Saturday, December 1, 2018

on /related : Italy & Spain

Image result for italy and spain2019 Ducati Monster 821 Guide 

2019 Ducati Monster 821: With its supremely sporty performance and agility, the new Monster 821 has been designed for maximum riding pleasure. The performance of the 109 HP Testastretta 11° engine is enhanced by the Ducati Safety Pack (ABS and Ducati Traction Control) and the Riding Modes, which guarantee maximum safety always and everywhere. Iconic design The design of the new Monster 821 is 100% Monster. The volumes, silhouette, tank and headlight are true to the original lines of the bike born in 1993 but revisited with a modern flair. The iconic and unmistakable tank also comes with a fastening hook, just like the first Monster. Monster 821The standard equipement of the new Monster 821 is: TFT colour display and passenger seat cover. The volumes, silhouette, tank, and headlight characterize the design of the Monster 821 and remain true to the original lines of the bike born in 1993 while revisiting them with a modern flair. The iconic tank comes with a fastening hook, just like the first Monster. The new stealth version features new graphics and the windshield: elements that give the new Monster 821 a unique and unmistakable character. 25 Years of Monster The Monster 821 pays homage to the legacy of the Monster 900, which over 25 years ago revolutionized the motorcycle world, embodying the essence of true naked sport. Simple and sporty, agile and powerful, the Monster 821 combines perfect performance and ease of riding.. Agile and featuring sporty performance, it was designed for maximum riding enjoyment, at all times and in all conditions. The Monster 821 range has been rejuvenated with a new stealth version: matte black livery, updated graphics and front fairing give a unique character to the naked Ducati par excellence. The standard equipment, which includes adjustable fork and Ducati Quick Shift up/down, makes it even more effective on the road. Back in 1992 Ducati presented that first, iconic Monster at the Cologne Motor Show. Now, 25 years on, the Monster 821 has received an impressive upgrade. The 821 inherits all the authenticity of that first Monster 900, combining perfect performance with outstanding rider-friendliness. Superb standard equipment, low ownership costs and an extensive accessory range make the Monster 821 the perfect everyday bike, yet give it that unique Ducati sport naked feel that is shared by every Monster. Now, the Monster 821 has been upgraded to include aesthetic and functional features first introduced on the Monster 1200: a more streamlined, agile look with fully redesigned tank and tail, an all-new silencer and a headlight that is both classic and contemporary. Also making its debut on the mid-size Monster is the colour TFT display with selected gear and fuel indicators, while available accessories include the Ducati Quick Shift up/down system. The Euro 4 compliant liquid-cooled Testastretta 11° engine delivers a maximum power of 109 hp (80 kW) at 9250 rpm. Thanks to its 8.8 kgm (86 Nm) of torque at 7750 rpm, the 821 offers exciting performance, easy riding and unmatched fun. The Monster 821 also features the Ducati Safety Pack, which comprises Bosch ABS and Ducati Traction Control, both of which have adjustable intervention levels. Similarly, maximum power and throttle response can be adjusted via the Power Modes. Riding Modes allow easy adjustment of ABS, DTC and Power Modes, letting riders transform the 821 into three different motorcycles, each with a distinct personality. Completing the impressive equipment array on the Monster 821 are the Brembo brakes, with dual 320 mm discs and M4-32 monobloc radial calipers up front. A refined suspension system includes a 43 mm fork at the front and an adjustable shock absorber at the rear. The Monster 821 comes in three different colours: Ducati Red, Black and the classic Ducati Yellow which many a Monster fan has fallen in love with over the years. The “Monster 821 stealth”, instead, sports the exclusive black colour scheme with dedicated graphic, Adjustable 43 mm Kayaba forks, Nose fairing and DQS up/down.   2019 Ducati Monster 821 Totalmotorcycle.com Key Features Versions overview Ducati Monster 821  Colours o Ducati Yellow with black frame and black wheels o Ducati Red with red frame and black wheels o Dark Stealth with black frame and black wheels  Main as-standard features: o 821 cm³ Testastretta 11° engine o Euro 4 emissions o Maximum power 109 hp at 9250 rpm o Trellis frame attached to cylinder heads o Double-sided swingarm o New tank with attachment clip o New tail o New muffler o New headlight o Rider’s and passenger’s footpegs separated o TFT colour display indicating selected gear and fuel level o Riding Modes (3 configurations) o Power Modes (3 configurations) o Ducati Safety Pack (3-level ABS, 8-level DTC) o 43 mm fork o Adjustable monoshock o Height-adjustable seat o Passenger seat cover o DQS up/down ready o DMS ready Ducati Monster 821 stealth  Colours o Dark Stealth with dedicated graphics, black frame and wheels  Main as-standard equipment – as per the Monster 821 except for: o Adjustable 43 mm Kayaba forks o Nose fairing o DQS up/down 2019 Ducati Monster 821 Totalmotorcycle.com Features and Benefits Design Like the Monster 1200, the 821 has been redesigned to create a sleek, compact bike with true sporting character, to get back to the “sport naked bike” concept but without making drastic changes to the lines of the existing motorcycle. Considerable attention has been given to the tank, now “lighter” and more modern: a fully overhauled design that nevertheless remains faithful to the first ever Monster from the year 1992. To highlight this link with the past even further, the classic anodized aluminium attachment clip is also back. The short, compact, sleek tail, supported by the steel Trellis subframe, lets riders set a seat height of 785 or 810 mm and supports the passenger footpegs, now separated from the rider’s pegs. This configuration gives the Monster 821 a sporting line while improving ergonomics. The new, Euro 4 compliant silencer draws its inspiration from the exhaust on the Monster 1200 R. Another signature component on the 821 is the round headlight, high-tech yet iconic and, like the tank, identical to the one on the Monster 1200. Twenty-five years on, then, Ducati continues to develop this incredibly successful model. A bike that has, over time, been remoulded and reinvented, become a customisation/personalisation favourite and exerted a huge influence on the entire motorcycle industry for well over two decades. Engine The Monster 821 is powered by the 821 cm³ twin-cylinder Desmodromic Testastretta 11° engine, designed to be a stressed member of the chassis. Euro 4 compliant, it delivers a maximum power of 109 hp (80 kW) at 9250 rpm and a maximum torque of 8.8 kgm (86 Nm) at 7750 rpm. Designed to ensure outstanding pulling power throughout the rev range, this engine is suited to all riders and makes for breathtaking fun. Moreover, lengthy maintenance intervals mean that valve clearance only needs checking every 30,000 km (18,000 miles), making the Monster 821 both reliable and affordable. The 821 cm³ twin-cylinder power unit “breathes” via throttle bodies with Ride-by-Wire control. What’s more, the engine, cooled by a concave radiator mounting two high-efficiency fans, uses the secondary air system to optimise performance by reducing combustion cycle dispersion, but without affecting emissions. The underlying design of the Testastretta 11° engine aims to provide incredibly fluid power that’s easy to handle throughout the rev range. An 11° valve overlap angle ensures outstandingly punchy torque at low-to-mid-range road riding revs. The Monster 821 clutch is of the oil bath anti-patter type with ultra-low effort cable lever control. Spring load is automatically increased by a progressive self-servo system. The outcome is much better fingertip “feel” at the lever, ensuring excellent comfort when frequent gear changes are needed (e.g. in city traffic) and on long rides. When the rear wheel exerts back-torque, the same mechanism reduces pressure on the clutch discs, activating the anti-patter function and so preventing rear end destabilisation during aggressive downshifting. The Monster 821 exhaust ducts, with a cross-section of 50 mm, form part of a 2-1 system designed with equal lengths for both cylinders to maximise power and delivery efficiency. This system features a lambda probe for each cylinder so that fuelling control is both autonomous and optimal. Stacked dual silencers feature a catalytic converter to ensure compliance with Euro 4 standards while the electronically controlled adjuster valve optimises exhaust pressure throughout the rev range. Frame On the Monster 821 the engine acts as a load-bearing element, the Trellis frame being attached to the cylinder heads. A racing-derived concept, this was first applied on a factory bike with the Panigale project. This configuration results in a highly compact, light frame, while large cross-section tubing gives the high torsional rigidity that is perfect for bringing out the motorcycle’s dynamic performance. Lastly, the double-sided swingarm on the Monster 821 also ensures a compact 1480 mm wheelbase. The rear seat-carrying subframe – also attached directly to the engine – has been redesigned to provide a compact structure that also supports the new passenger footpeg struts. These pegs are separated from the rider’s to ensure greater freedom of movement in sport-style riding. Both rider and passenger footpeg attachments are made of die-cast aluminium and mount aluminium pegs. To underline the Monster 821’s sport pedigree, the rider’s pegs also feature aluminium heel guards. Suspension Up front, the Monster 821 is equipped with a 43 mm fork and, behind, a monoshock with spring pre-load and rebound damping adjustment that makes use of progressive linkage; the shock absorber is attached directly on the vertical cylinder head at one end and on the die-cast aluminium double-sided swingarm at the other. Thanks to firm yet comfortable suspension and an agile chassis geometry, the Monster 821 allows fast changes of direction, putting pure riding pleasure within everyone’s reach. Tyres and wheels The Monster 821 is equipped with light 10-spoke alloy wheels, 3.5 x 17” up front and 5.5 x 17” at the rear, mounting Pirelli DIABLO ROSSO™ III tyres, 120/70 up front and 180/55 at the rear. The rear bi-compound tyre contains high percentages of silica. Whatever the road conditions, whether dry or wet, grip is excellent, which means outstanding sport-style handling. DIABLO ROSSO™ III tyres offer unmatched performance and long-lasting quality, ensuring constant performance throughout their life cycle. Braking system The Monster 821 features top-drawer brakes. Up front it mounts twin Brembo M4-32 4-piston monobloc calipers that grip 320 mm discs and an axial-pump brake lever with incorporated fluid reservoir. At the rear, instead, is a single 245 mm disc gripped by a Brembo caliper; like the front brake, it features enhanced-efficiency sintered brake pads. These components ensure top-notch braking performance, a feature that has always been a Ducati hallmark. Ducati Safety Pack (DSP) The Monster 821 features Ducati Riding Mode technology. This incorporates the 3-level ABS system and 8-level DTC that, together, make up the DSP (Ducati Safety Pack) which optimises vehicle control and enhances ride safety. Bosch ABS System To ensure ‘monstrous’ yet safe braking power, the Monster 821 is equipped, as standard, with the Bosch 9.1MP ABS system with integrated pressure sensor. A key element of the Ducati Safety Pack (DSP), it combines state-of-the-art safety with superlative stopping power. Thanks to integration with the Riding Modes, the system provides shorter stopping distances with enhanced stability in any riding condition. While system level 1 enables sport-oriented ABS intervention with no rear lift-up prevention, level 2 delivers the same intervention with moderate rear lift-up prevention. Lastly, the highest level 3 setting provides exceptional braking stability and maximum rear wheel lift-up prevention. Ducati Traction Control (DTC) An integral part of the Ducati Safety Pack, the DTC system acts as an intelligent “filter” between the rider’s right hand and the rear tyre. It lets the rider select one of eight different intervention levels. Each of the three Riding Modes has default DTC levels but these can be personalised to suit individual riders’ styles and road conditions. Ducati Riding Modes Ducati Riding Modes were a motorcycle engineering milestone, letting riders select – depending on the model – different settings that tailor motorcycle behaviour to individual riding styles and differing road conditions: Sport, Touring and Urban. Each Riding Mode is programmed to vary the engine ‘character’ (Power Modes) and the ABS and DTC intervention levels instantaneously, even on the go. The available modes stem from a combination of cutting-edge technologies. Electronic Ride-by-Wire (RbW) uses the innovative Ducati e-Grip system to manage different mappings and adjust power delivery (Power Modes), while Ducati Traction Control (DTC) features eight levels of system interaction to enhance control by reducing rear wheel spin. Lastly, the ABS system, designed to prevent wheel lock during braking, offers three different intervention levels. Sport Sport Riding Mode delivers 109 hp of power with direct RbW throttle twist response, reduced DTC intervention, level 1 ABS braking efficiency and rear wheel lift detection disabled. Touring Touring Riding Mode delivers 109 hp of engine power with a more progressive RbW throttle twist response, increased DTC intervention, level 2 ABS braking efficiency and moderate rear wheel lift control. Urban Urban Riding Mode delivers a maximum power of 75 hp with progressive RbW throttle twist response; DTC is set to an even higher intervention level and the ABS is set to level 3, maximising braking stability and wheel lift-up prevention. Ducati Quick Shift (DQS) up/down Monster 821 accessories include Ducati Quick Shift (DQS) up/down, a race-derived electronic system that lets riders up-change without using the clutch and without having to close the throttle and down-change without operating the clutch, just closing the throttle. It consists of a two-way microswitch built into the linkage of the gear change lever; when actuated, it sends a signal to the ECU. The system works differently for upshifts and downshifts, integrating adjustment of spark advance and injection during upshifts with an auto-blipper function during downshifts. Extent and duration of system operation are defined to ensure seamless gear meshing under all ride conditions. When accelerating the DQS saves precious fractions of a second that would otherwise be lost in closing the throttle and acting on the clutch: moreover, stability is improved as power delivery is absent for less time. When downshifting during braking, the DQS system allows smooth, clutchless gear engagement, letting riders focus on braking and corner entry. This system not only boosts the enjoyment of sports riding: it also lends a welcome hand in city traffic or on winding roads requiring frequent gear changes. Colour TFT instrumentation The Monster 821 instrument panel has a colour TFT display that shows selected gear and fuel level. Now repositioned to allow easier daytime reading, the display has three different configurations, each designed to show information that is best suited to certain riding situations. All three screen configurations show the currently selected gear. In Urban Riding Mode, the display adopts the Core configuration, minimising the shown data: ideal for downtown riding. The clearest information is vehicle speed, displayed in the centre of the screen, while the selected gear is shown on the right. In Touring Riding Mode, the display changes completely and goes to the Full configuration to display as much useful travelling info as possible. In Sport Riding Mode, the display adopts the Track configuration, providing only information related to sport riding. The rev counter graphic is reset with a Superbike-style layout. The TFT control panel on the Monster 821 can be personalised and the rider can choose the display mode regardless of the selected Riding Mode. Moreover, the Monster 821 instrument panel is ready to display info related to the Ducati Multimedia System (DMS); the latter lets riders connect their smartphones via the Bluetooth module (available as an accessory) and control some of its functions via the switchgears. The panel displays music player controls and earphone connection, incoming call and received message status icons. Moreover, the Monster 821 has an under-seat USB port to recharge smartphones and other devices. Headlight and indicators On the Monster 821 the headlight provides a powerful halogen light source and features LED “horseshoe” side lights, a feature on all Ducati naked bikes. LED lighting is also incorporated at the rear. Moreover, the Monster 821 has a Hazard lights function, activated by pressing the left indicator switch for four seconds. 2019 Ducati Monster 821 – Totalmotorcycle.com USA Specifications/Technical DetailsUS MSRP Price: starting at $11,995 USDCanada MSRP Price: starting at $13,395 CDNEurope/UK MSRP Price: starting at £9,895 GBP (On The Road inc 20% Vat)Australia MSRP Price: See Dealer for Pricing in AU Engine TYPE Testastretta 11°, L-Twin, 4 Desmodromically actuated valves per cylinder, Water cooled DISPLACEMENT 821 cc (50.1 cu in) BORE X STROKE 88 x 67.5 mm (3.46 x 2.66 in) COMPRESSION RATIO 12.8:1 POWER* 80 kW (109 hp) @ 9,250 rpm TORQUE* 86 Nm (8.8 kgm / 63 lb-ft ) @ 7,750 rpm FUEL INJECTION Electronic fuel injection system, Ø 53 mm throttle bodies, Full Ride-by-Wire EXHAUST 2-1 system, Two lambda probes, Stainless steel muffler with aluminium end cap * The power/torque values indicated are measured using an engine dynamometer according to homologation regulation and they correspond to the homologated data, as quoted in the Bike Registration Document. Transmission GEARBOX 6 speed PRIMARY DRIVE Straight cut gears, Ratio 1.85:1 RATIO 1=37/15, 2=30/17, 3=28/20, 4=26/22, 5=24/23, 6=23/24 FINAL DRIVE Chain drive, Front sprocket Z15, Rear sprocket Z46 CLUTCH Slipper and self-servo wet multiplate clutch with mechanical control Chassis FRAME Tubular steel trellis frame linked to cylinder heads FRONT SUSPENSION Ø 43 mm usd fork FRONT WHEEL 10-spoke light alloy, 3.5″ x 17″ FRONT TYRE 120/70 ZR 17 Pirelli Diablo Rosso III REAR SUSPENSION Progressive linkage with adjustable monoshock, Aluminium double-sided swingarm REAR WHEEL 10-spoke light alloy, 5.5″ x 17″ REAR TYRE 180/55 ZR17 Pirelli Diablo Rosso III WHEEL TRAVEL (FRONT/REAR) 130 mm /140 mm (5.12 in / 5.51 in) FRONT BRAKE 2 x Ø 320 mm semi-floating discs, radially mounted monobloc Brembo M4-32 callipers, 4-piston, axial pump with Bosch ABS as standard equipment REAR BRAKE Ø 245 mm disc, 2-piston calliper with Bosch ABS as standard equipment INSTRUMENTATION TFT colour display Dimensions and weight DRY WEIGHT 180,5 kg (398 lb) WET WEIGHT (NO FUEL) 195 kg (430 lb) SEAT HEIGHT Adjustable 785 mm – 810 mm (30.91 in – 31.89 in) WHEELBASE 1,480 mm (58.27 in) RAKE 24,3° TRAIL 93.2 mm (3.67 in) FUEL TANK CAPACITY 16.5 l (4.36 US gal) NUMBER OF SEATS 2 Standard equipment STANDARD EQUIPMENT Riding Modes, Power Modes, Ducati Safety Pack (Bosch ABS + Ducati Traction Control DTC), Ride-by-Wire, TFT colour display, Passenger seat cover.Up&down Quickshift (DQS), Anti-theft system, Ducati Data Analyzer (DDA) ready. Warranty WARRANTY 24 months, Unlimited mileage MAINTEINANCE SERVICE INTERVALS 15,000 km (9,000 mi) / 12 months VALVE CLEARANCE CHECK 30,000 km (18,000 mi) 2019 Ducati Monster 821 – Totalmotorcycle.com Canada Specifications/Technical Details EngineTypeTestastretta 11°, L-Twin, 4 Desmodromically actuated valves per cylinder, Water cooledDisplacement821 cc (50.1 cu in)Bore x Stroke88 x 67.5 mm (3.46 x 2.66 in)Compression ratio12.8:1Power80 kW (109 hp) @ 9,250 rpm *Torque86 Nm (8.8 kgm / 63 lb-ft ) @ 7,750 rpm ** The power/torque values indicated are measured using an engine dynamometer according to homologation regulation and they correspond to the homologated data, as quoted in the Bike Registration Document.Fuel injectionElectronic fuel injection system, Ø 53 mm throttle bodies, Full Ride-by-WireExhaust2-1 system, Two lambda probes, Stainless steel muffler with aluminium end cap Transmission Gearbox6 speedPrimary driveStraight cut gears, ratio 1.85:1Ratio1=37/15 2=30/17 3=28/20 4=26/22 5=24/23 6=23/24Final driveChain drive, Front sprocket Z15, Rear sprocket Z46ClutchSlipper and self-servo wet multiplate clutch with mechanical control Chassis FrameTubular steel trellis frame linked to cylinder headsFront suspensionØ 43 mm usd forkFront wheel10-spoke light alloy, 3.5″ x 17″Front Tyre120/70 ZR 17 Pirelli Diablo Rosso IIIRear suspensionProgressive linkage with adjustable monoshock, Aluminium double-sided swingarmRear wheel10-spoke light alloy, 5.5″ x 17″Rear tyre180/55 ZR17 Pirelli Diablo Rosso IIIFront wheel travel130 mm (5.12in)Rear wheel travel140 mm (5.51 in)Front brake2 x Ø 320 mm semi-floating discs, radially mounted monobloc Brembo M4-32 callipers, 4-piston, axial pump with Bosch ABS as standard equipmentRear brakeØ 245 mm disc, 2-piston calliper with Bosch ABS as standard equipmentInstrumentationTFT colour display Dimensions and weight Dry weight180,5 kg (398 lb)Weight data refers to the dry weight of the motorcycle without battery, lubricants and coolants for liquid-cooled models.Wet weight (KERB)206 kg (454 lb)Kerb weights indicate total bike weight with all operating consumable liquids and a fuel tank filled to 90% of capacity (as per EC standard 93/93).Seat heightAdjustable 785 mm – 810 mm (30.91 in – 31.89 in)Wheelbase1,480 mm (58.27 in)Rake24,3°Trail93.2 mm (3.67 in)Fuel tank capacity16.5 l (4.36 US gal)Number of seats2 Equipments Standard Equipmen Riding Modes, Power Modes, Ducati Safety Pack (Bosch ABS + Ducati Traction Control DTC), Ride-by-Wire, TFT colour display, Passenger seat cover. Up&down Quickshift (DQS), Anti-theft system, Ducati Data Analyzer (DDA) ready. Warranty Warranty 24 months unlimited mileageMaintenance service intervals 15,000 km (9,000 mi) / 12 monthsValve clearance check 30.000km (18,000m) 2019 Ducati Monster 821 – Totalmotorcycle.com European Specifications/Technical Details Engine Type Testastretta 11°, L-Twin, 4 Desmodromically actuated valves per cylinder, Water cooled Displacement 821 cc (50.1 cu in) Bore x Stroke 88 x 67.5 mm (3.46 x 2.66 in) Compression ratio 12.8:1 Power 80 kW (109 hp) @ 9,250 rpm * Torque 86 Nm (8.8 kgm / 63 lb-ft ) @ 7,750 rpm * * The power/torque values indicated are measured using an engine dynamometer according to homologation regulation and they correspond to the homologated data, as quoted in the Bike Registration Document. Fuel injection Electronic fuel injection system, Ø 53 mm throttle bodies, Full Ride-by-Wire Exhaust 2-1 system, Two lambda probes, Stainless steel muffler with aluminium end cap Transmission Gearbox 6 speed Primary drive Straight cut gears, ratio 1.85:1 Ratio 1=37/15 2=30/17 3=28/20 4=26/22 5=24/23 6=23/24 Final drive Chain drive, Front sprocket Z15, Rear sprocket Z46 Clutch Slipper and self-servo wet multiplate clutch with mechanical control Chassis Frame Tubular steel trellis frame linked to cylinder heads Front suspension Ø 43 mm usd fork Front wheel 10-spoke light alloy, 3.5″ x 17″ Front Tyre 120/70 ZR 17 Pirelli Diablo Rosso III Rear suspension Progressive linkage with adjustable monoshock, Aluminium double-sided swingarm Rear wheel 10-spoke light alloy, 5.5″ x 17″ Rear tyre 180/55 ZR17 Pirelli Diablo Rosso III Front wheel travel 130 mm (5.12in) Rear wheel travel 140 mm (5.51 in) Front brake 2 x Ø 320 mm semi-floating discs, radially mounted monobloc Brembo M4-32 callipers, 4-piston, axial pump with Bosch ABS as standard equipment Rear brake Ø 245 mm disc, 2-piston calliper with Bosch ABS as standard equipment Instrumentation TFT colour display Dimensions and weight Dry weight 180,5 kg (398 lb) Weight data refers to the dry weight of the motorcycle without battery, lubricants and coolants for liquid-cooled models. Wet weight (KERB) 206 kg (454 lb) Kerb weights indicate total bike weight with all operating consumable liquids and a fuel tank filled to 90% of capacity (as per EC standard 93/93). Seat height Adjustable 785 mm – 810 mm (30.91 in – 31.89 in) Wheelbase 1,480 mm (58.27 in) Rake 24,3° Trail 93.2 mm (3.67 in) Fuel tank capacity 16.5 l (4.36 US gal) Number of seats 2 Equipment Riding Modes, Power Modes, Ducati Safety Pack (Bosch ABS + Ducati Traction Control DTC), Ride-by-Wire, TFT colour display, Passenger seat cover. Up&down Quickshift (DQS), Anti-theft system, Ducati Data Analyzer (DDA) ready. Warranty 24 months unlimited mileage Maintenance service intervals 15,000 km (9,000 mi) / 12 months Valve clearance check 30.000km (18,000m) Emissions and Consumption Euro 4 CO2 Emissions – Consumption 125 g/km – 5.4 l/100 km 2019 Ducati Monster 821 – Totalmotorcycle.com Australian Specifications/Technical Details Manufacturer Specifications and appearance are subject to change without prior notice on Total Motorcycle (TMW).
A Rajputana Touch to Bike Customization 

Rajputana Customs recently officially customized a Ducati Monster 797 to celebrate the legendary model's 25 years December 2, 2018 3 min read You're reading Entrepreneur India, an international franchise of Entrepreneur Media. Sometimes things fall into place, sometimes they don’t. For Vijay Singh Ajairajpura, founder of Rajputana Customs (RC) — one of India’s leading bike customization shop — it was no different. After graduating from Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada in June 2009 with a degree in mass communication, Singh took a gratuitous decision to follow a different path altogether. And everything fell into place. After returning, Singh was toying with the idea of joining his family business. He had a few months to kill, an unregistered Royal Enfield engine and an unrelenting passion for motorcycles. That’s when he conceptualized his first customized bike ‘Original Gangster’, which was showcased at the New Delhi Auto Expo in 2010. Soon after that Singh opened a shop of his own, and till date he has worked with Harley Davidson, Triumph, Royal Enfield among others. The motive, however, was not to earn profits but to enjoy what he does. “We make bikes because we enjoy it. The day you remove the element of fun, we’ll give up this job,” he quips. THE VISION The company’s style, attention to detail and the amount of time spent on each bike is what makes Rajputana Customs idiosyncratic in the market. “Some bikes have remained in my shop for 5 years,” he says. When it comes to the designing process, Singh believes that one needs to have a conversation with the bike more than anything to get the perfect design. “She tells a story, according to which we decide how to customize it,” Singh says. Biking is rooted deep in Singh’s ancestry; his grand uncle headed Jaipur Motorcycle Club (JMC) in 1975, which is India’s first motorcycle club. DESIGN INNOVATION Bike customization’s popularity has burgeoned over the years. Rajputana Customs recently achieved another milestone by customizing a Ducati Monster 797 in association with the motorcycle giant to celebrate the legendary model’s 25 years. The custom-built Monster, according to Singh was perfect in its own right and only required trifle brush-ups with aluminum finish paint job, a custom-built fuel tank, but no mechanical changes. Naked frames, hard tails, awe-inspiring paint job and contemporary leather work with a vintage feel is what makes their work stand out. On an average the company is customizing six bikes a year. BUSINESS MODEL Rajputana Customs gives a whole new outlook to bikes at a price of Rs 95,000 to Rs 8 lakh or more as per the customization demand. They follow a fluid and organic path, which does entails mishaps at times but often leads to “miracles” in the form of some eccentric motorcycles. They are also offering an interactive six-day training program to acquaint bike customization enthusiasts with everything related to bikes.

2011 Ducati Monster 796 Project Bike Part I 

February 17, 2011 
 Digital Media Producer | Articles | Articles RSS
 Cinematographer, Video Editor, Photographer and Semi-Pro iPhone gamer; Our Digital Media Producer isn't happy unless he's trying to do it all. When he's not behind a camera lens or hunkered down in an edit bay, he's been known to put a few bikes through their paces too. 
 Sport or standard? 600 or 1000? Flat Black or Daytona Red? Picking out your first motorcycle is a daunting task, and if you’re like me, you would probably lean toward the more sensible option for a first set of wheels. But what if you had the chance to throw caution to the wind and go with the louder, more expensive and slightly irresponsible option? Would you take it? I sure as hell would. That’s why I picked out the new Ducati Monster 796 for my beginner long-term test. The Monster 796 is the big brother to Ducati’s baseline Monster 696, but still within the realm of an entry-level machine. As such, I wanted to see what it would be like starting a motorcycle lifestyle aboard this decidedly more charismatic beginner bike. Is it worth shelling out the extra $3000 compared to Suzuki’s Gladius or Kawasaki’s ER-6N? We’ve already reviewed this new Ducati in the 2011 Ducati Monster 796 First Ride but in this long-term test we’ll put it in the hands of a true beginner (me) to see if this naked Italian is too much for a newbie to handle. As a new rider, I plan on using a motorcycle mostly for commuting with the occasional canyon ride for kicks. As such, my first course of action was to log a few hundred commuter miles to see how the 796 holds up. The 20-mile commute to the MotoUSA office was the perfect daily jaunt. Firing up the engine, the first thing I noticed was the awesome raspy, throaty sound of the 803cc L-Twin. Pulling out of the driveway and cracking open the throttle, the 796 is noticeably faster than other Japanese 650-class bikes I’ve ridden, but the smooth torque curve keeps it from being too intimidating. However, for a street machine, the gearing feels a little on the tall side. In the parking lot, the bike won’t roll at less than 10 mph unless you feather the clutch. Conversely, you can hit freeways speeds in third or fourth gear, with top gear only needed for triple-digit cruising. In our previous reviews test riders complained about the clunky transmission engagement, but after riding the Monster for about a month, it didn’t really annoy me and I actually like the Duc’s quirks. The gearbox resists slotting into neutral when stopped, but it will hit it every time if you click it while still rolling as you come to a stop. I have yet to miss a shift or hit a false neutral either. So while the 796’s transmission isn’t perfect, it’s far from being a deal-breaker. While it’s much more fun to talk about the engine, the brakes are a more crucial asset to the beginner rider. Luckily, the Monster 796 has an exceptional set of binders for an entry-level ride. With dual four-piston Brembos up front and a single dual-piston out back, the 796 has plenty of stopping power. On the frequent occasion where I would grab too much, the Monster’s standard anti-lock braking system made sure the tires didn’t break loose. While there was some pulsing feedback at the lever, the 796’s ABS brought me to a smooth stop no matter how hard I mashed the brakes. Although smaller test riders usually feel more comfortable in the 796’s cockpit, it wasn’t too cramped for my lanky 6’5” frame. The concave sides of the fuel tank leave room for long legs and knees, and the aggressive riding position is far from torturous like its big brother the Ducati 1198 Superbike. Overall, the ergonomics are well within the range to be acceptable for a new rider. So far the Ducati Monster 796 has been an exceptional bike to learn the ropes. Is it worth the extra cash? If you’re looking for a slightly more advanced entry-level bike that you can grow into, and don’t mind turning a few heads in the process, the charismatic 796 seems worthwhile investment. But we’ve still got more testing to do. In the future installments of this long-term project, we’ll be taking the 796 through the MSF safety course to see how it fares in a classroom setting. Then we might even bolt on some upgrades and make some tweaks to the suspension and gearing, so stay tuned!

Grave concern for electoral monitors facing jail in Spain 

Following the decision of four Catalan political prisoners to go on hunger strike Report, theguardianm, 4 December, we write to draw attention to the plight of many others who remain under the radar of international attention. As academics in the fields of political science, law and other disciplines, we are particularly concerned about the decision by the Spanish judiciary to prosecute two political science scholars and two law scholars based at three different universities in Barcelona. The four academics, Jordi Matas, Tània Verge, Marc Marsal and Josep Pagès along with a lawyer Marta Alsina were appointed members of the electoral commission in September 2017 by the parliament of Catalonia to monitor the 1 October 2017 referendum. Even though the Spanish constitutional court forced them to resign through fines of €12,000 per person for each day that they remained in their position, the Spanish judiciary has charged the electoral monitors with the offences of “disobedience” and “usurpation of functions” and they are facing the very real possibility of up to two years and nine months in prison. It is probably the first time in the history of the EU that political scientists and lawyers are being threatened with a prison sentence for using their expertise to guarantee that a referendum is held in a fair and impartial way. In doing so, they acted at the request of the parliament of Catalonia, which had a valid legal mandate at the time. While we do not take a position on the question of Catalonia’s independence in this letter, we are indignant over the prosecution of our colleagues and demand the immediate removal of the threat of a prison sentence and the dropping of all criminal charges against them.Monica Clua-Losada University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, USA, David Whyte University of Liverpool, UK, Noam Chomsky MIT, USA, Yanis Varoufakis University of Athens, Greece, Alain-G Gagnon Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada, Jane Mansbridge Harvard Kennedy School, USA, Fiona MacKay University of Edinburgh, Scotland, Bart Maddens Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium, Meryl Kenny University of Edinburgh, Scotland, Angela Wilson On behalf of the Political Studies Association of the United Kingdom, UK, Lars-Erik Cederman ETH Zürich – International Conflict Research, Switzerland, James Galbraith University of Texas at Austin, USA, Jill Vickers Carleton University, Canada, Mona Lena Krook Rutgers University, USA, Shirin Rai University of Warwick, UK, Joan Ramon Resina Stanford University, USA, Pablo Beramendi Duke University, USA, Carles Boix Princeton University, USA, Louise Chappell University of New South Wales, Australia, Sarah Childs Birkbeck College, University of London, UK, Klaus Detterbeck Universität Göttingen, Germany, Mario Diani University of Trento, Italy, David Farrell University College Dublin, Ireland, André Freire ISCTE-IUL, Lisbon, Portugal, Jonathan Hopkin London School of Economics and Political Science, UK, John Kincaid Lafayette College, USA, Joni Lovenduski Birkbeck College, University of London, UK, Shirin Rai University of Warwick, UK, Joan Ramon Resina Stanford University, USA, Birgit Sauer Universität Wien, Austria, Michael Saward University of Warwick, UK, Klaus Stolz Technische Universität Chemnitz, Germany, Wilfried Swenden University of Edinburgh, Scotland, Linda Trimble University of Alberta, Canada, Ingrid Van Biezen Leiden University, Netherlands, Mieke Verloo Radboud University, Netherlands, Georgina Waylen University of Manchester, UK, Paul Webb University of Sussex, UK, and more than 400 others full list of signatories at comy8k3yc4b • Join the debate – email guardian.letterstheguardianm • Guardian letters – click here to visit gumletters • Do you have a photo you’d like to share with Guardian readers? Click here to upload it and we’ll publish the best submissions in the letters spread of our print edition
Spain's Sabadell aims to strengthen TSB to make acquisitions 

FILE PHOTO: A sign is displayed outside a branch of the TSB bank in central London March 12, 2015. REUTERSNeil Hall MADRID Reuters - Sabadell SABE.MC wants its British unit TSB to start buying other businesses once it has cleared up the fallout from an IT meltdown, a spokesman for the Spanish group said on Friday. Chairman Josep Oliu had said on Thursday Sabadell would in January present a plan to turn around TSB, which suffered a technology failure this year that will cost it some 320 million euros 285.16 million pounds. “The aim is that TSB enters into a process of consolidation in the future in Britain,” Oliu said at an event in New York. “We will need at least two years for this. Afterwards we will enter into the consolidation process.” His words prompted speculation Sabadell could look to sell TSB, whose chief executive Paul Pester resigned after a botched system switch locked nearly two million customers out of online banking services and led to a surge in fraud. But a spokesman denied any plan to sell TSB, saying instead Sabadell wanted to beef it up by buying other assets, adding that the British unit was Sabadell’s “reason for being”. “Once we have got past the IT problems, our priority is to deploy more modern and efficient platforms in Britain, to be an important player in the small and medium-sized business market,” the spokesman said. Shares in Sabadell were trading 0.6 percent higher at 1054 GMT compared with a 1.1 percent rise in Spain’s IBEX index. Reporting by Tomás Cobos and Isla Binnie; Editing by Jason Neely and David Holmes

Odd weekend in Spain: All eyes on Copa Libertadores final 

AP Published 6:42 a.m. ET Dec. 6, 2018 A Boca Juniors fan dressed as Maradona cheers outside the team's hotel in Madrid, Spain, Wednesday, Dec. 5, 2018. The Copa Libertadores Final will be played on Dec. 9 in Spain at Real Madrid's stadium for security reasons after River Plate fans attacked the Boca Junior team bus heading into the Buenos Aires stadium for the meeting of Argentina's fiercest soccer rivals last Saturday. AP PhotoPaul White The MADRID AP — The big-match buzz in Madrid and around the country has nothing to do with Spain's "clasico." It's all about Argentina's "superclasico." The most anticipated match of the weekend will feature Buenos Aires rivals Boca Juniors and River Plate at the Santiago Bernabeu Stadium in the second leg of the final of the Copa Libertadores, South America's equivalent of the Champions League. The match — dubbed "The Game of the Century" — was brought to Spain after the second leg was marred by fan violence in Buenos Aires, forcing South American soccer body CONMEBOL to postpone the game twice before deciding to play outside Argentina because of security concerns. "Hopefully this match at the Bernabeu will help bring a positive end to this final," said Real Madrid coach Santiago Solari, a former River Plate midfielder. The teams drew 2-2 in the first leg at Boca's La Bombonera Stadium. Spanish league matches will go ahead as planned this weekend, with Real Madrid playing at last-place Huesca about four hours before the Copa Libertadores final at the Bernabeu. Barcelona, Madrid's "clasico" rival, will defend its lead in the Catalan derby against Espanyol on Saturday. Boca Juniors had its first practice session in the Spanish capital on Thursday at the training center of Spain's national team, while River Plate used Real Madrid's training facilities. It's the first time the "superclasico" rivals have met in the Copa Libertadores final, and the first time the competition's deciding match will be played outside South America. Several cities around the world wanted to host the high-profile match, including Paris and Doha, Qatar. But Madrid was picked after Real Madrid president Florentino Perez talked to CONMEBOL president Alejandro Dominguez and offered the Bernabeu. The Spanish capital is home to one of the largest Argentine populations outside Argentina, and officials felt the city's rich soccer tradition would help keep interest in the game. The final prompted changes in the city, including the implementation of extra security measures ahead of the expected arrival of tens of thousands of Argentine fans, but the Spanish league made no changes to its calendar. Second-place Sevilla visits Valencia on Saturday, while third-place Atletico Madrid hosts fourth-place Alaves at Wanda Metropolitano Stadium. Other Sunday matches include Eibar vs. Levante and Real Sociedad vs. Valladolid. Real Betis will host Rayo Vallecano in Seville in a game beginning at about the same time as the Copa Libertadores final in Madrid. The match between Madrid clubs Leganes and Getafe will be on Friday. Barcelona has a one-point lead over Sevilla, which is two points in front of Atletico. Real Madrid, in fifth, is five points off the lead after 14 matches. ___ More AP soccer:
Spain braces for hooligans ahead of South American 'Superclasico' 

ReutersJAVIER BARBANCHO Boca Juniors arrive in Madrid ahead of Copa Libertadores final By Richard Martin ReutersJAVIER BARBANCHO Fans arrive in Madrid for Copa Libertadores final MADRID Reuters - Spanish authorities are expecting between 400 and 500 potentially violent fans for Sunday's Copa Libertadores final between River Plate and Boca Juniors which was moved to Madrid after trouble in Argentina. ReutersJAVIER BARBANCHO Fans arrive in Madrid for Copa Libertadores final Four thousand security personnel, between police and private forces, will be on duty watching for troublemakers at Sunday's game between the Argentine arch-rivals at Real Madrid's Santiago Bernabeu stadium. ReutersMARCOS BRINDICCI Fans of Boca Juniors display a banner with the team's colours before their departure to Spain to attend the Copa Libertadores final against River Plate, at Ezeiza airport in Buenos Aires After a 2-2 draw in the first leg of the South American club final, the return game was originally scheduled for Nov. 24 at River's Monumental stadium in Buenos Aires. ReutersMARCOS BRINDICCI A Boca Juniors fan walks wearing the team's flag over his shoulders, at Ezeiza airport in Buenos Aires But it was postponed twice then moved 10,000 kilometres 6,000 miles to the Spanish capital after fans ambushed Boca's team bus on arrival, injuring several players. "Police are working closely with Argentine forces. There are a group of between 400 and 500 people who are especially violent," local government delegate Jose Manuel Rodriguez Uribes told a news conference on Friday. "We are working on establishing maximum security at the airport, the roads, bus stations and metro stations to detect violent people and those who have criminal records." One well-known Boca Juniors hooligan was deported from Madrid's international airport on Wednesday, though the leader of the team's most hard core gang has been cleared to travel. The clubs have been given 25,000 tickets each: 20,000 for fans in Europe and 5,000 for supporters crossing the Atlantic for the 'Superclasico' between Argentina's biggest clubs. Argentina's largest diaspora is in Spain, 250,000 people. Boca forward Carlos Tevez said Spain was right to apply a zero tolerance policy to violence though he believed this game would go ahead without major incident. "It's important Spain are making an example of the 'barra bravas' gangs and are cracking down," he told reporters at Boca's base at the Spanish national team's headquarters. "I think people are smart, they know they can't cause trouble here and everything should happen peacefully. It's important for everyone involved to know that while it is a final, of course, it is a football match." Police will seek to keep rival fans apart and will close Paseo de la Castellana, a main road from the city centre to the stadium, Madrid official Rodriguez said. "We hope this is a day of celebration," he said. Reporting by Richard Martin; Editing by Andrew Cawthorne
Spain braces for violent fans ahead of Copa Libertadores final 

A group of 400 to 500 "especially violent" fans from Argentina are expected to make the trip to Madrid for this weekend's Copa Libertadores final between River Plate and Boca Juniors, Spanish authorities said Friday. Officials said almost 4,000 security personnel will be deployed for Sunday's match, nearly double the number used in the "clasicos" between Real Madrid and Barcelona. The government official overseeing the city's security plans for the "high risk" match said police will remain on high alert to detect and keep track of fans who could potentially cause problems before, during and after the final at Santiago Bernabeu Stadium. "The national police is working closely with the Argentine police," Jose Manuel Rodriguez Uribes told Cadena SER radio on Friday. "We are working with the maximum security level at the airport, highways, bus stops and subway stations." One Boca Juniors fan known to be a leader of a supporters' group was not allowed to enter the country after arriving in Madrid on Thursday. He was sent back to Argentina after authorities said he had a long criminal record. Tens of thousands of Argentines are expected to come to Spain to watch Sunday's final, which was moved to Madrid after fan violence marred the second leg in Buenos Aires two weeks ago. Boca Juniors players were injured before the match when River fans attacked the Boca team bus with rocks, bottles and wood. The first leg, played in Buenos Aires, ended in a 2-2 draw. Nearly 80,000 fans are expected at the Bernabeu on Sunday. Each club was granted 25,000 tickets and authorities will try to keep them separated throughout the day. They will be positioned at opposite sides of the Bernabeu, behind each goal. Separate fan zones will be available for supporters from each club. Several security layers will be implemented near the stadium, with large vehicles being kept from circulating close to the venue. The Bernabeu is located in a heavily populated area of the Spanish capital. Title celebrations would take part in different areas of the city. River fans would go to the Plaza de Colon, while Boca supporters would go to the Plaza de Cibeles, known for Real Madrid's title celebrations. Madrid officials estimate the Copa Libertadores final will generate a positive economic impact of nearly 40 million euros $45 million to the city. Get to know all 26 winners of the Ballon d'Or, from Sir Stanley Matthews to Zinedine Zidane, Cristiano Ronaldo, Lionel Messi and, most recently, Luka Modric. Juan Pimiento CAPTION The U.S. men's national team has a new coach, North London and Liverpool enjoyed dramatic derbies, La Liga's title race undergoes another change and more this weekend. The U.S. men's national team has a new coach, North London and Liverpool enjoyed dramatic derbies, La Liga's title race undergoes another change and more this weekend. CAPTION Bastian Schweinsteiger made an announcement about his future, PSG came up big against Liverpool, 11 teams advanced to the next round of the UEFA Champions League and more. Bastian Schweinsteiger made an announcement about his future, PSG came up big against Liverpool, 11 teams advanced to the next round of the UEFA Champions League and more. CAPTION A weekend hit by the tragic passing of Leicester's owner also featured Barcelona's commanding win of Real Madrid in El Clasico, more questions about Julen Lopetegui's future, MLS Decision Day and more. A weekend hit by the tragic passing of Leicester's owner also featured Barcelona's commanding win of Real Madrid in El Clasico, more questions about Julen Lopetegui's future, MLS Decision Day and more. CAPTION Chicago Fire head coach Veljko Paunovic looked back at the season that ended with a scoreless draw against DC United at Toyota Park Sunday, October 28 Courtesy of the Chicago Fire. Chicago Fire head coach Veljko Paunovic looked back at the season that ended with a scoreless draw against DC United at Toyota Park Sunday, October 28 Courtesy of the Chicago Fire. CAPTION Chicago Fire midfielder Bastian Schweinsteiger analyzes the 2018 campaign after the season finale against DC United on Sunday, October 28 at Toyota Park. Chicago Fire midfielder Bastian Schweinsteiger analyzes the 2018 campaign after the season finale against DC United on Sunday, October 28 at Toyota Park.
Spain 'wolf pack' sex attack gang not rapists, say judges 

Image copyright Images Image caption The "wolf pack" case has sparked protests across Spain and led to an expert panel to review the law on rape A Spanish court's controversial decision to clear five men of gang rape has been upheld by five appeal judges, and the group are now set to go to jail for a lesser offence of sexual abuse. There were protests across Spain when the men, who became known as La manada the wolf pack, were acquitted of rape and then later freed on bail. The appeal judges agreed that the 18-year-old victim was not assaulted as no intimidation or violence was involved. The case now goes to the Supreme Court. "We don't like it," the teenager's lawyer said, after the five judges in the northern Navarre region upheld the nine-year jail terms for abuse. Under current Spanish law, an offence of rape has to involve sexual assault, which includes violence or intimidation. Significantly, two of the five judges said that the attackers had used intimidation to carry out a "continuous offence of sexual assault" and called for 14-year jail terms. But they were outvoted by the other three judges. The case sparked such a wave of revulsion that a committee of experts was formed to reform Spain's penal code on sexual violence. Among those outraged by the verdict was Pedro Sánchez, who has since become prime minister and has promised to introduce a new law on sexual consent. What did the "wolf pack" do? During the San Fermín bull-running festival in July 2016, in the crowded streets of Pamplona, the 18 year old was led to a basement where five men in their late 20s surrounded her and had unprotected sex. Some of the men filmed the attack on their phones and sent it around their WhatsApp chat group entitled "La manada". A police report said the victim maintained a "passive or neutral" attitude throughout the scene, keeping her eyes closed at all times. Why is intimidation so key? By James Badcock, Madrid The appeal court accepts as proven that the "wolf pack" victim did not give consent to sex and that the five men took advantage of circumstances and their own position of superiority to carry out the crime of sexual abuse. But, crucially, the ruling states that abuse of a situation of manifest superiority does not itself constitute intimidation, nor was any act of violence committed. Image copyright Reuters Image caption A picture of the five men in Pamplona was shown during the trial The ruling describes the victim's role as one of "passive suffering" but finds no firm evidence of acts or threats designed to intimidate her. In their words: "The key is the actual nature of the intimidatory act carried out by the active party, rather than the reaction of the victim to it." Essentially, the judges are saying that the men cannot be blamed for her reaction to the situation, even though they were happy to take advantage of the teenager's weak position. Supporters of reform will say the ruling shows why a consent-based rape law is required. How Spain has reacted to latest ruling Pamplona Mayor Joseba Asiron was among several figures to say that an appeal would be lodged against the latest ruling. "There appears to be a very clear gap between society and certain sections of the judiciary," he complained, insisting that all of Pamplona supported the woman. A lawyer acting for four of the convicted men said he too would appeal to the Supreme Court, arguing that what took place was "consensual sex between six adults". The men visited a court in Seville on Wednesday as part of their bail conditions. But Deputy Prime Minister Carmen Calvo said the verdict enhanced the victim's credibility and she drew attention to the two appeal judges who considered that the attack constituted rape rather than abuse. "It's foreseeable that the five convicted men will go to jail immediately," she said. Protest rallies against the appeal decision were being organised on Wednesday evening in Seville, Madrid and other cities.
Spain's Sabadell has no plan to sell TSB, wants it to acquire assets 

MADRID, Dec 7 Reuters - Spain’s Sabadell has no plans to sell its TSB unit and wants the bank to start buying other assets once it has cleared up the fallout from an IT meltdown, a spokesman for the Spanish group said on Friday. Chairman Josep Oliu said on Thursday Sabadell wanted TSB to begin “a process of consolidation” in Britain, prompting speculation it could look to sell the business. But a Sabadell spokesman said on Friday that TSB “is an essential part of Sabadell’s core plan... so an eventual sale is pointless.” Reporting by Tomás Cobos, writing by Isla Binnie
The Spanish Constitution at 40: changes are needed to unite a divided Spain | View 

In the third of our series marking the fortieth anniversary of the ratification of the Spanish Constitution, three more Spanish MEPs offer their thoughts on its legacy; both its successes and failures over the past four decades. Does it need to be updated to be brought into the 21st Century? What are the major challenges facing Spain just now and does the Constitution still offer Spaniards the tools to overcome them? Here is what they told Euronews. Be sure to hear what MEPs of all political shades had to say on the subject in the previous articles in the series. Jordi Solé is a Republican Left of Catalonia Member of the European Parliament Euronews: Do you think that the Spanish Constitution has met the expectations of those who created it and of the Spanish people who validated it in a referendum held 40 years ago? Jordi Solé: Definitely not. It is true that the Spanish Constitution received vast support back in 1978. But this support should be understood more as a support for the emerging democracy than of the actual text. On the contrary, it is now used by the Spanish Government as an argument to justify immobility - and as an excuse to put limits on democratic demands. In recent years, the Catalans in particular have seen how a restrictive and regressive reading of the Constitution has been imposed. While when it comes to defending the Crown and unity of Spain, the Constitution is unquestionable. When it comes to fundamental rights, such as the right to housing or freedom of expression, the Constitution is full of empty words. Euronews: And now, 40 years later, is the Constitution still relevant to the current situation in your country; the tensions related to the Catalan independence movement as well as the place of Spain in the European Union? JS: It is totally relevant! In fact, it has become a cage for many Catalans who want to decide their own future in a peaceful, democratic and binding referendum on self-determination – something that the Spanish government contends the Constitution does not allow. It is because of this restrictive reading of the Constitution that today, Spain celebrates the 40th anniversary of its Constitution with nine Catalan Political prisoners; four of whom are on hunger strike with many others in exile for having organised a referendum on independence. This is tangible proof of the enormous historical failure of this Constitution, which has failed to solve the great challenges facing Spain. Euronews: Do you think that changes should be made to the Spanish Constitution, and if so, what should they be? JS: Indeed, I think most Spaniards would agree that the Spanish Constitution needs to be changed. The problem is that some of them would want to reform it in one way - to make Spain a more modern, more federal, more socially advanced and more respectful towards the internal diversity of the State - while others would like to do exactly the opposite by curtailing rights for citizens and self-government for regions, strengthening the unitary vision of the country and imposing an even more restrictive reading of the text. The only change that would meet the demands of the majority of Catalans would be the inclusion of the right to self-determination. Nevertheless, we want a different model of society and I am convinced this will come only about when Catalonia becomes an independent republic. Beatriz Becerra Basterrechea is an Independent Member of the European Parliament Euronews: Do you think that the Spanish Constitution has met the expectations of those who created it and of the Spanish people who validated it in a referendum held 40 years ago? Beatriz Becerra Basterrechea: Without a doubt, the Constitution has surpassed all expectations. From every point of view, Spain is today a more prosperous country; more democratic, more European and more pluralist than 40 years ago. According to a survey published this week, only 8% of Spaniards have an unfavorable opinion of the Constitution. That is its success; it has achieved consensus over its validity, on its usefulness as the basis to deal with our discrepancies and differences, by accepting a framework of common coexistence. It is not incompatible with future reforms to update it, which would allow us to develop a more egalitarian and efficient State. But this reform should always arise from agreement between constitutionalists maintaining the primordial and never as a reaction to those who want to destroy our constitutional order. Euronews: And now, 40 years later, is the Constitution still relevant to the current situation in your country; the tensions related to the Catalan independence movement as well as the place of Spain in the European Union? BBB: The Catalan problem has nothing to do with the validity of the Constitution. The secessionist challenge is just one more example of the nationalist populism that is sweeping Europe. To respond to the threat posed by separatism, which endangers our coexistence and democracy, a strong Constitution is necessary. Nationalism should not divide us. Through this Constitution, Catalonia has enjoyed very high levels of decentralisation. This Constitution guarantees all the rights claimed by nationalists, such as the right to use the Catalan language. So much so that the various autonomous governments of Catalonia have imposed the language in education and administration, discriminating against Spanish speakers. Last year, a study carried out by academics from the University of Oxford indicated that Spain ranks as the second most decentralised country in the world behind Germany. But the nationalists do not want more self-government; they want secession to craft a homogenised and monolingual Catalonia separated from Europe and the rest of Spain. Under this Constitution, we all fit - not just those who only feel Catalan but those who want to decide once and all to live in equality with all Spaniards. Regarding Europe, the result is unquestionable. This Constitution made it possible for Spain to become part of the EU. And thanks to this Constitution and the astonishing democratic change that it bolstered, Spain is now a prominent partner of the Union: the most pro-European member state today. Euronews: Do you think that changes should be made to the Spanish Constitution, and if so, what should they be? BBB: After 40 years, we should take a serious, sectarian-free and balanced look at updating our Constitution to address the current challenges and correct the deficiencies it has demonstrated. In my opinion, it is necessary to end the current territorial model; to make a more egalitarian State, ending the existing discrimination and inequalities between the Autonomous Communities. The Senate should be abolished or converted into a chamber truly representing these Communities. It is also an opportunity to advance the secularisation of the State, to depoliticise the judicial system to make it more independent of political parties, and end discrimination based on sex in the line of succession to the Crown. And of course, it is also an opportunity to incorporate a more European character, translating the European project into the Constitution. --- Iratxe García Pérez is a Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party PSOE Member of the European Parliament Euronews: Do you think that the Spanish Constitution has met the expectations of those who created it and of the Spanish people who validated it in a referendum held 40 years ago? Iratxe García Pérez: Absolutely, yes. The Spanish Constitution has allowed us to live in a social and democratic State over the last 40 years; as its first article states, in a regime of liberties, political pluralism and peaceful coexistence with the darkest period of our history behind us. ‘La Magna Carta’ has also been the basis of a big social pact that has allowed the modernisation of our economy and the recognition of a series of social rights related to the welfare state. Yes, of course it has fulfilled the expectations of society as a whole. Euronews: And now, 40 years later, is the Constitution still relevant to the current situation in your country; the tensions related to the Catalan independence movement as well as the place of Spain in the European Union? IGP: At the moment, we are facing new threats - not only in Spain but throughout Europe - with nationalist, independence, populist and neo-fascist movements that question our territorial and coexistence model. That is why now, more than ever, we must defend the democratic values of Europe and our Constitution. In point of fact, we find in the Constitution the principles that have allowed the recognition of the self-determination of the different Autonomous Communities and decentralisation of the Central Administration with levels of self-government unusual in other European countries. Any response to these new challenges - including the territorial model - must be constitutional. This does not mean that the Constitution cannot be modified, but that it must be adapted to the plurality and diversity of the country, always within the framework of the rule of law and national sovereignty. This is also foreseen in the text of ‘la Magna Carta’ itself. Euronews: Do you think that changes should be made to the Spanish Constitution, and if so, what should they be? IGP: We socialists in the PSOE believe that, after 40 years of progress and understanding, the Constitution has to be updated to include the changes of the present and to look further into the future. Spain, like the rest of the world, has transformed in the last few decades. There is a ‘to do’ list that we have to undertake, and for that reason we have to reform the Constitution. We need to update the articles on autonomy to solve territorial conflicts; we have to strengthen our environmental commitments; we have to recognize the demands of women and guarantee legal equality; we have to deepen and improve our democratic institutions. These are just some of our priorities. We have to forge a new intergenerational alliance to make our Constitution ready for another 40 years. Opinions expressed in View articles are solely those of the author
Spain braces for some 500 violent fans for Copa Libertadores 

MADRID — A group of 400 to 500 “especially violent” fans from Argentina are expected to make the trip to Madrid for this weekend’s Copa Libertadores final between River Plate and Boca Juniors, Spanish authorities said Friday. Officials said almost 4,000 security personnel will be deployed for Sunday’s match, nearly double the number used in the “clasicos” between Real Madrid and Barcelona. The government official overseeing the city’s security plans for the “high risk” match said police will remain on high alert to detect and keep track of fans who could potentially cause problems before, during and after the final at Santiago Bernabeu Stadium. “The national police is working closely with the Argentine police,” Jose Manuel Rodriguez Uribes told Cadena SER radio on Friday. “We are working with the maximum security level at the airport, highways, bus stops and subway stations.” One Boca Juniors fan known to be a leader of a supporters’ group was not allowed to enter the country after arriving in Madrid on Thursday. He was sent back to Argentina after authorities said he had a long criminal record. Spanish media reported a River fan was also deported on Friday after failing to gain permission to enter the country. Tens of thousands of Argentines are expected to come to Spain to watch Sunday’s final, which was moved to Madrid after fan violence marred the second leg in Buenos Aires two weeks ago. Boca Juniors players were injured before the match when River fans attacked the Boca team bus with rocks, bottles and wood. The first leg, played in Buenos Aires, ended in a 2-2 draw. Nearly 80,000 fans are expected at the Bernabeu on Sunday. Each club was granted 25,000 tickets and authorities will try to keep them separated throughout the day. They will be positioned at opposite sides of the Bernabeu, behind each goal. Separate fan zones will be available for supporters from each club. Several security layers will be implemented near the stadium, with large vehicles being kept from circulating close to the venue. The Bernabeu is located in a heavily populated area of the Spanish capital. Title celebrations would take part in different areas of the city. River fans would go to the Plaza de Colon, while Boca supporters would go to the Plaza de Cibeles, known for Real Madrid’s title celebrations. Madrid officials estimate the Copa Libertadores final will generate a positive economic impact of nearly 40 million euros $45 million to the city. ___ More AP soccer:

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