselves 'up' in some stage movement (see 33 n.). also OED Weird sb, and Supplementary Note, pp. The phrase could also mean 'concluded'. 239-40 below. Theobald's emendation, adopted 36-107 So .. . robes Hints of how this scene here, indicates the word's pronunciation as a might have been staged and acted appear in disyllabic Macbeth's letter to his wife (1.5.1 ff.). 31 Posters Speedy travellers (Lexicon); a Shake- 36 foul and fair meteorologically unpleasant spearean coinage (Garner), presumably because and militarily successful. Macbeth's words echo the 'the fastest way of travel. . . was by post horse' witches' (1.1.12); see p. 51 above. (Foakes). 37 How . . . Forres? How distant is Forres reck33 to thine .. . to mine in your direction .. . in oned to be? A Scotticism (Travers), my direction (?). The witches here perform some 37 Forres Town east of Inverness and not far dance, formal movements, or gestures that bind from the site of one of the historical battles earlier 1.3.38 Macbeth [7/2] So withered and so wild in their attire, That look not like th'inhabitants o'th'earth, And yet are on't? - Live you, or are you aught 40 That man may question? You seem to understand me, By each at once her choppy finger laying Upon her skinny lips; you should be women, And yet your beards forbid me to interpret That you are so. MACBETH Speak if you can: what are you? 45 FIRS T WITCH All hail Macbeth, hail to thee, Thane of Glamis. SECOND WITCH All hail Macbeth, hail to thee, Thane of Cawdor. THIR D WITCH All hail Macbeth, that shalt be king hereafter. BANQUO Good sir, why do you start and seem to fear Things that do sound so fair? - I'th'name of truth 50 (1.2) condensed. Holinshed's account of King DufTs illness describes 'a sort [group] of witches dwelling in .. . Fores' (Scotland, p. 149b). See the map, p. 94 above, F'S 'Soris' (for 'Foris', i.e. Forres) derives from a misreading of manuscript/as /. See 69 n. 37-40 What. . . on't Banquo notices the witches; like the king's company in 1.2, he judges appearances, though not so confidently. His speech (38-45) is also the only spoken evidence for the witches' appearance, which may be (and has been in some productions) quite different. Holinshed's 1577 illustration of this scene represents the witches as mortal women, not old, fashionably, even aristocratically, dressed (see Bullough, vu, 494), thus giving the paradox of 'fair is foul' (1.1.12) point. See Supplementary Note to I.I.OSD (p. 239 below) and 'I neuer thought so fayre a dame, had been so foule within' (Fidèle and Fortunio line 703). 42-3 By each . . . lips The witches silence Banquo with eerily synchronised gestures. 42 choppy chapped, cracked by wind and weather. This line is the earliest recorded use under OED Choppy; OED Chappy a x shows that spelling as also current. 43 should be look as if you ought to be. 43—4 women . . . beards See illustration 7 and p. 35 above. Compare the insult to Paulina, 'mankind witch' (WT 2.3.68). 46-8 Political prophecy, especially on the eve of conflict, has a long history and was dangerous in the Tudor and Stuart period. Shakespeare dramatised such prophecies in 2H6 1.4 and John 4.2.143-57 and 5.1.25-9; Meander thought the rebel Tamburlaine 'misled by dreaming prophecies' (Tamburlaine, Part 1 1.1.41). See e.g. Steven Mullaney, The Place of the Stage, 1988, chapter 5; Jaech; Mary C. Williams, 'Merlin and the prince: The Speeches at Prince Henry's Barriers', RenD n.s. 8 (1977), 221-30; Howard Dobin, Merlin's Disciples: Prophecy, Poetry and Power in Renaissance England, 1990. The practice perhaps derived from classical haruspicy, official prophecy based upon the examination of the entrails of animals, etc. 46 All hail Shakespeare elsewhere (3H6 5.7.33- 4, R2 4.1.169-71 ) associates this phrase with Judas's betrayal of Jesus, as do his contemporaries (see 'the All-haile of a second Judas' in A Letter. . . containing a true Report of a strange Conspiracie (1599), sig. B2r, and the York and Chester cycles of mystery plays (see M. Hattaway (éd.), 3H6, 1992, 5-7-34 n.)). See 1.5.53 n. 46 Glamis Metre sometimes requires a disyllable (Gla-miss); elsewhere, modern productions often employ the modern monosyllable, 'Glahms'. The name might have had a particular resonance for Shakespeare and his audience. Scotland, p. 320a, reports the trial (1537) of Jane Douglas, Lady Glamis, for attempting to poison James V; she was convicted on false evidence and burned at the stake. Perhaps misled by the manner of execution, subsequent writers recorded her crime as witchcraft. See Robert Pitcairn, Ancient Criminal Trials in Scotland, 1, pt 1 (1833), 187-98. 48 king For the audience, only this title is a surprise because we know Duncan has already awarded Cawdor's title to Macbeth (1.2.65); theatrically, the witches' apparent foreknowledge is minimised. 49 start recoil, flinch, make a nervous gesture or movement. For this moment on stage, see p. 81 above. 49-50 fear .. . fair Alliteration ('start', 'seem', 'sound', and 'fear', 'fair') strikes the ear, but the [//j] Macbeth 1.3.72 Are ye fantastical, or that indeed Which outwardly ye show? My noble partner You greet with present grace and great prediction Of noble having and of royal hope That he seems rapt withal. To me you speak not. 55 If you can look into the seeds of time And say which grain will grow and which will not, Speak then to me, who neither beg nor fear Your favours nor your hate. FIRST WITCH Hail. 60 SECOND WITCH Hail. THIRD WITCH Hail. FIRS T WITCH Lesser than Macbeth, and greater. SECOND WITCH Not so happy, yet much happier. THIRD WITCH Thou shalt get kings, though thou be none. 65 So all hail Macbeth and Banquo. FIRS T WITCH Banquo and Macbeth, all hail. MACBET H Stay, you imperfect speakers. Tell me more. By Finel's death, I know I am Thane of Glamis, But how of Cawdor? The Thane of Cawdor lives 70 A prosperous gentleman, and to be king Stands not within the prospect of belief, 55 rapt] F (wrapt) 69 Finel's] This edn; Sinells F. See Commentary evocative, morally puzzling wordplay on fear/fair 65 get beget, father; perhaps also 'acquire, 'is based on antithesis, not identity' (Cercignani, p. obtain'. 235) between 'fear' and 'fair'. Compare the con- 69 Finel Historically, Finel (or Finley or trasts of 'foul' and 'fair' (36 above and 1.1.12), and Findlaech) was Macbeth's father (see Bullough, VII, of 'fear' and 'foully' (see 3.1.2-3 and n.). 488 n. 3), and that name should be substituted here 51 fantastical imaginary, products of (our) just as Torres' is substituted for F'S 'Soris' (see 37 fantasy. n.); F'S ''Sinells' is an ancient error, the result of a / / 53 present grace immediate favour. Compare /error in Holinshed {Scotland, p. 168b) and in his the last (1.2.64) and next (136) uses of the adjective. source, the Dundee historian Hector Boece (also 54 noble having . . . royal hope i.e. new title of known as Boethius). honour . . . hoped-for title of king. 70-1 The Thane . . . gentleman This (like 54 having possession. 106) is a locally effective objection, but logically 55 rapt entranced. See 141 n. below. inconsistent for a speaker who confronted 'rebel56 seeds of time sources of the future. Compare lious' Cawdor 'with self-comparisons' (1.2.55-6) Warwick's claim that 'a man may prophesy, / With and could presumably expect him to suffer capital a near aim, of the main chance of things / As yet not punishment for treason, as he does (1.4.3 ff.). The come to life, who in their seeds / And weak begin- inconsistency is less noticeable because the audience ning lie intreasured' (2H4 3.1.82-5), and see 4.1.58 does not yet know Cawdor has died; it may have n. arisen through simple oversight or through 1.2 hav58-9 neither beg . . . nor your hate i.e. ing been written or revised after 1.3. Banquo neither begs your favours nor fears your 72 prospect mental looking forward, considerahate. Alliteration and rhetorical hyperbaton make tion of something future (OED Prospect 5^ 8a, citthe line confusing and ambiguous. ing this line as its first example). 1.3.73 Macbeth [JI4] No more than to be Cawdor. Say from whence You owe this strange intelligence, or why Upon this blasted heath you stop our way 75 With such prophetic greeting? Speak, I charge you. Witches vanish B A N QU O The earth hath bubbles, as the water has, And these are of them. Whither are they vanished? MACBET H Into the air, and what seemed corporal, Melted, as breath into the wind. Would they had stayed. 80 B A N QU O Were such things here as we do speak about? Or have we eaten on the insane root, That takes the reason prisoner? MACBET H Your children shall be kings. B A N Q u o You shall be king. MACBET H And Thane of Cawdor too: went it not so? 85 B A N QU O To th'selfsame tune and words - who's here? Enter ROS S and ANGUS ROSS The king hath happily received, Macbeth, The news of thy success, and when he reads Thy personal venture in the rebels' sight, His wonders and his praises do contend 90 Which should be thine or his. Silenced with that, In viewing o'er the rest o'th'selfsame day, He finds thee in the stout Norwegian ranks, 76 SD] F (in right margin after you) 89 sight] This edn; fight F. See Supplementary Note, p. 241 below 74 intelligence news, information (OED Intelli- 86 selfsame tune identical meaning. Whately gence sb 7a). (p. 48) thinks 'tune' ridicules the witches' prophecy, 75 blasted blighted. Supernatural agency or but compare 4.3.238 n. planetary influence may be implied (so OED Blasted 88 reads understands, discerns. OED has no ppl a 1, quoting this line). 'The heath which is strictly apposite meaning, but unless we assume blasted in a double sense - both barren and accursed some written report of Macbeth's deeds, the usage - affords the right setting for the asexual must be even more figurative than in Feste's remark witches . . .' (Mahood, p. 134). about Malvolio's letter: 'to read his right wits is to 76 charge command, order. read thus' (77V 5.1.298-9). 76 SD vanish See 1.1.13 SD n. 89 sight See Supplementary Note, p. 241 below. 79 corporal material, physical, having a body 90-1 Duncan, at once admiring Macbeth's ac- (OED Corporal a 2). tions and praising them, finds himself suspended 82 on of (Abbott 181). between silence and speech, awe and the impulse to 82 insane causing insanity (OED Insane a 3, reward. quoting only this line). Discussing a European 92 selfsame identical, same. The echo of 86 sugwriter on witchcraft, Scot (in, 3) mentions witches' gests that Macbeth's honourable martial success requirements for 'powders and roots to intoxicate and his plan to kill Duncan are themselves withalP; compare 'Mens sences, sudden altering out 'selfsame'. of reason, / Doe bode ill lucke, or do fore-shew 93 stout valiant, brave (OED Stout adj and adv some treason' (Thomas Andrewe, The Unmasking of 3a). a feminine Machiavel! (1604), sig. EIV). [us] Macbeth 1.3.114 Nothing afeard of what thyself didst make, Strange images of death. As thick as tale 95 Came post with post, and every one did bear Thy praises in his kingdom's great defence, And poured them down before him. ANGUS We are sent To give thee from our royal master thanks; Only to herald thee into his sight, 100 Not pay thee. ROSS And for an earnest of a greater honour, He bade me, from him, call thee Thane of Cawdor: In which addition, hail most worthy thane, For it is thine. BAN QUO What, can the devil speak true? 105 MACBETH The Thane of Cawdor lives. Why do you dress me In borrowed robes? ANGUS Who was the thane, lives yet, But under heavy judgement bears that life Which he deserves to lose. Whether he was combined with those of Norway, 110 Or did line the rebel with hidden help And vantage, or that with both he laboured In his country's wrack, I know not, But treasons capital, confessed and proved, 95 death. As] Pope; death, as F 95 tale] F (Tale); hail Rome 96 Came] Rome; Can F 100 herald] F (harrold) 94 Nothing afeard Not at all afraid. 107 Who He who. 95-6 As thick . . . with post 'The posts [mes- 109 The line is metrically truncated, but no satissengers] came thronging, with tales thronging, to factory relineation has been proposed, every tale a post, post after post, and tale after tale' n o Whether Whichever of the two (OED (Sisson, 11, 193); compare 'every tongue brings in a Whether pron, adj, conj 3, also noting that the word several tale' (R3 5.3.194). 'As thick as hail' (Dent is sometimes 'used loosely of more than two' as it is HII) is an old simile, and many have accepted here). Rowe's emendation ('hail' for 'tale'), but the two i n line reinforce, fortify. Compare 'To line and words would be hard to confuse in manuscript, and new repair our towns of war / With men of courage' Compositor A probably saw (and therefore set) an (H5 2.4.7-8) and Hotspur who 'lined himself with unusual word rather than a more familiar, prover- hope' (2H4 1.3.27) before the Battle of Shrewsbury, bial one. There may be figurative overtones of'lining' a piece 102 earnest foretaste, pledge (OED Earnest sb2 1 of clothing (the 'robes' of 107). fig.). Ross vaguely suggests some further 'honour', 11 2 vantage additional amount (e.g. of soldiers, but Macbeth and the audience may suppose the weapons, money). See OED Vantage sb 2b and comkingship or status as heir apparent to be the 'greater pare 1.2.3m. honour'; see 1.4.48-53. 11 2 both i.e. the Norwegian invaders and secret, 104 addition title. native help. 106-7 Hunter, New, 11, 153, suggested 'that in 113 wrack ruin, overthrow, fact the ceremony of investiture should take place 114 capital mortal. Cawdor's proven treason upon the stage'. merits death. 1.3-115 Macbeth [116] Have overthrown him. MACBET H [Aside] Glamis, and Thane of Cawdor: 115 The greatest is behind. - Thanks for your pains. - [To Banquo] Do you not hope your children shall be kings, When those that gave the Thane of Cawdor to me Promised no less to them? BANQUO That trusted home, Might yet enkindle you unto the crown, 120 Besides the Thane of Cawdor. But 'tis strange, And oftentimes, to win us to our harm, The instruments of darkness tell us truths; Win us with honest trifles, to betray's In deepest consequence. - 125 Cousins, a word, I pray you. MACBET H [Aside] Two truths are told, As happy prologues to the swelling act Of the imperial theme. - I thank you, gentlemen. - 116 behind. - Thanks . . . pains. - ] Capell (subst.); behinde. Thankes . . . paines. F 119 them?] Rome; them. F 125 consequence. - ] Capell (subst.); consequence. F 128 theme. - I.. . gentlemen. - ] Capell (subst.); Theame. I.. . Gentlemen: F 116 behind 'in the past' (OED Behind adv ic); 'still to come' (OED Behind adv 4). In the former sense, Macbeth regards as 'greatest' the first two titles (Glamis, Cawdor) the sisters used (46-7); in the latter possible sense, the kingship ('king hereafter' (48)) is 'greatest'. 118 those that gave Macbeth understands the sisters, not Duncan, to be the source of his new title. 119 home completely, fully (?). Compare OED Home adv 4a, 'to its ultimate position', a nonfigurative usage; 'All my services / You have paid home' (ffT 5.3.3-4); 'they have their answer home' ('The Quip', line 24 in The English Poems of George Herbert, ed. C. A. Patrides, 1974). 120 enkindle inflame with desire (OED Enkindle v 2b). Compare 'When I burned in desire' (1-5-3)- 123 The instruments . . . truths 'The Devil sometimes speaks the truth' (Dent D266); compare 'The devil can cite Scripture for his purpose' (MV 1.3.98) and 4.3.22 and n. 124 betray's betray us. 125 deepest consequence gravest (or weightiest) outcome (so OED Deep a 7b, citing this line). Banquo contrasts a sequence of 'trifles' to an unexpectedly grim conclusion. 126-8 Two truths . . . theme For this passage's stylistic complexities, see pp. 45-6 above. 127 prologues preliminary events (OED Prologue sb ib, quoting 'my death .. . is made the prologue to their play' (2H6 3.1.148, 151) as its first example). Theatrically, 'prologues' are actors (like the sisters, or Ross and Angus) who speak before a play (or an 'act' of one) begins. 127 swelling expanding, growing. With 'act', 'swelling' might refer to the number of actors who enter after a prologue has spoken and to the number of people who attend upon a king as opposed to a thane (see next note). Compare 'A kingdom for a stage, princes to act, / And monarchs to behold the swelling scene!' (H5, Prologue, 3-4). Given the play's concentration on child-bearing and childlessness, it seems likely that 'swelling' has at least a distant connotation of pregnancy; compare 3.1.60-5 and see pp. 45-6 above. 128 the imperial theme the subject or topic of empery (= becoming not 'emperor', but king); 'theme' could also have the more active meaning of 'a subject that causes action' (see OED Theme ia and b), so 'imperial theme' might refer not only to the topic of becoming king, but to the actions required of one who would be king. 128 I thank you, gentlemen Macbeth again (see 116) interrupts himself, acknowledging Ross and Angus, perhaps in order to conceal his selfcommuning. [u7] Macbeth 1.3.145 This supernatural soliciting Cannot be ill, cannot be good. If ill, 130 Why hath it given me earnest of success, Commencing in a truth? I am Thane of Cawdor. If good, why do I yield to that suggestion, Whose horrid image doth unfix my hair And make my seated heart knock at my ribs 135 Against the use of nature? Present fears Are less than horrible imaginings. My thought, whose murder yet is but fantastical, Shakes so my single state of man that function Is smothered in surmise, and nothing is, 140 But what is not. B A N Q u o Look how our partner's rapt. MACBET H If chance will have me king, why chance may crown me Without my stir. B AN QUO New honours come upon him Like our strange garments, cleave not to their mould, But with the aid of use. MACBETH Come what come may, 145 130 ill,] Q/67J; ill? F 133 good,] Q1673; good? F 134 hair] F (Heire) 129 soliciting incitement (Johnson). I39~4I function .. . is not 'All powers of action I 33~4 suggestion .. . image The witches' are oppressed and crushed by one overwhelming words ('suggestion') have helped create a terrifying image in the mind, and nothing is present to me, but mental picture ('image'). that which is really future' (Johnson). 134 unfix my hair make my hair stand on end 139 function activity, physical movement. (in fear). Compare 5.5.10-15. 140-1 nothing .. . not Compare Isabella's con135 seated fixed in position (OED Seated ppla 1, fused speech, 'There is a vice .. . For which I quoting this line as the first example); firm-set would not plead, but that I must; / For which I {Lexicon Seat v 2). must not plead, but that I am / At war 'twixt will 136 use ordinary course, usual condition or state. and will not' (MM 2.2.29, 3I -3 )- 136 Present See 1.2.64 n. and 53 n. above. !4J rapt enraptured, entranced (see 55). 138 My thought, whose murder The distorted Mahood (p. 165) notes that 'the secondary meaning grammar personifies Macbeth's 'thought' as a being of "wrapped" ' appears in Banquo's following imwho is murdered by the self, but also suggests ages of clothing (143-5). Macbeth's intended human victim, Duncan. This 143 stir movement; agitation (OED Stir sb] 1). short phrase anticipates others: see 2.2.76 and n., 144 strange unfamiliar (to us), and 3.4.142-3 and n. 144 cleave cling, adhere. 138 fantastical See 51 n. 144 mould body (so OED Mould sP 4b, quoting 139 single state 'unitary condition', 'singular only this line and a 1639 translation of French existence', but also perhaps 'weak condition' moule). The word hints at human mortality, as in (Steevens). 'State' probably evokes analogies with 'that womb, / That mettle, that self mould, that the human body, the body politic, and the macro- fashioned thee' (R2 1.2.22-3) and 'men of mould' cosm; Brutus says that 'Between the acting of (H5 3.2.22) where 'mould' = earth (OED Mould sbl a dreadful thing / And the first motion [sug- 4b-c). gestion]... the state of a man, / Like to a little 145 Come what come may Let what happens, kingdom, suffers then / The nature of an insurrec- happen; a proverb (Dent C529). tion' (JfC 2.1.63-4, 67-9). i. 3.146 Macbeth [//#] Time and the hour runs through the roughest day. BANQUO Worthy Macbeth, we stay upon your leisure. MACBETH Give me your favour. My dull brain was wrought With things forgotten. Kind gentlemen, your pains Are registered where every day I turn 150 The leaf to read them. Let us toward the king. [To Banquo] Think upon what hath chanced and at more time, The interim having weighed it, let us speak Our free hearts each to other. BANQUO Very gladly. MACBETH Till then, enough. - Come, friends. 155 Exeunt 1.4 Flourish. Enter King [DUNCAN], DONALDBAIN, and Attendants LENNOX, MALCOLM, DUNCAN Is execution done on Cawdor, or not 155 enough. —] Capell (subst.); enough: F Act i, Scene 4 1.4] F (Scena Quarta.) 1 or] F (Or); Are F2 146 Time .. . roughest day Proverbially, 'The longest day has an end' (Dent D90). 'Time' and 'hour' may be the sort of redundancy common in proverbs and proverb-like speech, but Macklin paused before 'hour', making it = 'opportunity' {Morning Chronicle, 30 October 1773, quoted by Bartholomeusz, p. 85), a reading proposed in Elizabeth Montagu, An Essay on the Writings and Genius of Shakespear (1769), p. 186. 146 roughest stormiest, most tempestuous. Compare 2.3.53. 147 stay upon your leisure await your time, wait until you are unoccupied (OED Leisure 3c); the latter meaning emphasises Macbeth's inattention. For the following action (Macbeth courteously directs his companions off-stage), see Bevington, pp. 155-6. 148 favour indulgence. Macbeth excuses his preoccupation. 148 wrought agitated, stirred, worked up (first citation for OED Work v 14b). 150-1 registered .. . leaf The image is of a notebook ('leaf = a page) in which Macbeth has written ('registered') a reminder of what he owes Ross and Angus. 152-4 Macbeth makes a nearly identical invitation to Banquo at 2.1.22-4. 152 SD F does not specify that Macbeth speaks to Banquo, and the lines might be public rather than private. 152 chanced happened, occurred (OED Chance VI). 152 at more time The phrase is puzzling; it may mean 'at a later time' (partly supported by OED At 2oa-b) or 'when we have more time'. 153 The .. . it i.e. when we have considered it thoroughly ('weighed') in the meantime ('interim'). The abstract phrasing also gives time itself the capacity to judge and hence recalls Macbeth's thought that chance may crown him (142-3). 154 free frank, plain-spoken (OED Free a 25a). The adjective is transferred from being an adverb modifying 'speak' (153); compare i.6.3n. Act 1, Scene 4 The setting is presumably Duncan's royal camp, to which Macbeth and Banquo have been summoned. o SD.I Flourish A 'trumpet signal indicating the "presence" of authority' (Long, p. 14); 'the royal flourish sounds only for Duncan [in 1.4] and Malcolm [in Act 5] .. . At no point... is Macbeth accorded a flourish' (Long, p. 183). 0 SD.I Oddly, Lennox, a thane, appears before Malcolm, the king's elder son; F usually lists characters in order of rank. 1 Is .. . Cawdor Has Cawdor's execution been carried out. See OED Execution 5, citing the phrase 'to do execution'. 1 or not or are not. 'Are' or 'is' is understood. Those in commission yet returned? MALCOLM My liege, They are not yet come back. But I have spoke With one that saw him die, who did report That very frankly he confessed his treasons, Implored your highness' pardon, and set forth A deep repentance. Nothing in his life Became him like the leaving it. He died As one that had been studied in his death, To throw away the dearest thing he owed As 'twere a careless trifle. DUNCAN There's no art To find the mind's construction in the face. He was a gentleman on whom I built An absolute trust. Enter MACBETH, BANQUO, ROSS, and ANGUS O worthiest cousin, 2 liege i.e. liege lord (the feudal superior to whom a vassal owes allegiance). In Shakespeare's day, the title no longer carried legal obligations and was mostly one of great respect. 3-4 A notable example of the play's insistence on mediated knowledge, on information travelling through reports and unofficial channels. 3 spoke spoken (Abbott 343). 5^7 In the early modern period, no matter how recalcitrant convicted criminals had been, they typically did confess, repent, and beg forgiveness as they prepared to face divine judgement; see L. B. Smith, 'English treason trials and confessions in the sixteenth century', jfHI 15 (1954), 471-98, especially pp. 476-80, and J. A. Sharpe, ' "Last dying speeches": religion, ideology and public execution in seventeenth-century England', P&P 107 (May 1985), 144-67. 8 Became Graced, befitted (OED Become v 7). 9 studied skilled, practised. There is no overtone of the modern connotation 'affected', but perhaps an acknowledgement of traditional religious practice (see Beach Langston, 'Essex and the art of dying', HLQ_ 13 (1949-50), 109-29, and Nancy Lee Beaty, The Craft of Dying, 1970). 'To owe God a death' is proverbial (Dent G237), and versions appear elsewhere in Shakespeare (e.g. Rj 2.2.91-5). 10 owed owned. Elizabethan spelling did not distinguish between 'owe' and 'own'; Malcolm may therefore also allude to the idea that every Christian owes God a soul. See 5.9.5 and n. 1 1 As As if. See Abbott 107, noting that the subjunctive 'were' implies 'if. 1 1 careless uncared for (OED Careless 4a, quoting this line), unregarded. Cawdor threw away his soul as if it were a trifle he cared nothing about. 11-1 2 There's no art.. . face A proverbial truism - 'The face is no index to the heart' (Dent FI.I , citing Juvenal, Satire 2: 'Frontis nulla fides') - that Duncan has apparently just discovered. Foakes notes the lines' ironic applicability to Macbeth, 'who enters just after they are spoken, or, as some actors have played the part, in time to overhear them'. Immediately before his arrest and execution, the pathetically impercipient Hastings fails to read the mind in Richard of Gloucester's face: 'never a man in Christendom / Can lesser hide his love or hate than he, / For by his face straight shall you know his heart' (/?j 3.4.51-3); Vincentio, himself in disguise, uses the truism to flatter and gain his way: 'There is written in your brow, Provost, honesty and constancy; if I read it not truly, my ancient skill beguiles me' (MM 4.2.153-5). Compare 'You are well-favoured and your looks foreshow / You have a gentle heart' (Per. 4.1.85-6). Duncan's remark might have been prompted by Holinshed's observation (Scotland, p. 150a) that King Duff, murdered in one 'Donwald's' castle at Forres, was uncautious because he had 'a speciall trust in Donwald, as a man whom he never suspected'. Compare 1.5.60-4. 12 construction interpretation (Lexicon). 1.4-15 Macbeth The sin of my ingratitude even now 15 Was heavy on me. Thou art so far before, That swiftest wing of recompense is slow To overtake thee. Would thou hadst less deserved, That the proportion both of thanks and payment Might have been mine. Only I have left to say, 20 More is thy due than more than all can pay. MACBETH The service and the loyalty I owe, In doing it, pays itself. Your highness' part Is to receive our duties, and our duties Are to your throne and state, children and servants, 25 Which do but what they should by doing everything Safe toward your love and honour. DUNCAN Welcome hither. I have begun to plant thee and will labour To make thee full of growing. Noble Banquo, That hast no less deserved, nor must be known 30 No less to have done so, let me enfold thee And hold thee to my heart. BANQUO There if I grow, The harvest is your own. DUNCAN My plenteous joys, Wanton in fullness, seek to hide themselves In drops of sorrow. Sons, kinsmen, thanes, 35 21 More . .. pay.] F; 'More . . . pay'. Oxford 18-20 Would . .. mine i.e. I wish you had mer- 28-9 I have begun .. . growing Shaheen comited lesser rewards so that I might have been able to pares 'Thou hast planted them . . . they growe, and pay you adequately; 'proportion' (19) = an act of bring forth fruit' (Jer. 12.2 (Geneva)), proportioning (OED Proportion sb 6, citing this 30-1 nor . . . / No less i.e. and must be no less line): this act Duncan cannot satisfactorily perform known, F'S phrase is a double negative, because Macbeth's merit outstrips the available 31 enfold embrace (an implicit direction to the 'thanks and payment'. actor). 20-1 Only .. . pay Shakespearean nobles often 32-3 There . . . own Banquo continues humble themselves in this way; compare 'outward Duncan's metaphor of growth-into-reward and courtesies would fain proclaim / Favours that keep may allude to the legal principle that the land's within' (MM 5.1.15-16). owner possesses the crops thereon no matter who 21 all i.e. all my 'thanks and payment' (19). sowed and tended them (see Clarkson and Warren, 22-7 'Macbeth has nothing but the com- pp. 165-6 and 166 n. 11); for the related principle in monplaces of loyalty, in which he hides himself in animal husbandry see John 1.1.123-4. the "our"' (Coleridge, p. 108). 34 Wanton Luxuriant, profuse (OED Wanton a 23 pays itself i.e. service and loyalty (22) are 7a). their own rewards. See 'Virtue is its own reward' 35 drops of sorrow Duncan weeps for joy. (Dent v8i, first recorded in 1596). 35~43 Sons .. . you The political import of this 27 Safe toward With sure regard to your love speech is repeated at 5.9.27-40. Duncan's proposal and honour (Clarendon). 'An expression undoubt- of his successor (37) might hint that Macbeth or edly strained and obscure on purpose' (Lexicon Safe Banquo, not Malcolm, as it happens, is to be adj and adv 4). nominated. [121] Macbeth 1.4.53 And you whose places are the nearest, know: We will establish our estate upon Our eldest, Malcolm, whom we name hereafter The Prince of Cumberland, which honour must Not unaccompanied invest him only, 40 But signs of nobleness like stars shall shine On all deservers. [To Macbeth] From hence to Inverness And bind us further to you. MACBET H The rest is labour which is not used for you; I'll be myself the harbinger and make joyful 45 The hearing of my wife with your approach. So humbly take my leave. DUNCA N My worthy Cawdor. MACBET H [Aside] The Prince of Cumberland: that is a step On which I must fall down, or else o'erleap, For in my way it lies. Stars, hide your fires, 50 Let not light see my black and deep desires, The eye wink at the hand. Yet let that be, Which the eye fears when it is done to see. Exit 45 harbinger] F (Herbenger) 36 nearest most closely, or intimately, associated (with Duncan). 37 establish settle. 39 Prince of Cumberland Title of the Scottish heir apparent; compare 'Prince of Wales' in England. 40 Not unaccompanied Not alone. Making Malcolm Prince of Cumberland requires that Duncan also honour others, as Malcolm does at the play's end and James I did upon his accession. 40 invest clothe, adorn (OED Invest v ib). This meaning shades into more figurative ones, e.g. 'endue with attributes' (OED Invest v 3a), but the word links the abstract conferring of honour with the imagery of clothing (see 2.4.32 and n.). 41 signs of nobleness tokens of merit (i.e. titles of honour). 42 SD Keightley is apparently the first editor to have realised that 'you' (43) stipulated a change of those addressed. 42 Inverness Town at the head of the Moray Firth, 155 miles north-west of Edinburgh (Sugden) and supposed location of Macbeth's castle. See the map, p. 94 above. 44 rest. . . you Macbeth uses courtly and hyperbolic antithesis: (1) anything ('the rest') not done for you is work ('labour'); (2) resting ('the rest') is fatiguing unless done on your behalf; (3) rest is labour when I refrain from serving you. This involuted language conveys polite deference rather than any easily paraphrasable sense: Macbeth stresses that 'you' (Duncan, his importance and his favour to Macbeth) give meaning to whatever 'we' (Macbeth, Lady Macbeth, and presumably their retainers) do, however others may judge our actions. 45 harbinger An officer of the royal household, who preceded the king on his journeys and procured lodgings (NS). Compare 1.6.23 n. 45-6 make... hearing i.e. make (Lady Macbeth) rejoice at hearing. 50 Stars. .. fires Duncan has just said that 'signs of nobleness [= honours] like stars' shall shine on all deserving people (41-2); recently honoured, Macbeth now seeks to escape starlight and betray his desert. The words are entirely metaphorical: 'There is nothing to indicate this scene took place at night' (Clarendon). 52 wink at disregard, overlook; connive at (OED Wink v l 6a-b). The implication of connivance is slight and made more doubtful by the next line. 52-3 Yet let that be .. . to see See Johnson's comment on a similiar moment of anxious selfdeception m John 4.2.231-6: 'bad men use all the arts of fallacy upon themselves . . . and hide themselves from their own detection', and Jones, Scenic, pp. 204 and 212, where affinities between the 'conspiracy stage' in JC and Mac. are identified. 1.4-54 Macbeth [122] DUNCAN True, worthy Banquo, he is full so valiant, And in his commendations I am fed; It is a banquet to me. Let's after him, Whose care is gone before to bid us welcome: It is a peerless kinsman. Flourish Exeunt 1.5 Enter [LADY MACBETH] alone, with a letter LADY MACBETH [Reads] 'They met me in the day of success, and I have learned by the perfectest report they have more in them than mortal knowledge. When I burned in desire to question them further, they made themselves air, into which they vanished. Whiles I stood rapt in the wonder of it, came missives from the king who all-hailed me Thane of Cawdor, by which title before these weird sisters saluted me and referred 55 58 SD.1-2] F (as one line at right margin) Act 1, Scene 5 1.5] F (Scena Quinta.) o SD LADY MACBETH] F (Macbeths Wife) 1 SD] This edn; not in F 1-1 2 'They . . . farewell.'] F (They . . .farewell.) 2 perfectest] F (perfect'st) 6 Thane of Cawdor] F (Thane of Cawdor); "Thane of Cawdor" Collier 7 weird] Theobald; weyward F 54-5 Duncan agrees with Banquo's (unheard) remark: Macbeth is just as brave ('full so valiant') as Banquo has said; praising Macbeth gives Duncan pleasure. Macbeth's aside has apparently 'covered' Banquo's comment to Duncan. 56 banquet Wordplay on 'Banquo' (54). 58 peerless without equal. This word 'prepares us for Macbeth's refusal to remain a thane among thanes; only a monarch is literally peerless' (Mahood, p. 44). Act 1, Scene 5 Lady Macbeth reads her husband's letter and later meets him in some private room of their castle at Inverness, to which Duncan has said he and his court will travel (1.4.42). 1-1 2 This letter is another example (see 1.2.2,46, and 1.3.37-40) of mediated and interpreted knowledge; it amplifies (and distorts) an episode we have witnessed (1.3). Concerning such letters, Jonas Barish (in Biggs, p. 36) makes a general point: 'Shakespeare is not concerned about meticulous quotation; he is quite ready to rewrite a passage to include information missing from the "original" version . . .'; Mark Taylor, 'Letters and readers in Macbeth, King Lear, and Twelfth Night', PQ 69 (1990), 31-53, claims (pp. 36-7) that Macbeth's 'letter is a covert directive .. . to push him toward regicide'. 2 perfectest report most reliable testimony. The words may refer to Macbeth's learning of his new title (Cawdor) from Ross and Angus, but he also called the witches 'imperfect speakers' (1.3.68). For F'S 'perfect'st', see 5.1.6m. 5 vanished Another hint of the witches' stage business. 5 Whiles While. The spelling is not archaic, according to OED. 5 rapt Compare 1.3.141, where Macbeth is 'rapt' after learning of his new title rather than after the witches' address. 6 missives messengers (OED Missive sb 3; this line is the earliest citation, and the last is from 1649). 6 all-hailed saluted with 'All hail'. Macbeth's letter transfers the 'all-hail' from the witches to Ross and Angus. 6 Thane of Cawdor Many editors mark this phrase as quoted speech, and F may seek to do the same through printing 'Thane' in roman type with the remainder of the letter in italic, but F does not distinguish the obviously quoted words 'haile King that shalt be' (TLN 356). Macbeth 1.5.23 me to the coming on of time, with "Hail, king that shalt be." This have I thought good to deliver thee, my dearest partner of greatness, that thou mightst not lose the dues of rejoicing by 10 being ignorant of what greatness is promised thee. Lay it to thy heart and farewell.' Glamis thou art, and Cawdor, and shalt be What thou art promised; yet do I fear thy nature, It is too full o'th'milk of human kindness 15 To catch the nearest way. Thou wouldst be great, Art not without ambition, but without The illness should attend it. What thou wouldst highly, That wouldst thou holily; wouldst not play false, And yet wouldst wrongly win. Thou'dst have, great Glamis, 20 That which cries, 'Thus thou must do' if thou have it; And that which rather thou dost fear to do, Than wishest should be undone. Hie thee hither, 8 "Hail... be."] Pope (subst.); haile. .. be. F 8 be.] F; be hereafter, conj. Upton, p. 201 20 Thou'dst] F (Thould'st) 21 'Thus .. . do'] NS (conj. Hunter, 'New', 11,172); Thus . . . doe, F. See Commentary 21 thou have] F; thou'dst have Keightley 9 deliver report. Compare 'Sure you have some hideous matter to deliver, when the courtesy of it is so fearful' (77V 1.5.206-7). 11-1 2 Lay .. . heart Consider it seriously (OED Heart sb 42). 14-23 yet.. . undone A speech that appears to be a static description of Macbeth's 'nature' and inherent moral values ('thy nature .. . is too full o'th'milk of human kindness' (14-15)) is in fact Lady Macbeth's progressive meditation on how she may influence both nature and values (16-20) and therefore move her husband to action. See p. 33 above. 15 milk of human kindness i.e. compassion characteristic of humane persons (OED Milk sb1 2c). F reads 'humane', and 'humane' (= gentle, compassionate) was not distinguished orthographically from 'human' before 1700 or later (see also 3.4.76); 'kindness' principally means 'kinship', but also connotes 'category' ('kind' = classification, group) and 'naturalness' ('kind' = nature). Later uses of the phrase 'milk of human kindness' apparently derive from this line. Compare Goneril's rejection of her husband's 'milky gentleness' (Lear 1.4.341) and see 1.7.54-8 and 4.3.98. 16 catch snatch (OED Catch i> 21 and 13). 16 nearest way most direct route, short-cut. For the moral overtones, compare the proverbial 'The shortest way is commonly the foulest, the fairer way not much about' (Dent W142.1). 18 illness wickedness, depravity. 18 highly intensely, greatly (OED Highly adv 3a), but another meaning, 'in or to a high rank' (OED Highly adv 2a), hints that 'highly' might mean 'nobly, in a manner suiting an individual of high rank'. 19 holily.with sanctity and devoutness (OED Holily 1, quoting this line, but omitting the implicit sense, 'guiltlessly'). 19-20 wouldst not. . . win While this phrase seems to repeat the preceding one, it makes Macbeth criminally ambitious (he would 'wrongly win') and self-deceiving (he would 'play false' = cheat) where the other stressed his high, but holy, ambition. 21 That which cries A voice that says (e.g. Lady Macbeth's own voice, or the crown). 21 'Thus thou must do' F does not indicate what 'That' says. Pope introduced quotation marks for 'Thus thou .. . should be undone' (21-3), and most editors follow him or Hanmer, who treated 'Thus thou .. . have it' as the quoted matter. Any choice would be difficult to convey in the theatre. 21 if thou have it i.e. if you would gain greatness (or the crown); 'would' is understood from its previous uses. 22 that A reference to 'Thus thou must do' (21) - kill Duncan - rather than to 'That which cries' - the urging or desire to kill Duncan. 23 Hie Hurry. 1.5.24 Macbeth [124] That I may pour my spirits in thine ear And chastise with the valour of my tongue 25 All that impedes thee from the golden round, Which fate and metaphysical aid doth seem To have thee crowned withal. Enter [ATTENDANT] What is your tidings? ATTENDANT The king comes here tonight. LADY MACBETH Thou'rt mad to say it. Is not thy master with him? Who, were't so, 30 Would have informed for preparation. ATTENDAN T So please you, it is true: our thane is coming. One of my fellows had the speed of him; Who almost dead for breath, had scarcely more 26 impedes] F (impeides) 28 SD ATTENDANT] Capell; Messenger F 29 SH, 32 SH ATTENDANT] Capell (subst.); Mess, F 30 were't] F (wert) 24 pour . . . ear The 'spirits' are soon defined as those 'that tend on mortal [murderous] thoughts' (39); Lady Macbeth's words to Macbeth will be metaphorical equivalents of the 'leprous distillment' Claudius pours into King Hamlet's ears (Ham. 1.5.63-4). 25 chastise rebuke. Stress on first syllable (Cercignani, p. 36). 25 valour .. . tongue Misogynistically, Elizabethan culture considered men valorous, women talkative; thus Beatrice, 'my lady Tongue', accuses Benedick of unmanliness: 'But manhood is melted into cur'sies, valour into compliment, and men are only turned into tongue' (Ado 2.1.275 and 4.1.319- 20). This patriarchal belief did grant women the power to encourage men: 'Methinks a woman of this valiant spirit / Should, if a coward heard her speak these words, / Infuse his breast with magnanimity, / And make him, naked, foil a man at arms' (Prince Edward of Queen Margaret, 3H6 5.4.39- 42). 26 impedes hinders, obstructs. This line is OED's earliest citation for 'impede' (Schàfer). 26 golden round i.e. the crown (as at 4.1.87). 'Mrs. Siddons used to elevate her stature, to smile with a lofty and uncontrollable expectation, and, with an arm raised beautifully in the air, to draw the very circle she was speaking of, in the air about her head, as if she ran her finger round the gold' (Leigh Hunt, Tatler, 15 March 1831, quoted in Sprague, p. 232; this action became 'a common piece of traditional business', according to Michael Mullin, 'Stage and screen: the Trevor Nunn Macbeth', SQ 38 (1987), 351). 27 metaphysical more than physical, supernatural (White). 27 doth Singular verb in -th with plural subject (Abbott 334). 28 SD ATTENDANT The dialogue makes clear that this speaker is a member of the household, an 'attendant', not a 'messenger' (as in F). Costume and perhaps props would have distinguished messenger from attendant in Jacobean productions. 29 Lady Macbeth reacts either because she momentarily thinks the servant refers (treasonably) to Macbeth as 'The king' or because Duncan's unexpected arrival seems too pat, an instant example of 'fate and metaphysical aid' (27). 31 informed reported; given information (an intransitive use; see OED Inform v 7a, quoting this line as the first example). 31 preparation Pronounced as five syllables. 32-5 As in the report of Cawdor's execution (1.4.2-11), unofficial messengers travel faster than official ones, and Shakespeare stresses the details of speed and exhaustion. 33 had the speed of him outdistanced him (OED Speed sb 10b, citing only this line and another example from 1646). 34 for breath as a consequence of ('for') lacking air to breathe (?). The meaning is clear but hard to substantiate (see e.g. OED For 22). [125] Macbeth 1.5.45 Than would make up his message. LADY MACBETH Give him tending, 35 He brings great news. Exit [Attendant] The raven himself is hoarse That croaks the fatal entrance of Duncan Under my battlements. Come, you spirits That tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here And fill me from the crown to the toe topfull 40 Of direst cruelty; make thick my blood, Stop up th'access and passage to remorse That no compunctious visitings of nature Shake my fell purpose nor keep peace between Th'effect and it. Come to my woman's breasts 45 36 SD Attendant] Capell; Messenger F 45 it] F (hit) 36 raven Traditionally a bird of evil omen (because it was a carrion-eater seen on the battlefield). Compare 'the fatall Raven, that in his voice / Carries the dreadful summons of our deaths' (Peele, David and Bethsabe 555-6) and 'the sad presaging Raven that tolls / The sicke mans passeport in her hollow beake' (Marlowe, Jew of Malta 2.1.1-2). 36 himself is hoarse i.e. like the gasping messenger. 39 tend on attend, administer to. 39 mortal fatal, murderous; human. 39 unsex me deprive me of my gender (?); compare OED Unsex v, 'deprive or divest of sex', for which this line is the earliest citation. The verb may mean 'make me not a woman' or, less likely, 'make me not human'. 39 here Actresses have sometimes made 'here' breast (see Sprague, pp. 232-3) or groin; producers must decide whether Lady Macbeth's invocation is figurative or acted out. 40 crown .. . toe Proverbial: 'From the crown of the head to the sole of the foot' (Dent C864.1). 41 direst most dreadful, most terrible. 41- 2 thick .. . passage Classical and early modern medical theory held that health and illness, emotions and other psychological states, were the consequence of 'humours' or 'spirit' that passed through the blood to various organs and bodily structures. If the 'thin and wholesome blood' (Ham. 1.5.70) became 'thick' or the 'passage' was stopped, no emotional or psychological changes could take place, although there might be other consequences: 'there be feavers . . . which are ingendered of thickening and stopping of the conduites and passages' (Barrough, p. 168). NS cites 'Thoughts that would thick my blood' (WT 1.2.171) and 'if that surly spirit, melancholy, / Had baked thy blood and made it heavy, thick' (John 3.3.42-3); compare 'that Italian [i.e. Machiavellian] air, that hath . . . dried up in you all sap of generous disposition' (Chapman, Widow's Tears 1.1.131—3). See pp. 33-4 above. 42 access Stress on second syllable (Cercignani, P- 37)- 42 remorse pity, compassion; not (as in modern English) bitter repentance for a wrong committed. 43 compunctious remorseful. This line is OED's earliest recorded use (Schàfer). 43 visitings of nature menstruation (?) and, more generally, natural feelings of compassion. The specific meaning (for 'visit') is attested from 1640; see OED Visit sb 4, and p. 33 above. 44 fell fierce, ruthless. Compare Iago: 'More fell than anguish, hunger, or the sea!' (Oth. 5.2.362). 44 keep preserve, maintain. The modern equivalent of 'keep peace' is 'keep the peace'. 45 Th'effect and it The consequence (OED Effect sb 1 a) and 'my fell purpose' (44): an example of hysteron proteron where cause follows effect. Halio defends F'S 'hit' (a form as old as 'it' and common into the nineteenth century: see OED It pron A) as 'success, fulfilment', but without support from OED. 1.5.46 Macbeth [126] And take my milk for gall, you murd'ring ministers, Wherever in your sightless substances You wait on nature's mischief. Come, thick night, And pall thee in the dunnest smoke of hell, That my keen knife see not the wound it makes, Nor heaven peep through the blanket of the dark, To cry, 'Hold, hold/ Enter MACBETH Great Glamis, worthy Cawdor, Greater than both by the all-hail hereafter, Thy letters have transported me beyond This ignorant present, and I feel now The future in the instant. MACBETH My dearest love, Duncan comes here tonight. LADY MACBETH And when goes hence? 55 52 'Hold, hold.'] Capell (subst.); hold, hold. F 46 take.. . gall Either 'make my milk gall [= bile; bitter liquid]' or 'treat my milk as gall'. Early medical theory held that a mother's blood (see 41-2) was converted into milk (see Patricia Crawford, 'The sucking child: adult attitudes to child care in the first year of life in seventeenth-century England', Continuity and Change 1 (1986), 30); here blood becomes gall. Capell (Notes, p. 7) says the spirits 'are summon'd magnificently to suck encrease of malignity from the "gall" of her breasts'. 'But perhaps Lady Macbeth is asking the spirits to take her milk as gall, to nurse from her breast and find in her milk their sustaining poison' (Adelman, p. 135). 46 ministers attendants, executants. 47 sightless invisible; blind. 48 wait on nature's mischief lie in wait for disturbances of nature (Brooke). 48-52 Johnson found the language here embarrassingly humble, but D. S. Bland (Reader, p. 241) justifies the 'simplicity of vocabulary'. 48 thick dense, profound. The word appears three times in this act and only once (4.1.33) again. 49 pall cover or drape as with cloth. The verb evokes the noun 'pall' (cloth, altar-cloth, covering for a hearse or coffin, robe, garment) and joins Lady Macbeth's wish with Macbeth's earlier anxieties about 'borrowed robes' (1.3.107). Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology, 1988, defines pall as 'shroud', the wrapping of a corpse. See 1.7.3 n. 49 dunnest murkiest, gloomiest (OED Dun a 2). 52-3 Great.. . both Lady Macbeth greets her husband with (almost) the sisters' words (1.3.46-8). 52 Rowe added Embracing him after 'Cawdor', which presumably reflects a Restoration stagepractice that certainly appeared in mid-eighteenthcentury Pritchard-Garrick performances and has since become a defining moment for the actors' relationship. 53 all-hail i.e. associated with the salutation, 'all hail!' The phrase 'all-hail' is treated as an adjective, 'hereafter' as a noun: Macbeth will be 'Greater . . . hereafter' on the authority of ('by') the sisters' 'all hail'. See 1.3.46^ 54 letters The audience knows only the letter read at the scene's start; these 'letters' prefigure the characters of Macbeth's face, 'a book' (60). 55 ignorant unknowing (Johnson). 56 The future in the instant That which is to come in the present moment, the here-and-now. See p. 19 above. 57 goes hence departs; dies. See 'before I go hence, and be no more (seene)' (Ps. 39.13; '. . . be no more' (AV)), and 'Men must endure / Their going hence even as their coming hither' (Lear 5.2.9-10). [127] Macbeth 1.5.71 MACBETH Tomorrow, as he purposes. LADY MACBETH O never Shall sun that morrow see. Your face, my thane, is as a book where men May read strange matters. To beguile the time, Look like the time, bear welcome in your eye, Your hand, your tongue; look like th'innocent flower, But be the serpent under't. He that's coming Must be provided for, and you shall put This night's great business into my dispatch, Which shall to all our nights and days to come Give solely sovereign sway and masterdom. MACBETH We will speak further - LADY MACBETH Only look up clear; To alter favour ever is to fear. Leave all the rest to me. 60 65 70 Exeunt 61 matters. To . . . time,] Theobald; matters, to .. . time. F 69 further —] This edn; further, F; further. F2 58 purposes plans, intends. 58 O never Sarah Siddons (see G. J. Bell in Jenkin, pp. 43-4) repeated 'never', as have many later Lady Macbeths. 59 sun Given the importance of male heirs in the play, a pun on 'son' is not impossible here. 59 that morrow i.e. a new day in which Duncan 'goes hence' alive. 60—1 The analogy of 'face' with 'a book' is proverbial (Dent B531.1); compare 1.4.11-12. 61 beguile deceive, mislead. Theobald's repunctuation changes the line's effect: in F, 'men . . . read' Macbeth's face to pass the time; here, Lady Macbeth urges her husband to deceive 'men' by wearing a deceitful face. 63-4 look like . . . serpent under't The advice is based on the proverbial 'Snake in the grass' (Dent S585), with a Virgilian ancestor (Eclogues 3.93) noted in NS. Brooke suggests that the line alludes to Satan in Eden. 64 under't under it. 65 provided for prepared for (OED Provide v 2a). The verb hovers ambiguously between hospitable and homicidal preparations for Duncan's arrival. Compare the Dauphin's reaction to an unexpected English attack: 'we will presently provide for them' (1H6 5.2.15). 66 dispatch conduct, management (OED Dispatch sb 5b, citing this line only). Other meanings - death by violence, or execution (OED Dispatch sb 4 and 5a) - may have influenced the diction here, since Macbeth will later sense that he has 'killed' sleep (2.2.45). 67-8 all . . . masterdom Night and day later prove not testimonies to the Macbeths' 'masterdom', their sovereign power, but rather to their weakness. See e.g. 3.2.16-22 and 5.1. 68 solely exclusively (OED Solely adv 2). 69 The punctuation adopted here, indicating that Lady Macbeth interrupts Macbeth, suggests his continuing irresolution and her insistent certainty. The punctuation in F and in F2 makes Macbeth more certainly doubtful, Lady Macbeth still more insistent. 69 clear serenely, cheerfully. Adverbial use of OED Clear adj 2d; compare 1.7.18. 70 Fear always ('ever') changes one's facial expression ('favour'); the construction is inverted to make a significant rhyme. i.6. i Macbeth [128] 1.6 Hautboys, and Torches. Enter King [DUNCAN], MALCOLM, DONALDBAIN, BANQUO, LENNOX, MACDUFF, ROSS, ANGUS, and Attendants DUNCAN This castle hath a pleasant seat; the air Nimbly and sweetly recommends itself Unto our gentle senses. BANQUO This guest of summer, The temple-haunting martlet, does approve By his loved mansionry that the heaven's breath Act 1, Scene 6 1.6] F (Scena Sexta.) o SD Hautboys, and Torches.] F (Hoboyes); Hautboys. / NS Barlet F 5 mansionry] Theobald; Mansonry F; masonry Pope2 5 heaven's] F (Heauens) 4 martlet] Rome ; Act 1, Scene 6 The audience is to imagine the setting as an approach to Macbeth's castle. NS regards the scene as a daylight one, but F and (in a celebrated stage setting) Henry Irving treat it as nocturnal (see Hughes, Irving, p. 100). For contemporary ceremonies used in greeting important visitors, see Heal, passim, especially pp. 32-3; the guest's rank governed the ceremony; it determined by whom, by how many, and where the guest was met upon arriving at an aristocratic residence. o SD Hautboys, and Torches Players of hautboys, and torch-bearers. Tudor and early Stuart hautboys (also called 'bombards') were treble members of the shawm family, loud-sounding instruments much favoured in courts and by the military (Bate, pp. 30- 3); Langham (p. 41) describes an outdoor welcome for Queen Elizabeth at Kenilworth Castle in 1575: 'This Pageaunt waz clozd up with a delectabl harmony of Hautboiz, Shalmz, Cornets, and such oother looud Muzik.' The modern oboe, with which editors and critics sometimes confuse the hautboy, was not introduced into England until c. 1674-6 (Bate, pp. 40-1; compare Greg, p. 394 n. 18). NS deletes F'S Torches because they are inappropriate to a daylight scene, which this one may, but need not, be. 1-1 0 Both Duncan and, more surprisingly, Banquo here accept a superficial appearance and misread a 'face' (note 'temple' and 'breath' (4-5)), the castle's aspect; compare Duncan's reaction to Cawdor's treason (1.4.11-14) and Banquo's to the sisters' appearance and speech (1.3.37-45, 5°~2 > 81-3, 122-5). Duncan and Banquo misread as 'gentle' (3) and 'procréant' (8) a castle whose 'battlements' will prove 'fatal' to both (1.5.37-8). 1-2 Rowe's relineation (see Appendix 3, p. 276 below), followed here, scans regularly with a trochaic substitution ('Nimbly') at the start of the second pentameter. 1 seat situation, site (OED Seat sb 18, quoting this line). 3-10 make another transferred meaning - 'place of habitation or settlement (of birds)' (OED Seat sb 16a) - likely, although OED's evidence is thin. 3 gentle i.e. the sweet air makes our sense gentle. An example of rhetorical prolepsis, where effect is placed before cause (Lexicon, Appendix 1.8). Foakes compares 3.4.76. 4 temple-haunting i.e. associated with houses of worship. Compare 'Yea, the sparowe hath founde her an house, and the swallowe a nest for her, where she maie lay her yong: even by thine altars, o Lord of hostes, my King, and my God' (Ps. 84.3, Geneva). At Duncan's death, 'temple' will mean both 'cranium' and 'house of worship' (see 2.3.60-1 and 2.3.6m). 4 martlet A swift, but used also of the swallow or house-martin (birds which build nests (8) attached to the walls of buildings). Peter M. Daly, 'Of Macbeth, martlets, and other "fowles of heauen" ', Mosaic 12, 1 (1978), 32-8, shows that martlets and related species were common emblems of 'prudent trust' and 'harmony in the realm', F'S 'Barlet' may be an unusual error for 'marlet', which OED Martlet2 2 lists as a variant of 'martlet'; elsewhere, F prints 'the Martlet' which 'Builds .. . on the outward wall' (MVTLN 1140-1). 4 approve confirm; attest; commend (as at Ant. 5.2.149). 5 mansionry 'mansions collectively' (OED Mansionry, citing only this (emended) line and an allusion from 1876, but plausibly suggesting an error for 'masonry'). Schàfer treats 'mansionry' as Shakespeare's neologism. [I2Ç\ Macbeth 1.6.17 Smells wooingly here. No jutty, frieze, Buttress, nor coign of vantage but this bird Hath made his pendent bed and procréant cradle; Where they most breed and haunt, I have observed The air is delicate. Enter LADY [MACBETH] DUNCAN See, see, our honoured hostess. - The love That follows us sometime is our trouble, Which still we thank as love. Herein I teach you How you shall bid God yield us for your pains And thank us for your trouble. LADY MACBETH All our service, In every point twice done and then done double, Were poor and single business to contend 6 jutty,] Malone (in Steevens*); Iutty F 9 most] Rome; must F 10 SD LADY MACBETH] F (Lady), and in SDS hereafter except 3.2.0 SD 11 hostess. - ] Collier; Hostesse: F 14 God yield] F (God-eyld) 6 jutty Projecting part of a wall or building. 6 frieze Carved or painted decorative band beneath a building's cornice. 7 Buttress External support for a wall or building. 7 coign of vantage Projecting corner ('coign') of a building 'affording facility for observation or action' (OED Coign 1, citing this line as the first example). This phrase keeps 'coign' a living word; 'quoin' has replaced it in other usages. 8 pendent hanging, suspended. 8 bed .. . cradle nest. 9 most F'S 'must' repeats the idea of the birds' procreation; Rowe's emendation moves the observation from the birds' fertility (which gives them their symbolic value) to their number (which validates the castle's 'pleasant' and 'heavenly' aspects). Regarding 'most' as 'relatively trite', Brooke retains 'must', interpreted as 'are resolved to' and 'are obliged to'. 9 haunt usually remain, habitually resort. 10 delicate charming, pleasant (OED Delicate adj 1 a). 11—13 The love .. . love Duncan begins a tortuously polite exchange by remarking how he sometimes finds troublesome others' well-meaning respect and affection, over which they have taken so much 'trouble'. 13-15 Herein .. . trouble Duncan turns a selfdeprecating compliment: Lady Macbeth should learn from the king's example to ask God to reward Duncan for the effort she makes and to thank Duncan for providing the onerous occasion. Shakespeare's nobles make such comments often; see Ado 1.1.96-103 and WT 5.3.3-8. 14 yield reward, recompense. 16-17 In .. . single For the mathematical language here, see p. 26 above. 16 twice . . . double Lady Macbeth continues the language of duplication and multiplication begun by the Captain (1.2.37-8), continued by the sisters (1.3.33-4, 4-I - I0)> an d soon to be used by Macbeth (1.7.12). 17 single weak, simple, undemanding. The word continues the text's playing with singleness (unity, integrity?) and doubleness (show, not substance?); for Lady Macbeth, or for the play, doubleness may be more valid or effective than singleness. 17 business exertion. In Elizabethan English, the noun still retained its etymological content of 'busy-ness'; compare 1.5.66. 17 contend compete, vie (OED Contend 4). i.6. i8 Macbeth [130] Against those honours deep and broad wherewith Your majesty loads our house. For those of old, And the late dignities heaped up to them, 20 We rest your hermits. DUNCAN Where's the Thane of Cawdor? We coursed him at the heels and had a purpose To be his purveyor, but he rides well, And his great love, sharp as his spur, hath holp him To his home before us. Fair and noble hostess, 25 We are your guest tonight. LAD Y MACBET H Your servants ever Have theirs, themselves, and what is theirs in count To make their audit at your highness' pleasure, Still to return your own. DUNCAN Give me your hand; Conduct me to mine host: we love him highly 30 And shall continue our graces towards him. By your leave, hostess. Exeunt 27 in count] F (in compt),- to count Q1673 30 host:] Collier; Host F 18—21 The syncopation of 'majesty' to a disyll- 23 purveyor The person who arranges proviable makes Pope's relineation (see Appendix 3, p. sions (food, transport, lodging, etc.) for a superior; 276 below), accepted here, a series of regular pen- an official title in the royal household. Accent on tameters with a linked final line, although the first syllable (Cercignani, p. 40). common early trisyllabic pronunciation 'hermits' 24 holp helped. would make F'S final line regular. These lines end a 25 To his Probably elided ('T'his' or 'To's'); see column, a page, and Compositor A's current stint in Cercignani, pp. 288-9. F; he may have been running out of space and there- 27 count account, statement of moneys received fore crowded the speech into roughly equal line- and expended (OED Count sbx 3, quoting this line), units. F'S 'compt' is archaic. 20 late recent. 30 host The word and social duty will be exam21 hermits beadsmen (OED Hermit sb 2c), per- ined ironically (see 1.7.14 and n., 3.4.5). sons bound by vow or fee to pray for an individual's 32 By your leave With your permission. Duncan spiritual welfare. may leave Lady Macbeth behind after greeting her 22 coursed chased, pursued (OED Course v 2). at the castle's imaginary entrance or invite her to Figurative meanings of the word arise from a hunt- lead the way off-stage. er's pursuit of quarry with a pack of hounds; com- 32 hostess See 30 n. pare 5.7.2. ['3'] Macbeth 1.7.6 1.7 Hautboys. Torches. Enter a Sewer, and divers Servants with dishes and service over the stage. Then enter MACBETH MACBETH If it were done when 'tis done, then 'twere well It were done quickly. If th'assassination Could trammel up the consequence and catch With his surcease, success, that but this blow Might be the be-all and the end-all - here, But here, upon this bank and shoal of time, Act 1, Scene 7 1.7] F (Scena Septima.) Heere F 6 shoal] F (Schoole) 5 be-all] Pope ; be all F 5 end-all — here] Sisson 11, ig4 (Rome subst.); end all. Act 1, Scene 7 The opening SD makes this a nocturnal, interior scene at Macbeth's castle; Macbeth has withdrawn from the off-stage ceremonial dinner (see 29) to some more private place. Compare 3.4, where the audience sees another state dinner. For modern productions and their sound effects, see p. 79 above. Lady Macbeth's arguments encouraging her husband to murder are similar to Beatrice's incitement of Benedick to kill Claudio (Ado 4.1.255-336) and to Dionyza's arguments justifying a murder she ordered (Per. 4.3). o SD.I Hautboys. Torches An abrupt, theatrical direction for musicians and light-bearers; see 1.6.0 SDn. o SD.I Sewer 'The Sewer . . . must from the [side]boord convay all manner of potages, meats, and sauces .. . see ye [the sewer] have officers ready to convay, and servants for to beare your dishes' (The Booke of Carving and Sewing [Serving], sig. A6V, appended to Thomas Dawson, The Second Part of the good Hus-wives Jewell (1597)). Armstrong (p. 50) sees a parallel between the 'hierarchical relationships' of sewer and servants, Duncan and subjects. o SD.2 service something served as food; course of a meal (OED Service sb 27D-C). The audience would see dishes and other utensils. Compare A banquet brought in, with the limbes of a Man in the service (Golden Age, sig. Dir). 0 SD.2 over the stage i.e. crossing silently from one side to the other. 1-4 These tongue-twisting lines (compare 1.5.16-23) force the actor either to gabble or to speak very slowly. 1-2 'So, while Duncan is .. . eating his "last supper", Macbeth plays Judas, for to Judas Jesus at the Last Supper said: "That thou doest, do quickly" (John 13:27)' (Jones, Origins, p. 83). 1 If.. . 'tis done The phrase recalls two proverbs: 'The thing done has an end' (Dent T149) and 'Things done cannot be undone' (Dent T200). See 3.2.12 and 5.1.57-8. 2 assassination murder (for political reasons). This line is O£Z)'s first citation for the word (Schafer). 3 trammel use nets (to catch fish or fowl); hobble (a horse); bind up or wrap (a corpse). A richly suggestive word; OED Trammel v 4 is a figurative meaning, 'to entangle or fasten up', supported first by this line and next by a line (probably an allusion to this one) from Keats. 4 his surcease Duncan's death. 4 success prosperous achievement (OED Success sb 3); succession of heirs (OED Success sb 5). This is the play's fourth use of the word and recalls the others, beginning to make them ironic (see 1.3.88, 131; 1.5.1); see the fine discussion of the word in Everett, pp. 96-^7. 4-5 that.. . end-all i.e. if the murder of Duncan were an act and event complete and completed in itself. 4 that but if only. 5 be-all and the end-all the whole being and that which ends all. According to OED Be-all, Shakespeare invented the phrase and all subsequent uses are quotations; 'end-all' (OED End-all: 'the finishing stroke') seems to have a dialect existence independent of this play. 6 bank and shoal sand-bank (or river bank) and shallow, F'S 'Banke and Schoole' could also be modernised as 'bench and school'; OED defines 'bank' (= bench) as referring to the seat of justice, the mountebank's stage, or the rower's bench (OED Bank sb1 1-3), but does not define 'bank' as 'school bench'. 'Schoole' is a well-attested form of'shoal' in the period. Although Macbeth soon mentions 'instructions' and 'justice' (which might be anticipated in 'school' and 'bench'), the phrase seems more likely to be a characteristic Shakespearean nearredundancy, treating time as a river: Macbeth momentarily halts time's flow by standing on a shoal or by grasping the bank. See Mahood, p. 24. 1.7.7 Macbeth U32] We'd jump the life to come. But in these cases, We still have judgement here that we but teach Bloody instructions, which being taught, return To plague th'inventor. This even-handed justice Commends th'ingredience of our poisoned chalice To our own lips. He's here in double trust: First, as I am his kinsman and his subject, Strong both against the deed; then, as his host, Who should against his murderer shut the door, Not bear the knife myself. Besides, this Duncan Hath borne his faculties so meek, hath been So clear in his great office, that his virtues Will plead like angels, trumpet-tongued against The deep damnation of his taking-off. And pity, like a naked newborn babe 13 First, as I] F; First, IQ1673 20 taking-off] Capell; taking off F 7 jump hazard (OED Jump »n , citing only this line and Cytn. 5.4.182, neither especially clear in signification); pass or leap over (?). For the latter, see Booth, p. 170. 8 We always ('still') are punished here because we only ('but') teach others (how to commit our own crimes against ourselves). 10-1 1 NS compares 'auctorem scelus / repetit suoque premitur exemplo nocens' ('upon its author the crime comes back, and the guilty soul is crushed by its own form of guilt' (Seneca, Hercules Furens 735-6, trans. F. J. Miller)). Howard Jacobson, SQ 35 (1984), 321-2, also cites 'saepe in magistrum scelera redierunt sua' ('often upon the teacher have his bad teachings turned' (Seneca, Thy estes 311, trans. F. J. Miller)). 10 even-handed impartial. 1 1 ingredience 'ingredients' considered collectively (OED Ingredience ia). Shakespeare's word is obsolete, but modern 'ingredients' is inadequate; 'ingredience' appears in Shakespeare only here, at 4.1.34, and in Oth. Q (1622), sig. F3r (where Folio Oth. reads 'ingredients'). 12 double Macbeth now cites three relations of trust. For two-ness and three-ness, see i.6.i6n., and p. 26 above. 14 as his host For social perceptions of a host's duties, see Heal, chapters 2 and 3. 16-20 'Duncane was so soft and gentle of nature, that the people wished the inclinations and manners of these two cousins [Macbeth and Duncan] to have beene . . . interchangeablie bestowed betwixt them' (Scotland, p. 168b). 'The real Duncan was a weak and worthless youth, who was put out of the way because that was the best that could be done with him' (White2 ). 16 this Duncan this king, who is Duncan (?). While 'this' seems to particularise ('this Duncan rather than another Duncan'), the word also implies that the specific King Duncan who is Macbeth's guest, kinsman, and king belongs to some larger category (of men named Duncan or of kings). The odd formula ('this Duncan') is a form of evasion (compare Lady Macbeth's 'He that's coming' (1.5.64)); it curiously lessens both Duncan's individuality and Macbeth's responsibility and therefore makes killing Duncan less terrible to contemplate. 17 faculties powers, privileges (OED Faculty sb 11 a, quoting this line); 'authority delegated to him' (Heath, p. 385). 18 clear innocent (OED Clear adj 15a, quoting this line). 19 trumpet-tongued 'Duncan's virtues speak with a trumpet-tongue on this matter of his murder' (Sisson, 11, 194); the phrase modifies 'angels'. 21- 5 See Brooks (pp. 21-46) for a classic defence 'of the relation of Shakespeare's imagery' here to 'larger symbols' and 'total structures' (p. 30) in the play, and see p. 45 above. 21-2 newborn babe . .. heaven's chérubin The alternative offered here between an image of vulnerability ('babe') and one of heavenly power ('heaven's chérubin') at first seems confused, but the compressed images join together Macbeth's future opponents: Banquo's children, who will succeed to Scotland's throne (see 1.3.65), and the near-divinely endorsed forces (see 4.3.240-2) that Macbeth 1.7.29 Striding the blast, or heaven's chérubin horsed Upon the sightless couriers of the air, Shall blow the horrid deed in every eye, That tears shall drown the wind. I have no spur To prick the sides of my intent, but only Vaulting ambition which o'erleaps itself And falls on th'other - Enter LADY [MACBETH] How now? What news? LADY MACBETH He has almost supped. Why have you left the chamber? 22 chérubin] F (Chérubin),- cherubim &1673; Chérubins Muir 28 th'other - ] Rowe; th'other. F will drive Macbeth from that throne. Brooks (p. 45) comments: 'is Pity like the human and helpless babe, or powerful as the angel that rides the winds? It is both; and it is strong because of its very weakness. The paradox is inherent in the situation itself; and it is the paradox that will destroy the overbrittle rationalism on which Macbeth founds his career.' For a contrary view, see Helen Gardner, The Business of Criticism, 1959, pp. 52-61. 22 blast gale; wind of the trumpet-tongued angels. 22 chérubin cherub (second in the traditional nine-fold order of angels). Cherubim commanded the air - ''Seraph reignes o're Fire; / Cherub the Aire' {Hiérarchie, p. 216) — and were associated with the winds (see Milton, Paradise Lost 11, 516-18). Renaissance maps often represent the principal winds as cherubs with puffed cheeks, F'S 'Chérubin' is a contemporary singular (compare Phrynia's 'chérubin look', Tim. 4.3.64); the contemporary plural was 'chérubins' (as at 7^^5.1.62); modern English follows Hebrew: 'cherub' (singular), 'cherubim' (plural). Some editors choose a plural form ('chérubins' or 'cherubim') because 'couriers' (23) need plural riders, but the condensed metaphorical context makes those choices over-literal, and one cherub might easily be imagined to have charge of four winds. 23 sightless couriers invisible messengers; invisible means of transport, i.e. the winds which invisibly move the air from place to place. The echo of 'sightless substances' (1.5.47) makes plain the contrast of murder and pity, sin and dissuasion from sin. Following Malone and others, Shaheen cites 'He rode upon the Cherubims and dyd flee [fly]: he came fleeyng [flying] upon the wynges of the wynde' (Ps. 18.10, Geneva). 24 blow sound; propel. 24 every eye every organ of sight; every person. The second meaning is a synecdoche. 25 tears i.e. drops of compassion and the 'watering' caused by a foreign object ('the deed') lodged in 'every eye'. Proverbially, 'Little rain lays great winds' (Dent R16), and the line gains its power from hyperbole: 'tears' become rain so powerful as to 'drown' the insubstantial and omnipresent wind. 25-8 I . . . th'other Two interpretations of Macbeth's images have been offered: (1) continuing the equine images of 22-3 , Macbeth distinguishes his intent to murder, which he imagines as an unspurred horse, from his ambition to be king, which he imagines as an eager rider who overdoes his vault ('o'erleaps') and thus fails to land in the saddle; (2) horse and rider together fall when the pair fails to over-leap an obstacle. Catherine Belsey, 'Shakespeare's "vaulting ambition"', ELN 10 (1972), 198-201, supports (2) and associates this passage with medieval and later depictions of Pride as a vaulting figure. In either case, the imagery echoes Macbeth's response to the naming of Malcolm as Prince of Cumberland (1.4.48-50). More generally, see R. N. Watson, 'Horsemanship in Shakespeare's second tetralogy', ELR 13 (1983), 274-300. Lady Macbeth's entrance interrupts the speech, but the audience may supply 'side' (of the imaginary horse or obstacle) as Macbeth's next (unspoken) word. 29 supped finished dining. 29 Why .. . chamber For the host to leave the table before the chief guest had finished his meal violated protocol; see 'how does your rising up before all the table shew? and flinging from my friends so uncivily' (Dekker [and Thomas Middleton], The Roaring Girl 3.2.6-7). 1.7.30 Macbeth [134] MACBET H Hath he asked for me? LADY MACBET H Know you not, he has? 30 MACBET H We will proceed no further in this business. He hath honoured me of late, and I have bought Golden opinions from all sorts of people, Which would be worn now in their newest gloss, Not cast aside so soon. LADY MACBET H Was the hope drunk 35 Wherein you dressed yourself? Hath it slept since? And wakes it now to look so green and pale At what it did so freely? From this time, Such I account thy love. Art thou afeard To be the same in thine own act and valour, 40 As thou art in desire? Wouldst thou have that Which thou esteem'st the ornament of life, And live a coward in thine own esteem, Letting I dare not wait upon I would, Like the poor cat i'th'adage? MACBET H Prithee, peace. 45 I dare do all that may become a man; 39 afeard] F (affear'd) 43 esteem,] Collier; Esteeme? F; esteem; Capell 45 adage?] Capell; Addage. F 30 Hath .. . me Macbeth guiltily supposes 'hope' as a person - first drunkenly hopeful, then Duncan has repeated his earlier praise, or wishes to comatose, then hungover - who initially dressed honour him further. himself in a garment (also = 'hope'), but then sleeps 30 Know .. . has Lady Macbeth assumes himself into a cowardly sobriety. Compare 2.3.20- Macbeth has deliberately withdrawn to avoid 30. Duncan's attention. Capell (Notes, p. 10) conjee- 37 green and pale Popularly imagined consetured 'Know you not? he has.', and his punctuation quences of drunkenness, then as now. is more easily spoken. The staging exploits the audi- 39 Such i.e. you are like the fearful, hungover ence's fluid imagination: 'the precise location is less drunkard, bold only when inebriated, important than the juxtaposition of Macbeth's iso- 39 account consider. lation with the conviviality taking place in the ad- 39~4i Art.. . desire Are you (now sober, joining room' (Bevington, p. 130). unlustful, and detumescent) afraid to be and do 33 sorts kinds; (social) ranks. what you were and desired to be when you were 34 worn Opinions (33) are now treated as gar- drunk. For this verbal possibility, see the immediate ments. Compare 'you in the ruff of your opinions sexualised language of 'be' (40), 'do' and 'become a clothed' (V. Gabrieli and G. Melchiori (eds.), man' (46), 'do' (47). STM, 1990, 2.3.85). 39 afeard afraid. 34 gloss superficial lustre {OED Gloss sb2 ia), 44-5 Letting . . . adage The adage is 'The cat shininess. Figuratively, gloss = 'highest value' (be- would eat fish but she will not wet her feet' (Dent cause newest); compare'all his [Achilles'] virtues, / C144). Macbeth wants the kingship, but will risk Not virtuously on his own part beheld, / Do in our nothing; later, he will find his feet wet with blood eyes begin to lose their gloss' (Tro. 2.3.117-19). (3.4.136-7). Unlike Lady Macbeth, contemporaries 35 cast aside When dirtied, the richest Renais- used the proverb positively to exhort 'the idle to sance garments were discarded or given away be- action' or to note 'that luxury carries penalties' cause they could not be cleaned. (Martin Orkin in Reader, p. 494). 35-8 Was . . . freely Lady Macbeth represents 45 Prithee, peace i.e. I pray thee, be quiet. [13s] Macbeth 1.7.62 Who dares do more is none. LAD Y MACBET H What beast was't then That made you break this enterprise to me? When you durst do it, then you were a man. And to be more than what you were, you would 50 Be so much more the man. Nor time, nor place Did then adhere, and yet you would make both. They have made themselves and that their fitness now Does unmake you. I have given suck and know How tender 'tis to love the babe that milks me: 55 I would, while it was smiling in my face, Have plucked my nipple from his boneless gums And dashed the brains out, had I so sworn As you have done to this. MACBETH If we should fail? LADY MACBETH We fail? But screw your courage to the sticking-place, 60 And we'll not fail. When Duncan is asleep, Whereto the rather shall his day's hard journey 47 do] Rome ; no F 55 me:] Capell; me, F,- me - Rome 59 We fail?] F (We faile?); We fail! Rome 60 sticking-place] Steevens*; sticking place F 47 none i.e. no man. For Macbeth at this mo- 5.2.309-10). ment, daring to kill the king would move him be- 57 his The ungendered 'babe' (55) becomes yond humanity. See next n. male. 47-5 1 What . . . ma n Lady Macbeth seems here 58- 9 sworn .. . to this bound myself by either to give her version of 1.5 or to be reporting oath .. . to this course of action, speeches we have not heard: to achieve the kingship 59 We fail? F'S question mark (which stood for ('more than what you were'), Macbeth would neces- both modern '?' and '!') can represent either interrosarily become more intensely masculine ('so much gation (sincere or scornful) or exclamation (surmore the man') rather than (as he claims) become no prised, scornful, or resigned), man. See Waith and 4.3.222-6n. 60 But Only. 47 beast Lady Macbeth immediately under- 60 screw .. . sticking-place tighten, make taut, stands Macbeth's 'none' to mean an animal. your courage to the limit. The underlying metaphor 48 break disclose, divulge (OED Break v 22). may be from tightening the tuning pegs of a 48 enterprise bold, arduous, or momentous un- stringed instrument or from winding up the cord on dertaking (OED Enterprise sb 1). a crossbow. See 79 below, 1.3.35, an d 2.2.36; and 49 durst dared (an obsolete past tense). compare 'wind up invention / Unto his highest 52 adhere agree. bent' (John Marston, Antonio's Revenge, ed. Reavley 52 make both According to his wife, Macbeth Gair, 1978, 4.3.192-3) and 'Wind up your souls to seeks to make both occasion and place, seeks to their full height' (Cyril Tourneur (? but more likely control time and topography. See i.i.in. Thomas Middleton), The Revenger's Tragedy, ed. 53 that their fitness now i.e. now they have R. A. Foakes, 1966, 5.2.7). The 'sticking-place' may become appropriate ('fit'). also be the place at which a moral individual hesi54-9 See pp. 36-8 above. tates or the place beyond which a moral individual 55 milks obtains milk by sucking (sole citation refuses to go or a stab-wound (see OED Stick v l ia for OED Milk v id). Compare Cleopatra's descrip- and 3.1.5m., and OED Sticking-place 3). tion of the deadly asp: 'Dost thou not see my baby at 62 the rather the more readily, all the sooner. my breast, / That sucks the nurse asleep?' (Ant. 1.7.63 Macbeth Soundly invite him, his two chamberlains Will I with wine and wassail so convince That memory, the warder of the brain, Shall be a fume, and the receipt of reason A limbeck only. When in swinish sleep Their drenched natures lies as in a death, What cannot you and I perform upon Th'unguarded Duncan? What not put upon His spongy officers, who shall bear the guilt Of our great quell? MACBETH Bring forth men-children only, For thy undaunted mettle should compose Nothing but males. Will it not be received, When we have marked with blood those sleepy two 65 70 75 65 warder] F; warden conj. Schanzer, p. 224 63 Soundly A transferred adverb: Duncan will sleep 'soundly'; there is perhaps the added irony of a 'sound' (= robust, healthy) sleep that is death. 63 chamberlains Attendants in the royal bedchamber (OED Chamberlain ia). See 75-6 n. 64 wassail liquor (in which toasts were drunk). 64 convince overcome, conquer. 65-7 memory. . . only Memory, a guard ('warder') of the brain against irrational thoughts or impulses, will become vapour ('a fume') and reason's chamber ('receipt') will merely receive the condensation of a distilling apparatus ('limbeck') - an elaborate, metaphorical description of drunkenness: 'hote wynes, and strong drinckes .. . fill the braine with vapours' (Barrough, p. 11). See illustration 8, p. 46 above. Arnold Davenport (cited in Schanzer, p. 224) over-rationalises the metaphors: 'the receptacle which should collect only the pure drops of reason . . . will be turned into the retort in which . . . undistilled liquids bubble and fume'. In July 1606 (see p. 8 above), James VI and I and his brother-in-law Christian IV of Denmark witnessed a masque of Hope, Faith, and Charity, when 'wine did so occupy' the actors' 'upper chambers' that 'most of the presenters went backward, or fell down' (Letters and Epigrams of Sir John Harington, ed. N. E. McClure, 1930, pp. 119-20). 65 warder Soldier or other person set to guard an entrance; watchman (OED Warder sbl 1, quoting 4.1.55). Schanzer's conjecture ('warden' for 'warder') apparently assumes that Compositor A misread a terminal suspension (in 'wardere' ?) and ignores the classical, medieval, and early modern understanding of memory's importance to moral judgement and prudence (see Mary Carruthers, The Book of Memory: A Study of Memory in Medieval Culture, 1990, pp. 68-71). 66 fume vapour. 66 receipt receptacle (this line is the latest citation for OED Receipt sb 12a). 67 limbeck alembic (aphetic form), an apparatus used in distilling. The 'beak' of the alembic 'conveyed the vaporous products to a receiver [see 'receipt' (66)], in which they were condensed' (OED Alembic 1). See illustration 8, p. 46 above. 67 swinish i.e. drunken. Compare 'As drunk as a swine' (Dent S1042). 68 lies Singular verb in -s with plural subject (Abbott 333), assisted here by the figurative link between 'sleep' (67) and 'death' (68); see 'sleep, death's counterfeit' (2.3.70). 70 put upon impose; saddle with (OED Put v ] 23a, c). Responsibility for the murder will be laid upon the 'chamberlains' (63). 71 spongy absorbent (OED Spongy 3b; this line and Tro. 2.2.12 are the earliest citations). The men will soak up liquor like sponges. 71 officers office-holders, persons who perform certain duties; not 'military personnel'. 72 quell slaughter, murder. 72-4 Bring forth .. . but males Compare 'if woman do breed man / She ought to teach him manhood' (Webster, White Devil 5.6.242-3). 73 mettle spirit, courage. Early modern orthography did not distinguish 'mettle' and 'metal', making possible a pun on male children as metallic warriors armoured in mail (see Adelman, pp. 139- 40, and the mail/male pun at Dekker [and Thomas Middleton], The Roaring Girl 3.3.18-20). 74 males There may be a pun on 'mail' (= armour). See 73 n. 74 received understood, believed (by others). 75—6 two . . . chamber i.e. two members of the king's bedchamber. In the Jacobean court, ap- ['37] Macbeth 2.1.5 Of his own chamber, and used their very daggers, That they have done't? LADY MACBETH Who dares receive it other, As we shall make our griefs and clamour roar Upon his death? MACBETH I am settled and bend up Each corporal agent to this terrible feat. Away, and mock the time with fairest show, False face must hide what the false heart doth know. 80 Exeunt 2.1 Enter BAN QUO, and FLEANCE, with a Torch[- bearer] before him BAN QUO How goes the night, boy? FLEANCE The moon is down; I have not heard the clock. BAN QUO And she goes down at twelve. FLEANCE I take't, 'tis later, sir. BAN QUO Hold, take my sword. - There's husbandry in heaven, Their candles are all out. - Take thee that too. 77 done't] F (don't) Act 2, Scene 1 2.1] F (Actus Secundus. Scena Prima.) 4 sword. - ] Collier {after Capell); Sword: F 5 out. - Take] Theobald; out: take F o SD Torch-bearer] F (Torch) pointed members of the bedchamber attended the king's personal needs. See Neil Cuddy, 'The revival of the entourage: the bedchamber of James I, 1603- 1625', in The English Court: From the Wars of the Roses to the Civil War, ed. David Starkey, 1987, pp. I73-225- 76 very own. 77 other otherwise. 78 As When (Lexicon); 'Equivalent to seeing that1 (Clarendon). 79 settled unchanging, undeviating (OED Settled ppl a 1). 79 bend up brace, tighten, prepare to act; see 60 n. 80 corporal corporeal, bodily. See 1.3.79n. 80 agent physical resource; muscle (Hunter). 81-2 'Fair face foul heart' (Dent F3). Macbeth now repeats his wife's advice (1.5.61-4); see 3.2.32- 4 and n. 81 mock deceive. Act 2, Scene 1 The scene takes place in Macbeth's castle (fictionally, at Inverness). It is liminal: sufficiently out of doors for stars and moon to be looked for (1- 2), sufficiently indoors for Banquo to get ready for 'sleep' (7). 0 SD Torch-bearer F'S SD might mean that Fleance holds a torch and precedes Banquo (him), but F'S punctuation apparently stipulates a torchbearer (often referred to as Torch), making three actors in all. Compare 3.3.14 SD. 1 How goes the night How much of the night has passed? See OED Go DII , quoting 'How goes the time' (John Marston, Antonio and Mellida (c. 1600), ed. Reavley Gair, 1991, 3.1.102). Macbeth virtually repeats the question, 'What is the night?' (3.4.126). 4-5 There's . .. out Usually understood as: 'There's thrift ("husbandry") in heaven, they have extinguished (put "out") their stars ("candles").' Steevens3 compares 'Night's candles are burnt out, and jocund day / Stands tiptoe' (Rom. 3.5.9-10); see also: 'those golden candles fixed in heaven's air' (Sonnet 21.12) and 'these blessed candles of the night' (MV 5.1.220). David-Everett Blythe, 'Banquo's candles', ELH 58 (1991), 773-8, unconvincingly proposes the paraphrase 'There's concern (= "husbandry") for humankind in heaven, they have displayed (put "out") their candles/stars.' 5 Take . . . too Banquo, preparing for rest, disarms himself (4) and now removes some other accoutrement (his dagger or cloak, perhaps, or some 2.1.6 Macbeth A heavy summons lies like lead upon me, And yet I would not sleep; merciful powers, Restrain in me the cursed thoughts that nature Gives way to in repose. Enter MACBETH, and a Servant with a torch Give me my sword - Who's there? 10 MACBETH A friend. BAN QUO What, sir, not yet at rest? The king's abed. He hath been in unusual pleasure And sent forth great largess to your offices. This diamond he greets your wife withal, 15 [Gives Macbeth a diamond] By the name of most kind hostess, and shut up In measureless content. MACBETH Being unprepared, Our will became the servant to defect, 9 SD] F (subst.); after sword (9) Capell 13 hath . . . pleasure] F (hath beene in vnusuall Pleasure); has been to night in an unusual pleasure Davenant 15 SD] Folger (subst.); not in F; Capell marks as 'a thing deliver'a" ('Prolusions', p. vi) 16 shut] F; shut it F2-4 ceremonial item associated with the state dinner he Banquo, companion to Duncan in 1.6, conveys a has just attended) or (as in some productions) hands royal gift one might expect the king to deliver perFleance'This diamond'(15). sonally; compare 2.3.39^, and Textual Analysis, 7-9 Sleep is not inevitably restorative (2.2.40-3); pp. 260-1 below. The gift-giving emphasises like drink (2.3.21-2), it can provoke. Duncan's false sense of security and affirms the 8 cursed thoughts ambitious dreams (prompted social code Macbeth is about to break. by the sisters' prophecies and Macbeth's recent 15 greets .. . withal salutes your wife with. The success); nightmares (about Macbeth's possible verb and its complement control both 'diamond' crimes). Macbeth enters before Banquo chooses and 'name' (16). between these alternatives. See 20 and 50-1; 16 shut up went to bed (in a curtained bed (see 'unstained thoughts do seldom dream on evil' (The 51) within a chamber). The phrase could mean Rape of Lucrèce 87); and Imogen's bedtime prayer, 'concluded' (i.e. ended his speech); the grammar is 'gods, / From fairies and the tempters of the night stretched to report what Duncan said ('greets') and / Guard me' (Cym. 2.2.8-10). then what he has done ('shut up'). Later Folios 9 SD Enter... torch F'S placing of the SD may make 'shut up' refer to an imaginary case for the indicate the moment when the actors enter; Capell's diamond. repositioning makes Banquo anticipate the en- 17 unprepared unready, unwarned. This easy trance, F'S Torch might indicate a torch-bearer, but social remark (the castle was not prepared to receive theatrical economy and F'S punctuation suggest one a king) anticipates the ways Macbeth and others do servant holding one torch. Compare 0 SD and n. not foresee what is to come (see, especially, 2.3.119- io- n Challenge and response: Banquo is tense; 27), but also momentarily suggests that Duncan is Macbeth appears as either a 'merciful power' (7) or 'unprepared' for his murder, a 'cursed thought' (8). 18 Our An anticipatory royal plural; compare 22 14 largess . . . offices gifts to the castle func- and 5.6.4. tionaries (Brooke). 18 defect deficiency (Lexicon). 15-16 'This diamond' may be a ring or pendant. [i39\ Macbeth 2.1.34 Which else should free have wrought. BAN QUO All's well. I dreamed last night of the three weird sisters; 20 To you they have showed some truth. MACBETH I think not of them; Yet when we can entreat an hour to serve, We would spend it in some words upon that business, If you would grant the time. B A N Q u o At your kind'st leisure. MACBETH If you shall cleave to my consent, when 'tis, 25 It shall make honour for you. BANQUO So I lose none In seeking to augment it, but still keep My bosom franchised and allegiance clear, I shall be counselled. MACBETH Good repose the while. BANQUO Thanks, sir; the like to you. 30 [Exeunt] Banquo[> Fleance, and Torch-bearer] MACBETH [To Servant] Go bid thy mistress, when my drink is ready, She strike upon the bell. Get thee to bed. Exit [Servant] Is this a dagger which I see before me, The handle toward my hand? Come, let me clutch thee: 20 weird] Theobald; weyward F 23 it in] F,- it Rome; omitted by Rome1 30 SD] Capell (subst.); Exit Banquo F 32 SD Exit Servant] Rome; Exit F 19 free . . . wrought liberally have worked. 30 SD See o SD n. 19 All's well All is not well, as Banquo's next 31 drink An imaginary nightcap. As a codeword words testify. for murder, 'drink' is appropriate to the drunken 22-4 Macbeth's courtly politeness and the appar- grooms (1.7.63-8, 2.2.53), the drunken-hopeful ent royal'we'intimate his sense of changed (or soon Macbeth (1.7.35-8), and the speeches of the to be changed) status; his desire to talk about the hungover Porter (2.3.1 ff). witches contradicts 'I think not of them' (21). 32 bell A clapperless bell like a ship's bell, or a 24 If you would grant the time Granting or gong (see 'strike upon'); this bell is for routine intergaining time will become an important issue; nal communication (compare'alarum bell'(2.3.68)). Banquo's descendants overreach Macbeth in time. See W. J. Lawrence, 'Bells on the Elizabethan 24 leisure See 1.3.147 n. stage', Fortnightly Review 122 (July 1924), 59-70. 25 cleave to my consent agree (or adhere) to 34 handle . . . hand This detail identifies the my feeling (or opinion); see OED Consent sb 6. dagger as a weapon for, rather than a threat to, 25 when 'tis when it ('the time' (24)) is. Macbeth and makes plain the fact that the dagger is 28 franchised free. Banquo apparently wishes to invisible to the audience. As a 'visual metonym' (see remain free of obligation to Macbeth or of implica- Michael Hattaway, Elizabethan Popular Theatre, tion in his schemes. ^82 , p. 65), the dagger might have reminded audi29 the while in the meantime. ences of other literary and dramatic occasions when 30 sir The respectful title introduces a note of the secular or demonic realms offer weapons as subordination (perhaps prompted by 22-4) not temptations to despair and suicide - for example, present in 1.3. the moment when Tamburlaine's henchmen dis- 2.1.35 Macbeth [140] I have thee not, and yet I see thee still. Art thou not, fatal vision, sensible To feeling as to sight? Or art thou but A dagger of the mind, a false creation, Proceeding from the heat-oppressèd brain? I see thee yet, in form as palpable As this which now I draw. Thou marshall'st me the way that I was going, And such an instrument I was to use. Mine eyes are made the fools o'th'other senses, Or else worth all the rest. I see thee still, And on thy blade and dudgeon gouts of blood, Which was not so before. There's no such thing: It is the bloody business which informs Thus to mine eyes. Now o'er the one half-world Nature seems dead, and wicked dreams abuse The curtained sleep. Witchcraft celebrates Pale Hecate's off'rings, and withered murder, 35 40 45 49 half-world] Clarendon; halfe World F play a dagger to Agydas and he understands he must either commit suicide or be killed; see Tamburlaine, Part 1 3.2.88-106. Compare 64. 36 fatal deadly, mortal. The adjective is both active and passive: the vision is of mortality (Duncan's death); the dagger is deadly to vision (Macbeth's own). See 38 n. 36 sensible perceptible. 37 as to sight The question depends upon an optical theory that vision was the product of beams radiated by the eye and reflected to it. 38 of the mind imaginary. The phrase also yields an image of a dagger in the mind, a keen knife that makes a moral and psychological wound (see 1.3.138 and 1.5.50). Encountering Caesar's ghost, Brutus supposes 'it is the weakness of mine eyes / That shapes this monstrous apparition' (JC 4.3.276-7). 39 heat-oppressed subdued, afflicted by heat (considered a quality of the human body and its 'humours'). Macbeth responds to the vision analytically; his explanation is physiological, and the 'heat' might arise from 'anger, or furiousness . . . perturbations of the minde' (Barrough, pp. 2-3). 40 yet still. 40 palpable tangible; perceptible (OED Palpable a 1-2). 42 Thou marshall'st You guide, usher. Compare 'Our conquering swords shall marshal us the way' {Tamburlaine\ Part 1 3.3.148). 46 dudgeon hilt, handle. This line is the sole citation under OED Dudgeon sbl 2, and the word may have Scottish associations, since Cotgrave defines Dague à roëlles as 'A Scottish dagger; or Dudgeon haft dagger' (Capell, 'Glossary' in Notes, 1, 21). The blood Macbeth now sees covers not merely the blade, but the handle (where it will stain his hand). See 2.3.109 n. 46 gouts spots, splashes. The word derives from French goutte (drop) 'and, according to [nineteenthcentury or earlier?] stage-tradition, [is] so pronounced' (Clarendon). 47 thing i.e. a dagger. Macbeth corrects his 'eyes', the 'fools' or deceivers of his other senses (44), and says the dagger is imaginary, 'no such thing' (47). 49-64 'He that peruses Shakespeare [in these lines], looks round alarmed, and starts to find himself alone' (Johnson). 49 half-world i.e. the hemisphere in darkness. 50 seems dead i.e. because nature is asleep. Compare 1.7.68 and 2.3.70. 50 wicked dreams Compare Banquo's fears (8-9). 51 curtained See 16 n. 51 celebrates performs the rites; honours. 52 Hecate's offrings Offerings to Hecate, classical goddess of the moon and of sorcery. In Shakespeare's plays, 'Hecate' is always disyllabic and stressed on the first syllable except at 1H6 3.2.64; F'S syncopation of 'offrings' is not metrically necessary, and some editors print 'offerings'. See 3.2.4m. Macbeth 2.1.64 Alarumed by his sentinel, the wolf, Whose howl's his watch, thus with his stealthy pace, With Tarquin's ravishing strides, towards his design Moves like a ghost. Thou sure and firm-set earth, Hear not my steps, which way they walk, for fear Thy very stones prate of my whereabout, And take the present horror from the time, Which now suits with it. Whiles I threat, he lives; Words to the heat of deeds too cold breath gives. A bell rings I go, and it is done. The bell invites me. Hear it not, Duncan, for it is a knell That summons thee to heaven or to hell. 55 60 Exit 55 strides] Pope ; sides F 56 sure] F (sowre) 57 way they] Rome ; they may F 61 SD] F (Bell), at right margin 53 Alarumed Warned, prompted to action; compare 1.2.0 SD n. 54 howl's howl is. 54 his watch Murder's time-piece; the wolPs night-duty. On the second possibility, see 'the Wolfe shal be watchman and keepe many wayes' (Prophesie, sig. A3r) 54 stealthy This line is O£D's earliest citation for the word (Schàfer). 55 Tarquin Sextus Tarquinius, the Etruscan prince who raped Lucretia, wife of Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus. She committed suicide, and her relatives and friends led a rebellion (c. 509 BC) that overthrew the monarchy and established the Roman republic. See The Rape of Lucrèce and Iachimo's memory of 'Our Tarquin' when he prepares his mock-rape of Imogen (Cym. 2.2.12-14). The analogy here sexualises regicide and was available to contemporaries: addressing Shakespeare, Henry Chettle wrote, 'Shepheard remember our Elizabeth, / And sing her Rape, done by that Tarquin, Death' (Englands Mourning Garment (1603), sig. D3r). 55 strides long steps. Compare 'turn two mincing steps / Into a manly stride' (yWF 3.4.67-8). F'S 'sides' has not been satisfactorily interpreted; it is also hard to explain as the copyist's or compositor's misreading of 'strides', but 'Whoever hath experienced walking in the dark must have observed, that a man . . . always feels out his way by strides, by advancing one foot, as far as he finds it safe, before the other' (Heath, p. 387). Elsewhere, 'stalks' (The Rape of Lucrèce 365) and 'slunk' (Tit. 4.1.63) describe the way Tarquin approached Lucrece's bed. 56 sure reliable, steady. OED Sure a and adv records 'sowr' (F: 'sowre'; Q1673: 'sowr') as a form of 'sure'. NS and Shaheen compare 'He hath made the rounde world so sure: that it can not be moved' (Ps. 93.2, Psalter version). 56 firm-set solidly positioned, stable. 58 prate blab, tell tales. Compare 'the land bids me tread no more upon't, / It is ashamed to bear me' (Ant. 3.11.1-2). Speaking stones are uncommon; Grey (11, 144) thought Luke 19.40 an analogue, but the context (telling the good word) is far from this one. Dent S895.1 ('The stones would speak') cites Gascoigne (1573): 'When men crye mumme and keepe such silence long, / Then stones must speake, els dead men shall have wrong', and Malone cites 'yet will the very stones / That lie within the streetes cry out for vengeance' (Warning, sig. Gir). See 3.4.123, where stones move and trees speak. 58 whereabout location, position (OED Whereabout 4, where this line is the earliest instance given of this interrogative word used as a noun). 59 take remove, withhold. 59 the present horror i.e. the silence that would be broken by speaking stones. 59 time time of night (compare OED Time sb 13); not, probably, the more general 'circumstances, the times' (OED Time sb 3d). 60 threat threaten. Macbeth accuses himself of bluster. 62 it Either (1) Lady Macbeth's preparatory drugging of Duncan's retainers, or (2) the regicide itself. 63-4 The bell has also summoned Macbeth to damnation. 63 knell Church bell rung to announce a death. Macbeth imagines he has already committed the murder. See 4.3.172-3 and n., and 5.9.17. 64 SD Henry Irving made an actor's 'point' of this exit when he hesitated an unusually long time before leaving the stage very slowly; see Sprague, p. 241. 2.2.1 Macbeth [142] 2.2 Enter LADY [MACBETH] LADY MACBETH That which hath made them drunk, hath made me bold; What hath quenched them, hath given me fire. [An owl shrieks] Hark, peace! It was the owl that shrieked, the fatal bellman Which gives the stern'st good-night. He is about it. The doors are open, and the surfeited grooms 5 Do mock their charge with snores. I have drugged their possets, That death and nature do contend about them, Whether they live, or die. Enter MACBETH [with two bloody daggers] MACBETH Who's there? What ho? Act 2, Scene 2 2.2] F (Scena Secunda); scene continues, Rome 2 SD An owl shrieks] This edn; not in ? 8 SD] This edn; Enter Macbeth F; Mac. [within] / Steevens3 , inserting I Enter Macbeth I after My husband? (13). See Supplementary Note, p. 241 below Act 2, Scene 2 The setting is somewhere in Macbeth's castle that is private and that has imaginary access to other parts of the castle. By keeping Duncan's murder invisible, Shakespeare increases the audience's complicity and excitement; compare the murdered Duke Humphrey (2H6 3.2), carefully described and possibly seen, and Jones, Scenic, p. 212. 1 That The indéfinition (what is That?) is powerful; even after the audience realises Lady Macbeth refers both to the grooms' drugged drinks and to her own inebriated excitement at what is to come, the doubt over 'That' lingers, and frightens. 2 quenched extinguished (as water would fire); cooled (as in tempering forged metal). As in 1, Lady Macbeth sees paradoxically antithetical consequences of a single cause - a miniature instance of a common event in the play (compare, for instance, Banquo's and Macbeth's different reactions to the sisters' prophecies in 1.3). 3—4 W. J. Lawrence, Shakespeare's Workshop, 1928, pp. 35-6, compares 'And when the Lambe bleating, doth bid Godnight / Unto the closing day, then teares begin / To keep quicke time unto the Owle, whose voice / Shreikes, like the Bell-man, in the Lovers eares' (Blurt 3.1.101-4). 3 owl Like the raven (1.5.36), the owl was a bird of ill-omen. See 'The screeching owl bodes death' (Dent R33); NS compares 'owls'. . . death-boding cries' (The Rape of Lucrèce 165). 3 bellman night watchman. Dekker describes ' The Bell-man of London' as 'a man with a lanthorne and .. . a long staffe . . . The Ringing of his Bell, was not... to fright the inhabitants, but rather it was musick to charme them faster with sleepe'; Dekker's narrator admits, 'The sound of his Voice at the first put me in mind of the day of Judgement1 (Belman, pp. 109-110). 4 stern'st good-night i.e. the last good-night, death. 4 He Macbeth, but the most recently mentioned agents are the 'fatal bellman' and the 'owl' (3), making Macbeth impersonal and allegorical. 5 surfeited fed or filled to excess (OED Surfeited/»/»/ a 1, where this line is the earliest citation); hence, sickened by over-indulgence. 6 This line probably requires contraction ('I've' for 'I have') for the metre. 6 mock defy, set at nought (OED Mock v ic, quoting 'fill our bowls once more; / Let's mock the midnight bell' (Ant. 3.13.183-4)). 6 drugged poisoned. This line is the earliest citation under OED drug v 1 1 (Schàfer). 6 possets Drinks made of hot milk, liquor, and spices (a delicacy). 7-8 Lady Macbeth imagines a contest, or an allegorical play, in which abstract figures (Death and Nature) fight over the grooms' lives and consciousnesses. 7 That So that. 8 SD For the daggers, see 51. Fiissli (Fuseli) recorded Pritchard and Garrick at this moment; see illustration 13, p. 65 above. See Supplementary Note, p. 241 below, for the staging adopted here. 8 Who's there? Banquo asks the same question of Macbeth at 2.1.10. [143] Macbeth 2.2.26 LADY MACBETH Alack, I am afraid they have awaked, And 'tis not done; th'attempt and not the deed 10 Confounds us. Hark! I laid their daggers ready, He could not miss 'em. Had he not resembled My father as he slept, I had done't. My husband? MACBETH I have done the deed. Didst thou not hear a noise? LADY MACBETH I heard the owl scream and the crickets cry. 15 Did not you speak? MACBETH When? LADY MACBETH Now. MACBETH As I descended? LADY MACBETH Ay. 20 MACBETH Hark, who lies i'th'second chamber? LADY MACBETH Donaldbain. MACBETH This is a sorry sight. LADY MACBETH A foolish thought, to say a sorry sight. MACBETH There's one did laugh in's sleep, and one cried, 'Murder!', 25 That they did wake each other; I stood, and heard them, 10 attempt and . . . deed] Globe (conj. Hunter, 'New', n, 182-3); attempt, and . . . deed, F 11 us. Hark!] Globe; vs: hearke: F 13 done't] F (don't) 22 Donaldbain] F (Donalbaine), throughout act 25 'Murder!',] Hanmer (subst.); Murther, F 9-10 Lady Macbeth's assumption that Macbeth has failed may reflect her own irresolution (12-13) or may indicate that she has mistaken Macbeth's voice for that of one of the grooms (see her question (13)). 10-11 th'attempt. . . Confounds us i.e. murder attempted but not accomplished defeats us. F'S punctuation says that the attempt to kill Duncan, rather than the killing itself, will defeat the Macbeths' aims; Globe changed the punctuation to show that Lady Macbeth fears being known as having attempted regicide without accomplishing it. 11 Hark Listen, pay attention. Lady Macbeth interrupts herself, starting at some real or imaginary sound, perhaps of crickets (15), perhaps her husband's footsteps. 12-13 Had .. . done't Compare Lady Macbeth's assertion about infanticide (1.7.54-8 and n.). With other monarchical theorists, James VI and I stressed the identity of king and father (see e.g. True Lame, pp. 62 and 74); Duncan's murder violates multiple bonds, many taboos. 13 My father .. . husband Spoken, the line makes father and husband, king and king-killer, one. 13 done't done it. 15 crickets Some editors treat this word as a possessive ('cricket's'), but the earlier 'owl scream' (rather than 'owl's scream') suggests that F'S reading is correct. 16-19 Did .. . descended These exchanges are set out as they are in F, but editors have tried to create a single pentameter. See Textual Analysis, pp. 252-3 below. 23 This . . . sight Pope and later editors add an SD making this line refer to Macbeth's hands, or his hands and the daggers, but F'S indefiniteness suggests how the murder has affected Macbeth's imagination; compare 62, where his hands 'pluck out' his eyes. 23 sorry painful, grievous; wretched, worthless. 24 Does Lady Macbeth refer to Macbeth's bloody hands, the bloody daggers, his hands and the daggers, or does she merely dismiss her husband's fear? Dessen ('Problems', pp. 155-6) suggests that she does not realise Macbeth has mistakenly returned with the daggers until 51 and links this 'notseeing' with her earlier failure to recognise Macbeth (13), but it seems more likely she is taking her hurdles one at a time, first her husband's debilitating fear, then the problem of replacing incriminating evidence. 25 one .. . one Apparently Malcolm and Donaldbain, not the two grooms, but the uncertainty adds to the terror of the moment. 25 in's in his. 26 stood i.e. stood still, stood without moving. 2.2.27 Macbeth But they did say their prayers and addressed them Again to sleep. LADY MACBETH There are two lodged together. MACBETH One cried 'God bless us!' and 'Amen' the other, As they had seen me with these hangman's hands. List'ning their fear, I could not say 'Amen' When they did say 'God bless us.' LADY MACBETH Consider it not so deeply. MACBETH But wherefore could not I pronounce 'Amen'? I had most need of blessing and 'Amen' Stuck in my throat. LADY MACBETH These deeds must not be thought After these ways; so, it will make us mad. MACBETH Methought I heard a voice cry, 'Sleep no more: Macbeth does murder sleep', the innocent sleep, Sleep that knits up the ravelled sleeve of care, The death of each day's life, sore labour's bath, 35 40 29 'God . . . us!' . . . 'Amen'] Hanmer (subst.); God .. . vs .. . Amen F 31—2 'Amen'. . . 'God . . . us.'] Hanmer (subst.); Amen . . . God .. . vs. F 34—5 'Amen'? . . . 'Amen'] Hanmer (subst.); Amen? . . . Amen F 36 thought] F,- thought on Hanmer 38-9 'Sleep . . . sleep'] Johnson; sleep . . . sleepe F 40 knits] F ; rips Q1673 27 addressed prepared (OED Address v 10). There may be a hint of 'directed spoken words' (OED Address v 8a), since Macbeth will soon himself 'address' Sleep (38-43). 28 lodged housed, bedded down. 30-1 Capell (Notes, pp. 11-12) argues that 'List'ning their fear' should end a sentence rather than begin one, but F'S punctuation, a colon before 'Listning' and a comma after 'feare', tends against Capell, and his choice produces a weak following sentence, 'I could not say "Amen" / When they did say "God bless us".' 30 As As if (Abbott 107); see 1.4.11 n. 30 hangman's hands An executioner's hands would be bloodied when he disembowelled the body of a traitor he had first hanged. 31 List'ning Hearing, listening to. 31 I could not say 'Amen' Macbeth cannot speak the formulaic word that would free him spiritually so that he could join in the grooms' prayers. Claudius, also a regicide, in Ham. 3.3.38-72 meditates on his need for contrition, strives to pray, but gives up despairingly: 'My words fly up, my thoughts remain below' (Ham. 3.3.97). Compare Vittoria's horrific dream: 'I trembled, and yet for all this terror / I could not pray' (Webster, White Devil 1.2.248-9). 34 wherefore why. 36 thought meditated, pondered. This line is the last citation under OED Think v 2 2a. 38-43 There is no way of telling how much of this passage (or of 44-6) is quoted speech, and an audience is unlikely to hear fine discriminations; altogether, 38-43 is 'a formal apostrophe to Sleep' (Brooke) in the manner of The Rape of Lucrèce (e.g. 764 ff. on 'comfort-killing Night'). Clarendon compares Seneca, Hercules Furens 1065-81, an apostrophe to sleep that includes the phrases 'vanquisher of woes, rest of the soul, the better part of human life . . . peace after wanderings, haven of life, day's respite' (trans. F. J. Miller). 38 Methought It seemed to me. 40 ravelled frayed (synonymous with 'unravelled'); untwisted (see next n.). 40 sleeve Part of a garment covering the arm (OED Sleeve 5^ 1); filament of silk obtained by untwisting a thicker thread (OED Sleave sb 1, quoting this line as its first figurative use). An audience cannot hear the difference between 'sleave' and 'sleeve', and the play's clothing imagery prompts us to understand 'sleeve'. 41 death of each day's life i.e. sleep ends each day just as death ends life. Thus, sleep is to death as day is to life, and sleep is to day as death is to life. 41 bath therapeutic liquid. OED Bath sbx 10 ['45] Macbeth 2.2.58 Balm of hurt minds, great nature's second course, Chief nourisher in life's feast. LADY MACBETH What do you mean? MACBETH Still it cried, 'Sleep no more' to all the house; 'Glamis hath murdered sleep', and therefore Cawdor 45 Shall sleep no more: Macbeth shall sleep no more. LADY MACBETH Who was it, that thus cried? Why, worthy thane, You do unbend your noble strength to think So brain-sickly of things. Go get some water And wash this filthy witness from your hand. 50 Why did you bring these daggers from the place? They must lie there. Go carry them and smear The sleepy grooms with blood. MACBETH I'll go no more. I am afraid to think what I have done; Look on't again, I dare not. LADY MACBETH Infirm ofpurpose! 55 Give me the daggers. The sleeping and the dead Are but as pictures; 'tis the eye of childhood That fears a painted devil. If he do bleed, 43 feast.] F (Feast.); feast, - Cam. (after Theobald) 'Glamis . . . sleep'] Johnson; Glamis . .. Sleepe F quotes this line as figurative, citing also Chaucer's 'bath of bliss'. Early modern English allows the pronunciation 'bait' (for 'bath') and hence a pun on 'bate', which can mean both 'strife, discord' and 'diminution' (OED Bate sbl i and sb1 2, respectively). This latter ironic possibility is attractive, but unavailable in modern English pronunciation. 42 second course main or principal dishes, hence something that comes after and satisfies more, as sleep does after exertion. 43 Capell (Notes, p. 12) compares Southwell's 'St Peters Complaint' (1595), lines 721 ff.: 'Sleepe, deathes allye: oblivion of teares: / Silence of passions: balme of angry sore: / Suspence of loves' (Poems of Robert Southwell, ed. James McDonald and Nancy Pollard Brown, 1967). 43 Chief nourisher Compare 'gentle sleep! / Nature's soft nurse' (2H4 3.1.5-6). 44-6 Sleep no more . . . sleep no more See 38-43 n. and 'I'll beat the drum / Till it cry sleep to death' (Lear 2.4.118-19). 48 unbend The word continues the metaphors of 1.3.35, 1.7.60 and 79. 50 filthy witness morally polluted token (OED Witness sb 7). Compare i.i.i3n. 44 'Sleep . . . more'] Johnson; Sleepe . . . more F 45 53 sleepy The word is literally accurate: the drugged grooms live, intended to be scapegoats for Duncan's murder. 57 as pictures i.e. because, dead, they do not move. See 1.3.95 and 2.3.70. 57-8 'tis .. . devil 'Bugbears to scare babes' is proverbial (Dent B703); a 'bugbear' (or 'bogey man') was an imaginary figure used to scare children into obedience. Steevens2 notes Webster's echo: 'Terrify babes, my lord, with painted devils' (White Devil 3-2.147). 58 painted pictured, represented graphically; perhaps also 'made up' (compare 'smear' (52), and 2-3-105, 34-12). 58 If he do bleed Literally, 'if Duncan's wounds are still fresh enough to be shedding liquid blood' (i.e. the blood has not coagulated). Early audiences might have recalled, however, the then-current superstition that a murdered body, such as Duncan's, bled afresh in the presence of the murderer (see R3 1.2.55-61); Lady Macbeth is not, technically, Duncan's murderer, but she is an accomplice and therefore equally guilty in contemporary criminal law. Here, therefore, she may be assuming and accepting her responsibility and her 2.2.59 Macbeth [146] 1*11 gild the faces of the grooms withal, For it must seem their guilt. Knock within MACBETH Whence is that knocking? How is't with me, when every noise appals me? What hands are here? Ha: they pluck out mine eyes. Will all great Neptune's ocean wash this blood Clean from my hand? No: this my hand will rather The multitudinous seas incarnadine, Making the green one red. £«^ r LADY [MACBETH] LADY MACBETH My hands are of your colour, but I shame Exit 60 65 65 incarnadine] Rome ; incarnardine F Johnson 66 green one red] Q1673, F4 (Green one Red); Greene one, Red F,- green, One red guilt, even as she works to incriminate the grooms (59-60). 59 gild paint with gold-colour or gold-leaf. Lady Macbeth immediately speaks (unconsciously? compulsively?) the hackneyed 'gild'/'giltV'guilt' pun (60), which associates gold with red, painting with deception, royalty with murder. For red-gold substitutions, see 'golden blood' (2.3.105) and 'My red dominical, my golden letter' (LLL 5.2.44). 60 SD.2 within See 1.2.0 SD.I n. 60 Rowe's SD, Starting, follows 'knocking' and reflects Restoration stage-practice. 61 appals dismays, terrifies (OED Appal v 8, quoting 3.4.60). The etymologically accurate 'apales' ('becomes pale': see OED Appale) is probably also present (see 68 n.). 62-6 These lines have numerous classical parallels (Sophocles, Catullus, Seneca) and perhaps some sources; see Muir 2.2.59-62 n. Steevens notes earlier English uses of the metaphors: 'And made the greene sea red with Pagan blood' (Anthony Munday, The Downfall of Robert, Earl of Huntingdon, ed. John Meagher, MSR, 1965, line 1880) and 'The multitudes of seas died [dyed] red with blood' (Munday and Henry Chettle, The Death of Robert, Earl of Huntingdon, ed. John Meagher, MSR, 1967, line 1391). See also 'Thou mighty one [Mars], that with thy power hast turned / Green Neptune into purple' {TNK 5.1.49-50). 63-4 Will. . . hand Macbeth's worry has ample precedent. See e.g. Jasper Hey wood's translation of Seneca, Hercules Furens 1323-9: 'What Tanais, or what Nilus els, or with his Persyan wave / What Tygris violent of streame, or what fierce Rhenus flood, / Or Tagus troublesome . . . May my ryght hand [n]ow wash from gylt? although . . . The w[a]ves of all the Northern sea on me shed out now wolde, / And al the water therof shoulde now pas by my two handes, / Yet wil the mischiefe deepe remayne' {Seneca His Tenne Tragedies (1581), sig. D4r); 'All the water in the sea cannot wash out this stain' (Dent W85, citing Ado 4.1.140^); 'What if this cursed hand / Were thicker than itself with brother's blood, / Is there not rain enough in the sweet heavens / To wash it white as snow' (Ham. 3.3.43-6, Q2 and F, cited by Slater, p. 5). 63 Neptune Classical god of the seas. 65 multitudinous seas numerous oceans ('all the world's seas'); many-waved oceans. This line is OED's earliest citation for 'multitudinous', which Shakespeare uses elsewhere (Schàfer). 65 incarnadine stain red; 'literally make fleshcoloured' (Blackfriars). The earliest citation under OED Incarnadine v (Schàfer). 66 F'S punctuation makes 'the green one' = 'Neptune's ocean'; Johnson's anachronistic reading makes 'one red' = 'uniformly scarlet'. Q1673 and F4 leave the line unpunctuated, and my choice is the modern version of F'S reading (see Sisson, 11, 197)- 67—8 Traditionally, post-Restoration actresses (Pritchard, Siddons) taunt Macbeth here, but in 1889 Lillie Langtry made Lady Macbeth seek to excuse her own weakness (Sprague, p. 244: 'Lady Macbeth as an heroic character was passing'). 67 I shame I am (or, would be) ashamed. See OED Shame v ic. ['47} Macbeth 2.2.77 To wear a heart so white. Knock [within] I hear a knocking At the south entry. Retire we to our chamber; A little water clears us of this deed. How easy is it then! Your constancy Hath left you unattended. Knock [within] Hark, more knocking. Get on your night-gown, lest occasion call us And show us to be watchers. Be not lost So poorly in your thoughts. MACBETH To know my deed, 'twere best not know my self. Knock [within] Wake Duncan with thy knocking: I would thou couldst. Exeunt 70 75 76 SD Knock within] Steevens (subst.); Knocke F {after deed) 68 white pale with fear {OED White a 5a, quoting this line). Compare 'blanched with fear' (3.4.116), 5.3.11 and 14-16. 68 SD Knock '[W]hen the deed is done .. . the knocking at the gate is heard, and it makes known audibly that the reaction has commenced; the human has made its reflux upon the fiendish; the pulses of life are beginning to beat again' (De Quincey, x, 393). J. W. Spargo argues 'the Jacobean audience recognized in Macbeth [2.2] a crescendo of three ominous portents of death: (1) the wolfs howl; (2) the owl's screech; (3) the knocking at the gate' ('The knocking at the gate in Macbeth, an essay in interpretation', in Adams Memorial Studies, ed. James McManaway et al., 1948, pp. 269-77; quotation from p. 277. Spargo associates the knocking with the sounds of those who searched houses for victims of the great plague of 1603; see 4.3.167- 75 n. 69 south entry southern entrance (to the castle or, later, 'palace' - 3.1.48, 3.3.13). The south was often holy and the north devilish in folklore, but Shakespeare elsewhere associates the south with disease and sickness; see 2H4 2.4.363, Tro. 5.1.18, Cor. 1.4.30, Rom. 1.4.103, Cym. 4.2.349. 71-2 constancy .. . unattended firmness of purpose has left you unsupported. NS paraphrases, 'you have lost your nerve'. 73 night-gown informal clothing, dressinggown. Most Elizabethans slept naked, and 'nightgowns' were worn outdoors and on such occasions as church services and executions (Linthicum, pp. 184-5). Shakespeare, however, associates 'nightgown' with semi-privacy and the bedchamber. Compare: 5.1.4; jfC 2.2.0 SD; Ado 3.4.18-19, where 'night-gown' is a contemptuous description of a very grand garment; Oth. 4.3.16 and 34, where Desdemona's 'nightly wearing' and 'night-gown' seem to be the same; King Henry's early-morning meditations and meeting with his advisers '*'« his night-gown' (2H4 3.1.0 SD); Enter the ghost in his night gowne (Ham. QI (1603), sig. G2v). 73 occasion circumstances; chance. 74 watchers persons who stay awake at night, night-watchers {OED Watcher c, quoting this line as its second example). 76 To know .. . my self i.e. consciousness of murder could best be borne if I lost my identity (a quibble, perhaps, on Dent K175, 'Know thyself). Upton (p. 177) paraphrases: 'To know my deed! No, rather than so, 'twere best not know myself.' The implicit claim is that Macbeth as he was and murder are psychologically incoherent; awareness of murder will require a new 'self. DeFlores asserts that Beatrice-Joanna, having ordered a murder, is recreated by her action: 'Y'are the deed's creature' {Changeling 3.4.137). 2.3.1 Macbeth [148] 2.3 Enter a PORTER. Knocking within PORTER Here's a knocking indeed: if a man were porter of hellgate, he should have old turning the key. (Knock) Knock, knock, knock. Who's there i'th'name of Beelzebub? Here's a farmer that hanged himself on th'expectation of plenty. Come in time - have napkins enough about you, here you'll sweat for't. 5 (Knock) Knock, knock. Who's there in th'other devil's name? Faith, here's an equivocator that could swear in both the scales against either scale, who committed treason enough for God's sake, yet could not equivocate to heaven. O, come in, equivocator. (Knock) Knock, knock, knock. Who's there? Faith, 10 Act 2, Scene 3 2.3] F (Scena Tertia.); scene continues, Rome 1-2 hell-gate] Rome; Hell Gate F 4—5 Come in time —] Brooke; Come in time, F,- Come in, time, Q.167J; Come in, Time; Staunton; come in, time-server; NS; Come in farmer, Blackfriars (conj. Anon, in Cam.) 10 Faith] F ('Faith) Act 2, Scene 3 For the scene division here, see Textual Analysis, p. 249 below. The scene begins at the castle's gate, moves to some public, probably exterior, space from which Macduffis led to the 'door' (42) of Duncan's apartments, but eventually it is necessary to move to the 'hall' (127), although the 'parley' (75) would most naturally be held at the gate or from the castle's battlements. The action here permits the actor playing Macbeth to wash the blood from his hands and to change costume. The Porter's speeches were omitted by Davenant, Garrick, Kemble and others. Capell praised the part (Notes, p. 13) as 'masterly in it's way, and open to no objections but such as lye against all comic mixture with things serious', and Coleridge (p. 103) condemned it as non-Shakespearean. The Porter's part is now considered a fine stroke of realistic allegory and dramatic pacing (Harcourt). Bradley (p. 314) sees a similarity with the asp-bearing clown of Ant. 5.2. Lady Macbeth's part has often been cut from this scene; see p. 69 above, n. 4. 1 - 2 porter of hell-gate doorman at the entrance to hell (imagined as a castle). Wickham, 'Castle', discusses medieval and native elements, and Allen discusses classical elements in the Porter's character, speech, and function. See Supplementary Note, p. 241 below, and illustration 9, p. 50 above. 2 old frequent, too much. 3-13 In ancient comic fashion (compare Launcelot Gobbo, MV2.2.1-32), the Porter speaks both parts in a series of imaginary dialogues with 'some of all professions' (15) as they arrive in hell (13-14), but stops when cold (14) and consciousness sober him. Bradley (p. 437 n. 2) noted that the pattern of the Porter's comic review of near-allegorical, imaginary persons is virtually the same as Pompey's listing of prisoners he has met ('Master Rash', 'Master Caper', et al.) in MM 4.3.1-19. 3 i'th'name of Beelzebub 'We should surely expect him to say "in the name of my master" or possibly "in the name of Macbeth"; but, since Macbeth has just murdered Duncan, "in the name of Belzebub" or "in the devil's name" is just as appropriate' (Wickham, 'Castle', p. 42). 3 Beelzebub A popular devil-name, one of the few found in the Bible (Brooke). 4 Come in time This is a good time for you to arrive. NS's emendation is 'brilliant' (Muir), but unnecessary. Qi673's reading, which Staunton unwittingly accepted and Harcourt (p. 394) guessed, is almost as clever, making the farmer, a person whose livelihood depends upon the seasons (= 'time'), grammatically parallel with the equivocator (9-10) and the tailor (12), but the rhetorical pattern (addresses to new arrivals in hell) has not yet been established. 5 napkins handkerchiefs (to wipe the 'sweat' caused by hellfire and perhaps the result of the 'sweating tub', a supposed cure for venereal disease). 6 th'other devil The Porter cannot remember the name of another devil (Muir). 7 Faith By my faith (a mild oath). 7 scales pans (of a weighing device; here the 'scales' of justice). 8-9 for God's sake A common oath, but the phrase may refer specifically to Jesuit priests' equivocal oaths to preserve their lives from political reprisal while also maintaining their faith ('for God's sake'); see 26 n. [*49\ Macbeth 2.3.24 here's an English tailor come hither for stealing out of a French hose. Come in, tailor, here you may roast your goose. (Knock) Knock, knock. Never at quiet: what are you? But this place is too cold for hell. I'll devil-porter it no further: I had thought to have let in some of all professions that go the primrose way to th'everlasting bonfire. (Knock) Anon, anon. I pray you, remember the porter. [Opens door] Enter MACDUFF and LENNOX MACDUFF Was it so late, friend, ere you went to bed, That you do lie so late? PORTER Faith, sir, we were carousing till the second cock, and drink, sir, is a great provoker of three things. MACDUFF What three things does drink especially provoke? PORTER Marry, sir, nose-painting, sleep, and urine. Lechery, sir, it provokes, and unprovokes: it provokes the desire, but it takes 1 7 SD.I] Brooke; not in F,- Opens / Capell 11-1 2 stealing out of a French hose Possibly a joke about tailors' skimping on fabric in men's garments ('hose'), but fashions changed quickly, and 'French hose' were both loose and tight at various times in the early modern period, making theft difficult or easy to detect, as the case might be (Brooke); for analogous details of changing fashions in breeches, see Dekker (and Middleton), The Roaring Girl 2.2.71-82. The phrase may also be sexual innuendo: 'tail' (of'tailor') = vagina; 'hose' = codpiece = penis. Precisely what (the theft, the penis) was 'stealing out of (escaping, becoming visible) is equivocal. Blackfriars suggests a pun, stealing/ 'staling' (= urinating), which would anticipate the Porter's other major interest. 12 roast your goose heat your iron (in the flames of hell). 'Goose' was a tailor's long-handled iron and also a slang word for 'prostitute', a source of venereal disease, the 'French pox' for which a sufferer roasted literally (see 5 n.) and spiritually (in hell). See also n-i2n . above. 15-16 primrose .. . bonfire Shakespeare appears to have invented the phrase 'primrose path' as a contrast between the easy and attractive pleasures of sin and the consequences of sin, 'th'everlasting bonfire' of hell. Compare 'the primrose path of dalliance' (Ham. 1.3.50) and 'the flow'ry way that leads to the broad gate and the great fire' (AWW 4.5.54.- 5). Compare 'roast your goose' (12 and n.). 15 primrose 'abounding in primroses' (OED Primrose 5^ (a) 7), a pale-yellow wild and cultivated flower, 'first-born child of Ver, / Merry springtime's harbinger' (TNK 1.1.7-8). 16 bonfire Etymologically, the word derives from 'bone-fire', a pyre in which human or animal bones were consumed. 17 remember the porter give me a tip (for opening the gate). 17 SD.I The Porter here performs some action fulfilling his function as gate-keeper. 20-1 The Porter's lines are apparently prose, but like other prose passages in the play they have an iambic rhythm. 20 carousing celebrating, revelling, drinking. 20 second cock second crowing of a rooster (i.e. a measurement of time before watches and clocks were common). Compare 'the second cock hath crowed, / . . . 'tis three a'clock' (Rom. 4.4.3-4), a comment that does not necessarily mean that 'the second cock' = 'three o'clock', and 5.1.31. 21 great provoker of three things The Shakespearean clown's typical invitation, a half-riddle that will, he hopes, catch the interest of a wealthy interlocutor. 77V 1.5.1-9, 3.1.16-25, and AWW 1.3.39-50 are other instances. 22 With this question, Macduff accepts his rôle as straight man. 23 Marry A mild oath (in full: 'By the Lady Mary', 'By the Virgin Mary'). 23 nose-painting i.e. the reddening of the sot's nose. Lady Macbeth angrily dismissed the painted face and its effects (2.2.57-60). 24 unprovokes calms, depresses, allays (see OED Un2 prefix and Provoke v 6); this line is OED\ only citation for Unprovoke v (Schàfer). 24-5 provokes the desire . .. performance stimulates sexual interest but inhibits sexual func- 2.3.25 Macbeth U50] away the performance. Therefore much drink may be said to be an equivocator with lechery: it makes him, and it mars him; it sets him on, and it takes him off; it persuades him and disheartens him, makes him stand to and not stand to. In conclusion, equivocates him in a sleep, and giving him the lie, leaves him. MACDUFF I believe drink gave thee the lie last night. PORTER That it did, sir, i'the very throat on me, but I requited him for his lie, and, I think, being too strong for him, though he took up my legs sometime, yet I made a shift to cast him. Enter MACBETH MACDUFF Is thy master stirring? Our knocking has awaked him: here he comes. [Exit Porter] 35 34 SD] F,- after 35, Collier 36 SD Exit Porter] Oxford; not in F tioning. For contemporary beliefs about witches and their power to inhibit a male's sexual performance, see Dolan, p. 216. Provoking (or tempting) and unprovoking (or warning) also describe the sisters' words to Macbeth and Banquo in 1.3 since those words provoke Macbeth to regicide but also seem to promise that he will become king 'without . . . stir' (1.3.143); those words promise much to Banquo, who is not 'provoked' to regicide. 26 equivocator Someone who uses ambiguous words; a prevaricator. OED's first citation is from a text composed in 1599, Edwin Sandys's A Relation of the State of Religion (first printed 1605 and later reprinted as Europae Speculum), where the word is applied to Jesuits and their doctrine of mental reservation. That doctrine permitted one to express virtual falsehoods in a verbally true form to satisfy the speaker's conscience (Sandys, sig. K2v). See p. 5 above. Scot (xm, 15) uses 'equivocation' to describe banal confidence games, perhaps through analogy with rhetorical 'equivoque', the pun, as in 'strange equivocation' (Webster, White Devil 4.2.34). 26-30 it makes .. . leaves him These lines mingle bawdy (developing 23-5) with other meanings. 26 makes . . . mars A proverbial expression (Dent M48). 27 sets .. . on .. . takes . . . off advances . . . withdraws. Besides the bawdy description of a failed erection, the verbs could describe urging dogs to attack and retreat (compare 5.7.2 and n.). 28 stand to set to work (with a pun on the erect penis). 29 equivocates him in a sleep fulfils his lechery only in a dream (Hunter). 29 giving him the lie '(1) deceives him (because he cannot perform sexually as he promised); (2) floors him (as in wrestling); (3) makes him urinate (lie = lye)' (Hunter); (4) makes him lose his erection; (5) accuses him of lying (as Lady Macbeth did Macbeth, 1.7.47-51). 31-3 I believe. . . his lie Macduff, the comic feed here, reignites the multiple jokes of 29 when he asserts that 'drink gave thee the lie last night' (31), but the Porter's reply, 'it did . . . i'the very throat on [= of] me' and 'I requited him for his lie' (32, 33), stresses the single meaning of deliberate deception, the meaning most pertinent to what the Macbeths have done and are about to do. The proverbial 'To lie in one's teeth' (Dent T268) meant 'deep, deliberate lying' (Folger). 34 took up my legs made me unable to stand (because drunk); 'dropped' me (as a wrestler does). Compare 29 n. 34 shift stratagem, ruse (OED Shift sb 4). 34 cast throw to the ground; vomit (NS subst.). 34 SD Editors have moved Macbeth's entrance to follow Macduff's question, but see Textual Analysis, pp. 246-7 below. 36 SD Oxford added this SD, remarking 'He might leave later', but the Porter and his humour work best by contrast rather than coincidence. Macbeth 2.3.50 LENNOX Good morrow, noble sir. MACBETH Good morrow, both. MACDUFF Is the king stirring, worthy thane? MACBETH Not yet. MACDUFF He did command me to call timely on him; I have almost slipped the hour. MACBETH I'll bring you to him. 40 MACDUF F I know this is a joyful trouble to you, but yet 'tis one. MACBET H The labour we delight in physics pain. This is the door. MACDUF F I'll make so bold to call, for 'tis my limited service. Exit LENNO X Goes the king hence today? MACBET H He does - he did appoint so. 45 LENNO X The night has been unruly: where we lay, Our chimneys were blown down, and, as they say, Lamentings heard i'th'air, strange screams of death And prophesying with accents terrible Of dire combustion and confused events, 50 43 SD] F (Exit Macdujfe.) 38 stirring The repetition of 35 sounds awkward unless (or until) it activates the metaphoric identity of sleep (from which Macbeth is supposedly awakened) and death (from which Duncan will never stir). Compare 70. 38 Not yet This phrase 'implies that he [Duncan] will [stir] by and by, and is a kind of guard against any suspicion' (Whately, p. 34). Macbeth might have answered 'No', and 'Not yet' also means 'No longer'; see p. 48 above. 39 timely early. For the dramatic use of Macduff here, see Textual Analysis, pp. 260-1 below. 40 slipped failed in keeping (the appointed time). See OED Slip v x 20c, quoting only this line and another from 1707. 41-3 Unlike F, editors often arrange these exchanges as verse; like other episodes involving short exchanges and action, this one contains stretches of iambic rhythms (e.g. 42), but even a loose iambic pentameter does not extend through the passage. 41 joyful trouble The oxymoron recalls 1.6.11- 12. 42 The labour .. . pain Effort we enjoy alleviates suffering. The same idea appears in Cym. 3.2.34, Temp. 3.1.1-2, and 'What we do willingly is easy' (Dent D407). 43 limited appointed (Muir). 44 Goes .. . hence See 1.5.57 n. 45 He does. . . appoint so For the same equivocation, see 'as he purposes' (1.5.58). 45 appoint order; purpose. 48-9 Lamentings .. . screams .. . accents These sounds are not articulate speech, but inchoate, ominous sounds (like the 'obscure bird's' clamour) that people interpret ('they say') as 'prophesying' (47, 49), just as Macbeth (mis)interpreted the sisters' words in 1.3. 48 screams shrill, piercing cries. This line is the earliest citation for this meaning under OED Scream sb a (the next citation is from 1708), so the earliest audiences may have understood the sounds more specifically as the 'cries of certain birds and beasts' (OED Scream sb b, where the earliest citation is from 1513). See Textual Analysis, p. 248 below. 49 prophesying uttering strange things; announcing solemnly (White subst., citing 'And he saide unto me, Prophecie thou upon these bones, & speake unto them: Ye drye bones, heare the worde of the Lorde' (Ezek. 37.4)). The word only equivocally means 'foretelling' since the 'combustions' and 'events' are already 'hatched'. 50 dire combustion dreadful commotion; terrifying disorder. 50 events outcomes, consequences (OED Event 3a). Certain causes are 'New hatched' (51) and will mature into 'events' in on-rushing 'time'. The metaphor of hatching (a bird's birth) anticipates 51 - 2, but the birth of events-in-time recalls Macbeth's soliloquy (1.7.4-5). 2.3.51 Macbeth [J S 2 ] New hatched to th'woeful time. The obscure bird Clamoured the livelong night. Some say, the earth Was feverous and did shake. MACBETH 'Twas a rough night. LENNOX My young remembrance cannot parallel A fellow to it. 55 Enter MACDUFF MACDUFF O horror, horror, horror, Tongue nor heart cannot conceive, nor name thee. MACBETH and LENNOX What's the matter? MACDUFF Confusion now hath made his masterpiece: Most sacrilegious murder hath broke ope 60 The Lord's anointed temple and stole thence The life o'th'building. MACBETH What is't you say, the life? LENNOX Mean you his majesty? MACDUFF Approach the chamber and destroy your sight 65 With a new Gorgon. Do not bid me speak: See and then speak yourselves. Exeunt Macbeth and Lennox Awake, awake! Ring the alarum bell! Murder and treason! 51 time.] F,- time: Theobald 67 SD Exeunt. . . Lennox] Staunton (subst.); after awake! F 51 obscure bird The owl (which is 'obscure' like English ones, were 'anointed' at their coronabecause rarely seen and usually heard only at night). tions; see e.g. David to Saul: 'I had compassion on 52 livelong very long. thee, and sayd: I will not lay myne handes on my 53 feverous feverish, shaking with fever (a per- maister, for he is the Lordes annoynted' (1 Sam. sonincation). The earth was not 'sure and firm-set' 24.10). Compare Banquo's proleptic remark on the (2.1.56). 'temple-haunting martlet' (1.6.4). 53 rough stormy. Macbeth is laconic. 62-4 Macbeth's line (63) might be linked metri57 The tongue names and the heart conceives, cally with the one before (Cam.), or Lennox and but the rhetorical figure (antimetabole) reorders the Macbeth might speak simultaneously (Muir). grammar: tongue-heart-conceives-names. 62 life o'th'building 'The ark of the covenant in 59 masterpiece greatest achievement (earliest the Holy of Holies can be aptly described as "the life citation at OED Masterpiece ib). o'th'building"' (Shaheen, p. 164). 60 sacrilegious violating sacred things (Lexi- 62 building body (compare: 'the bloody house of con); profaning. Sacrilege is specifically the crime of life' (John 4.2.210) and 'this mortal house I'll ruin' stealing from the church (see 61-2). (Ant. 5.2.51)); house of worship (= 'temple' (61)). 60 ope open. The archaic form is needed for the 66 Gorgon Mythical female being with snakes metre. for hair and the power to turn whoever looked upon 61 Lord's anointed temple house of worship; her to stone. For 'Duncan's androgyny', perhaps Duncan's cranium ('temple') or body (see 'building' evoked here, see Adelman, pp. 131-3. (62 and n.)). The Christian New Testament treats 68 Ring the alarum bell This bell echoes the all believers as the 'temple' (sanctuary, church, bell (or 'knell') summoning Macbeth and Duncan synagogue) of God (1 Cor. 3.16), and biblical kings, to heaven or to hell (2.1.63-4). Macbeth 2.3.79 Banquo and Donaldbain! Malcolm, awake, Shake off this downy sleep, death's counterfeit, And look on death itself. Up, up, and see The great doom's image. Malcolm, Banquo, As from your graves rise up and walk like sprites To countenance this horror. Bell rings. Enter LADY [MACBETH] LADY MACBETH What's the business That such a hideous trumpet calls to parley The sleepers of the house? Speak, speak. MACDUFF O gentle lady, 'Tis not for you to hear what I can speak. The repetition in a woman's ear Would murder as it fell. - Enter BANQUO O Banquo, Banquo, 70 75 73 sprites] F (Sprights) 74 horror.] This edn (Theobaldsubst.); horror. Ring the Bell. F. See Supplementary Note, p. 241 below 74 business] F (Businesse?) 79 fell. - ] Theobald; fell. F 70 downy soft (a transferred adjective). The best pillows were stuffed with 'down', the fine under-plumage of a bird. 70 sleep, death's counterfeit The similarity of sleep to death was commonplace. See Cicero, De Senectute 80: 'Nihil morti tarn simile quam somnus' (Nothing is more like death than sleep), cited by Grey (11, 145) in reference to 2.2.41; 'O sleep, thou ape of death' (Cytn. 2.2.31); Samuel Daniel's superb poem beginning, 'Care-charmer sleepe, sonne of the Sable night, / Brother to death, in silent darknes borne' (Sonnet 45 in Delia (1592), sig. G3r); 'Sleep is the image of death' (Dent S527). 72 great doom's image simulacrum ('image') of the Last ('great') Judgement ('doom'). See next note. Duncan's death reminds Macduff of the Christian version of the end of time and of the world; indeed, this moment seems metaphorically the end of a world, just as Kent ('Is this the promised end?') and Edgar ('Or image of that horror?') wonder at Lear's lamentation over Cordelia (Lear 5.3.264-5). See p. 20 above. 73 from your graves rise up As the dead will do at the Christian Last Judgement: 'I knowe that he shall ryse agayne in the resurrection at the last day' (John 11.24). 73 sprites spirits, ghosts, F'S archaic word is needed for the metre. 74 To .. . horror See Supplementary Note, p. 241 below. 74 countenance be in keeping with (OED Countenance v 6, for which this line is the only evidence). The word also means 'give tacit consent to'. 'By a time-serving assent to Macbeth's election, Banquo puts himself in a position of danger' (Mahood, p. 131). 75 trumpet Presumably, 'trumpet' is a figure of speech for 'alarum bell' (68), but the word jarringly recalls 1.7.18-19 and probably recalls St Paul's description of the time when 'sleepers' (76), the dead (see 70), will 'rise up' from their 'graves' (73) at the Last Judgement (see 72 and n.): 'Beholde, I shewe you a mistere. We shall not all slepe: but we shall all be chaunged. In a moment, in the twynklyng of an eye, at the last trumpe. For the trumpe shall bio we, and the dead shall ryse incorruptible, and we shalbe chaunged' (1 Cor. 15.51-2). 75 parley conference under truce. This military term suggests that some of 'The sleepers of the house' (76) are or will be at war, with themselves and/or with those (Macduff, Lennox) who have entered from outside the castle. 76-9 Macduff's anxiety is repeated by the Messenger who warns Lady Macduff (4.2.67-8). 79 fell was spoken; issued (from the speaker's mouth). See OED Fall v 6. 2.3.80 Macbeth US4] Our royal master's murdered. LADY MACBETH Woe, alas. 80 What, in our house? BANQUO Too cruel, anywhere. Dear Duff, I prithee contradict thyself And say it is not so. Enter MACBET H and LENNOX MACBET H Had I but died an hour before this chance, I had lived a blessed time, for from this instant, 85 There's nothing serious in mortality. All is but toys; renown and grace is dead, The wine of life is drawn, and the mere lees Is left this vault to brag of. Enter MALCOLM and DONALDBAIN DONALDBAIN What is amiss? MACBET H You are, and do not know't. 90 The spring, the head, the fountain of your blood Is stopped, the very source of it is stopped. MACDUF F Your royal father's murdered. MALCOLM O, by whom? LENNOX Those of his chamber, as it seemed, had done't. Their hands and faces were all badged with blood, 95 So were their daggers which, unwiped, we found 83 SD] Davenant; Enter Macbeth, Lenox, and Rosse F 90 SH, 11 4 SH DONALDBAIN] F (Donal.) 83 SD For the change in F'S SD, see Supplemen- 88 drawn drained (from a cask), tary Note, pp. 241-2 below. 88 lees dregs. 84-9 A speech 'so much in the language of his 89 vault earth (with the sky as 'roof); cellar soliloquies' (Brooke) that it creates numerous theat- (where a wine cask would be stored), rical possibilities: it may be spoken aside, 'covered' 89 brag boast. in the audience's imagination by simultaneous un- 91 spring Thomas More provides the traditional heard speeches (compare the situations at 1.3.126- metaphorical context: 'From the monarch, as from a 41 and 1.4.47-58); it may be spoken publicly and never-failing spring, flows a stream of all that is without deceit; it may be spoken to deceive the good or evil over the whole nation' (Utopia, p. 57). hearers on stage, but understood with varying de- 91 head source (of a stream or river); senior male grees of irony by the audience. family member. 84 chance occurrence, mishap (OED Chance sb 91 blood family, kindred. 2). 'Chance' usually connotes an accidental, unfore- 92 stopped blocked, stopped up. Compare Lady seen event (see 4.3.136 and n.); Macbeth evades his Macbeth's prayer (1.5.41-5). own responsibility for Duncan's death. Compare 95 badged marked, identified. Liveried servants 'chanced' (1.3.152). wore heraldic emblems (badges): these retainers 86 mortality life, human existence. have a new badge, blood, to mark them as Duncan's 87 toys trifles, rubbish (OED Toy sb 5, quoting men. See the clothing images - 'laced', 'steeped', this line). Compare 'Or sells eternity to get a toy' 'breeched' - of 105-9. (The Rape of Lucrèce 214). Uss] Macbeth 2.3.1 n Upon their pillows. They stared and were distracted; No man's life was to be trusted with them. MACBET H O, yet I do repent me of my fury That I did kill them. M A c D u F F Wherefore did you so? MACBET H Who can be wise, amazed, temp'rate, and furious, Loyal and neutral, in a moment? No man. Th'expedition of my violent love Outran the pauser, reason. Here lay Duncan, His silver skin laced with his golden blood And his gashed stabs looked like a breach in nature, For ruin's wasteful entrance. There the murderers, Steeped in the colours of their trade; their daggers Unmannerly breeched with gore. Who could refrain, That had a heart to love and in that heart Courage to make's love known? LADY MACBET H Help me hence, ho. 105 100 them.] F,- them - Rowe 104 Outran] F (Out-run) 109 Unmannerly] F (Vnmannerly); Unmanly Travers 97 distracted mentally confused. 99-100 A delayed and shocking announcement, since Macbeth has been on stage for almost twenty lines. Rowe's punctuation indicates that Macduff interrupts Macbeth's speech. 100 Wherefore Why. 101 temp'rate temperate, restrained. This contraction and others (e.g. 'amaz'd') are needed for the metre. 102 Loyal and neutral Maintaining allegiance (to Duncan) and disinterested (toward the grooms' apparent guilt). 102 No man No one. The language recalls 1.7.46-7. 103 expedition haste, speed. Compare 'the speed of his rage' (Lear 1.2.167). 103 violent love A self-contradictory phrase; compare 42n., 1.2.ion., 1.6.11-13. 104 Outran Contrary to many editors' claims, F'S 'Out-run' is an archaic past tense; see OED Run v A. 14 for the form. 104 pauser one who hesitates (here, for rational reflection). This line is OED's only citation for the word (Schâfer). 105 silver white. See next note. 105 golden red (see 2.2.59 n.). Imagery of rich metals (silver and gold) transforms Duncan's body into a decorated 'temple' (61), or a garment 'laced' with golden threads and streams of blood. 106-7 breach .. . entrance The underlying image is of an opening or break ('breach') in a shore or dike, letting in ruinous (sea)water, or of attacking troops breaking into a castle or walled city: some injurious force overcomes cultivation's or civilisation's boundaries. This complex image represents Duncan's body as a devastated landscape, as Macbeth's violated castle, and as the violated bonds of loyalty and hospitality. Compare Banquo's wounds (3.4.27-8). 106 breach opening, gap. The word's sound anticipates 'breeched' (109). 108 Steeped Dyed. See 'Thence comes it that my name receives a brand, / And almost thence my nature is subdued / To what it works in, like the dyer's hand' (Sonnet 111.5^7). 108 colours of their trade identifying marks of their occupation. 109 Unmannerly breeched Indecently clothed (NS). The image makes the daggers humans wearing impolite or antisocial breeches (trousers) of blood, but also puns on 'unmanly': to dress these daggers in Duncan's blood is to act inhumanly, to act as a man 'Who .. . is none' (1.7.47). Compare 'breach in nature' (106). A single suspended mark of abbreviation differentiated 'Unmannerly' and 'Unmanly' in contemporary handwriting, and they are easily confused. m make's make his.




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