Wednesday, November 21, 2018

Bach (Johann Sebastian) 's Life & Musical Success - English

Edited /Written / Researched by: Yunus Emre Vurgun /Kimse Değil



Johann Sebastian Bach's musical style

Bach's style is baroque.
Johann Sebastian Bach used not one but several music styles. On one hand there is the chamber music that he used (Chamber music, music composed for small ensembles of instrumentalists. In its original sense chamber music referred to music composed for the home, as opposed to that written for the theatre or church.), in the entertaining French/Italian vein typical of the period back then, but unmistakably Bach. The Inventions, the English and French Suites and the Partitas (a suite, typically for a solo instrument or chamber ensemble.) are teaching exercises as well as being brilliant harpsichord music. Then there are the virtuoso showpieces for harpsichord or organ, in which you can almost hear him gleefully rubbing his hands together and saying, “Beat that!” Not to mention works like the Goldberg Variations, the Brandenburg Concertos or the Musical Offering, in which Bach is fulfilling real or desired commissions. And the Well-Tempered Clavier and the Art of Fugue, which are basically demonstrations, of a tuning system and fugal techniques respectively. (Most of it from Bill Flewelling's article)

Life

Though his contemporary Handel moved to England, Bach remained for most of his musical career in his native Germany. He had held a number of posts in various locations as a musician or music director to a number of Dukes and Princes, when his first wife died leaving 7 children. In the early 1720s, Bach married his 2nd wife, Anna Magdalena Wulcken (herself a musician) and took up the post in Leipzig where his duties included directing the musical requirements of the local church and associated school. While employed there, the couple extended the family by another 13 (though 7 children did not survive into adulthood) as well as fulfilling the demands of the employment. Unsurprisingly the family were all musically gifted, Bach's eldest son (Wilhlem Friedermann Bach) was a great organist like his father, Carl Philipp Emanuel became a musician in the court of the future Frederick the Great, and Johann Christian was also an organist and moved to London in the employ of Queen Charlotte. Those latter two sons were very influential in the development of classical forms from their precursors in baroque forms such as the Suite.

But while his sons were to help found the new school, it was the old school training from the father which sowed this seed. By all accounts, the Bachs became a nerve centre for all things musical in the area, with their extended family of relatives, friends and musicians both local and visiting. It may well be that some of the output from that time would not have survived if Anna Magdelena had not recorded many examples of smaller works in her two "notebook" collections of which the following four pieces are from the 2nd Notebook:

No. 4, Minuet by Christian Pezold
No. 7, Minuet by Unknown
No. 16, March by C. P. E. Bach (son)
No. 22, Musette by Unknown
There are many books with selections from the Anna Magdelena Bach notebooks which are a good place to start learning baroque keyboard music. Here are two selections from Sheet Music Plus in the US or The Music Room in the UK.

Who was Bach?

Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) is one of the great composers in Western musical history. He was born in Eisenach, Germany, into a family of working musicians. In 1695, when he was just nine years old, his parents died and he was sent to live with his brother, Johann Christoph, an organist. Whilst living with his brother he learnt the keyboard and studied composition on his own.

He worked as an organist, then as a court composer at Cöthen (now Köthen) and then as musical director at St Thomas's church in Leipzig, producing many hundreds of choral and instrumental works (and hundreds of thousands of pages of handwritten parts).

Bach married twice and fathered eight surviving children, three of whom became notable composers in their own right. He was a devoutly religious man, and knew tragedy: his first wife died suddenly while he was away on business; 12 of his 20 children died in infancy; one of his sons had severe learning difficulties; and another ran away from home in his teens and died in mysterious circumstances. With employers, who rarely appreciated his talents, he was chippy and argumentative; at a family gathering with a few drinks and a pipe of tobacco, however, he was robustly good-humoured, especially when the Bach clan took turns to improvise rude country songs.

What is special about his music?

Bach's style is extravagant, described by loads of notes, straightforward motoric rhythms, and unfaltering movements of fundamental concordance - it was scorned by some as 'sewing-machine music'. Be that as it may, he investigated agreement significantly more profoundly than different authors of the time: contrasted with say Handel or Vivaldi, Bach's music can contain exceptionally 'energetic' harmonies and astonishing discord, and will bounce off to a wide range of consonant regions.

It is additionally 'supreme music' - at the end of the day, it frequently appears to exist separated from a specific instrument, as a constructional thought without anyone else's input; therefore a similar piece can fill in as adequately on a piano as a guitar, as a choral work or a symphonic game plan.

Picture of Johann Sebastian Bach's father (left)

Johann Sebastian Bach's list of works, recorded by their BWV number (from the German 'Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis', 'Bach-work-inventory') rushes to over a thousand things

What was Bach's notoriety?

Bach's thousand or more works delighted in generally little thankfulness in his lifetime. His music was viewed as a little out-dated for now is the right time, delighted in just by authorities. The experts at Leipzig broadly grumbled that they just utilized Bach in light of the fact that "the best [Telemann] was not accessible". Bach's principle notoriety was not as an author, but rather as an astoundingly skilled organ player and improviser, and specialist for organ fix.

By the 1840s he was to a great extent overlooked but to students of history, however Felix Mendelssohn resuscitated Bach's 'St Matthew Passion', and artists consistently rediscovered his phenomenal group of work.

What is a fugue?

Bach exceeded expectations at antithesis - the piece of two superimposed autonomous lines so every bode well independent from anyone else, yet additionally joins flawlessly with the other.

He exceeded expectations much more at the fugue, a heavenly yet naughtily troublesome contrapuntal melodic shape. A fugue is a sort of melodic pursue between at least two lines. The principal line begins; following a couple of moments the second line participate. It is somewhat higher or lower than the first, however generally relatively indistinguishable. A third or fourth line may join. The aptitude of a fugal author is to influence the lines to grow freely, yet still fit together, while making each line conspicuously a postponed variety of the first one. Such was Bach's aptitude on the organ that he could ad lib a four-section fugue.

Bach's preludes and fugues for console are one of the milestones of western established music. For each major and minor key of the 12 notes of the scale there is a free-streaming prelude, trailed by a firmly built fugue, totalling 24 preludes and 24 fugues. He composed two such sets, making 48 taking all things together. They are frequently alluded to as 'the 48', or by the more broad title 'The Well-Tempered Clavier'.

'Harpsichord' just signifies 'console instrument'. The pieces are normally played on the piano these days; in Bach's lifetime the instrument was all the while being created, and they would most usually have been played on a harpsichord.

The 'very much tempered' alludes to the piece's exhibition of how reliably the instrument is tuned crosswise over various keys, however precisely which tuning framework Bach had as a main priority is the subject of much insightful discussion.

What does this picture appear?

Like a lot of Bach's work, 'The Well-tempered Clavier' was not distributed in his lifetime, but rather flowed in original copy shape. In its present state it contains 21 of the 24 preludes and fugues in all the keys. Most were composed out by Bach, however a couple were replicated by his second spouse Anna Magdalena. The preludes and fugues are composed consecutive on expansive sheets of paper which were initially collapsed yet not bound.

Aside from a solitary fugue in Berlin, this is the main signature original copy of the second book to endure. It demonstrates the start of the fugue in A level major - you can see the second voice (which comes in most of the way over the best line) impersonating the state of the first at a higher pitch.

One last fact:  for a space project ,The best composer who is known by everyone that he is a musician chosen and selected as the best musician of the world (uzayla ilgili bir proje icin dunya muzigini en iyi kimin besteleri tanıtabilir diye yapilan bi arastirmada, karar verilip secilen ve asmis bir muzisyen olduu herkes tarafından bilinen besteci)


Sources:
https://www.quora.com/What-was-Johann-Sebastian-Bachs-musical-style
https://www.mfiles.co.uk/composers/Johann-Sebastian-Bach.htm
http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/onlineex/musicmanu/bach/
https://www.bbc.co.uk/music/artists/24f1766e-9635-4d58-a4d4-9413f9f98a4c
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Sebastian_Bach
https://eksisozluk.com/johann-sebastian-bach--131752
https://www.britannica.com/art/chamber-music

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