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Wednesday, April 8, 2020


title:Bifocal Contact Lens Basics



author:Jay Moncliff

source_url:http://www.articlecity.com/articles/health/article_2724.shtml

date_saved:2007-07-25 12:30:11

category:health

article:



As we age, many of us notice that we can’t read as well as we used to. We hold things out further and further, literally at arm’s length, until friends and relatives inevitable begin joking about our arm’s getting shorter.

For many of us, presbyopia is a fact of life.  Simply defined, presbyopia is the inability to focus on items in close range.  This condition is caused by the lens in the eye becoming less and less flexible as we age.  Unfortunately, most of us will need corrective lenses and even bifocals at some point as this condition worsens.

Until recently, bifocal wearers had few options when choosing corrective eyeware.  Glasses with bifocal lenses were the most common option.  Luckily, no-line bifocal lenses were developed, and the glasses became somewhat more attractive.  Some struggled with the “one contact lens” option, called monovision, but this seemed to result in a lot of squinting for the users and usually required a difficult adjustment period.

Recently, bifocal contact lenses have been developed for almost every kind of contact lens on the market.  This advancement is great for the aging population already wearing single vision contacts but needing to “step up” to the bifocal lens.

Bifocal contact lenses work just like bifocal glass lenses do; two powers of glass in each lens provide different focus adjustments, one for far away (distance) and another for close up.  Both adjustments are contained in each contact lens.  Different manufacturers make different types of bifocal lenses, and it may take some experimentation to discover which type is right for you.

Some bifocal contact lenses are made with a concentric design.  Like concentric circles, one adjustment is in the middle of the lens, and the other adjustment is around the outside of the lens.  The two are distinct, with a sharp delineation between the two.  Although they sound difficult to use, most find that they eye will adjust and use the proper ring with a little practice.

Aspheric lenses have a more gradual change between focuses.  Both of the powers are in the area of the pupil, and as with the concentric lens, the eye will adjust and learn to choose the proper focus to use.

The third type of bifocal lens is the translating lens.  Like bifocal glasses, the near correction is near the bottom of the lens and the distance correction is above.  Since these lenses can’t shift in the eye, they are usually made so that they can’t move easily.

Ask your optometrist which type of lens he’d recommend for you.  Since each will take require an adjustment period, be patient.  You may want to research brands and types of lenses before going to your optometrist to decide if you want extended wear, daily disposable lenses or conventional contact lenses.

Whatever type you choose, the new bifocal contact lenses on the market can ensure that aging baby boomers can continue to read without sacrificing style or dignity.



ZZZZZZ

Title:

Big Guy, Big Girl, does it Indirectly mean Fatty



Word Count:

501



Summary:

Being big has its perks but it can also hurt you in the long run. Discover tips on how to remove some extra weight you may not want and feel incredible.





Keywords:

ab workouts, fat loss, ripped abs, tight abs, washboard abs, ab exercises, training, exercising, free ab workouts, home workouts





Article Body:

If you are like me, and friends and family call big guy it usually means your are a bit overweight and indirectly means fatty. If you are sick and tired of it, it time to do something about it and prove some people you are not just a big guy but and intelligent one.  Over the years being big guy has become a huge trend in sports.  Multi billions of dollars spent in advertising featuring, you guessed it, big guys pitching you a new protein bar or super supplement. With all the supplementation products, and TV this for sure proves my point.  If you look at an average person who is a bit overweight, he is considered the big guy of the group.  Some will actually enjoy that title and some will not.  Speaking from experience it is not too hot being called fatty indirectly.



Whenever you decide to take matters into actions and prove people that you can handle this whole big guy thing, you will start noticing peoples reactions immediately.  Being big can mean problems though. Health problems that is.  High cholesterol, Diabetes, Hypertension etc.  Big guys usually encounter some of these or if not more diseases because of their size and shape.  To avoid such problems, lets take are way of thinking and our outlook to life a bit differently.  Start with eating better foods.  Preferably greens and solid complex carbohydrates like; yams, sweet potatoes, grains etc.  Greens will help you balance your PH acidic levels in your body, which will improve your health significantly and you will almost immediately notice your results.



Having a balanced Ph level means improving your health immediately.  Ph of 7 or above means your blood is not as acidic therefore more healthy cells are produced and distributed to your organs.  It has been known that controlling your body's alkalinity will give longevity and healthy organs.



Don't put the down the ever popular protein.  Protein is the fuel to muscle gain and recovery. Although powders and pills are not necessary it may help speed the process.  Increase your protein intake to about 1 gram per 1 pound of your weight.  If you weight 185 lbs, then about 30 grams of protein in the spread of 6 meals for optimum metabolic boost.  Protein may be underestimated now days because of its high impact from the media.  But never abandon it.  Best natural protein resources are from birds; chicken, turkey, fish; tuna, yellow fin, catfish etc.  Stay away from red meat if possible, but if you still want red meat leaner cuts are very effective also.



If you stay consistent with these tips, you will gain muscle and eliminate extra weight you may be carrying.  It is not easy to get started but once you start, like any habit you will create a life changing routines forever and disease will not face you.   Do it for yourself, improve your well being and instead of being called a big guy you can be call a dude or girl with solid ripped abs.





Title:

Biking For Health And Fitness



Word Count:

375



Summary:

There are many different types of bicycles available on the market today, the comfort bicycle, which is used by many recreational bike riders, a trail bike or light duty mountain bike, crusier bikes, recumbent bikes and heavy duty mountain bikes. No matter which type of bike, or biking interests you biking is a great way to increased stamina, improved cardiovascular strength and all around better fitness.



Recumbent bikes have become very popular for the middle aged and old...





Keywords:







Article Body:

There are many different types of bicycles available on the market today, the comfort bicycle, which is used by many recreational bike riders, a trail bike or light duty mountain bike, crusier bikes, recumbent bikes and heavy duty mountain bikes. No matter which type of bike, or biking interests you biking is a great way to increased stamina, improved cardiovascular strength and all around better fitness.



Recumbent bikes have become very popular for the middle aged and older riders. On a recumbent bike you have a very comfortable seat that you can lean back in, quite like sitting in your favorite reclining chair. Your butt is very comfortably cushioned. Your feet are out in front of you, quite like when you're driving your car. Recumbent bikes are the fastest type of bicycle. One reason is that with your legs extended forward and pedaling in front of you, you are able to move much more weight with much less effort than on a conventional bike where your legs are underneath of you. Beginning recumbent riders will tell you it takes a while to develop what are called "recumbent muscles" but once you do you'll never go back to an ordinary bicycle.



Mountain biking is a popular activity that is enjoyed by a wide age range of people. Heavy duty mountain bikes can be quite costly, so it may be best to go to talk to a mountain biking organization about bike rental. You may only decide you need a light duty mountain bike which would also be good for regular riding. Not all mountain biking trails are killers and for experts only - they had to start somewhere too! Mountain biking trails are rated somewhat like ski trails, the easiest is green, an intermediate is blue and difficult trails are pink. Go slowly, mountain biking can be hard on the joints, and you'll need to learn how to handle the bike to minimize chance of injury.



Whichever type of bicycle you choose, just do it! Biking is a great way to achieve an aerobic work out and burn calories at the same time. The best part is that anyone can ride a bike and it's a great family recreation to be enjoyed together.





Title:

Binge Drinking: A Sober Risk for Teenagers



Word Count:

640



Summary:

When it comes to heavy drinking, the phrase “binge drinking” comes to  mind. It used to mean heavy drinking that lasted for days, now, the meaning has changed. To most people, binge drinking brings to mind self-destruction and unrestrained drinking bout lasting for at least a couple of days.





Keywords:

self-destruction, car accidents, overweight and obese, counseling





Article Body:

Liquor stores, bars, and alcoholic beverage companies make drinking seem attractive and fun. It's easy for anyone to get caught up in a social scene with lots of peer pressure. Inevitably, one of the biggest areas of peer pressure, especially among teenagers is drinking.



Many people, especially the youth, don't normally think about the negative side of drinking. Although they think about the consequences of getting drunk, not too much attention is given to the possibility of being hung-over or throwing up. Some people do not know that excessive drinking can lead to loss of  concentration, memory lapses, mood changes, and other problems that could affect their day-to-day life. Even with all the public health warnings, there is still a significant portion of the population that would ignore the more serious and longer-lasting risks of alchohol abuse.



When it comes to heavy drinking, the phrase “binge drinking” comes to mind. The phrase was originally used to refer to heavy drinking that lasted for several days.  Nowadays, the meaning of “binge drinking” has drastically changed. To most people, binge drinking brings to mind self-destruction and unrestrained drinking bout lasting for at least a couple of days during which time the heavily intoxicated drinker drops out by not working, ignoring responsibilities, squandering money, and engaging in other harmful behaviors such as fighting or risky sex. Binge drinking is not only dangerous to the drinker, but to the people around him or her.





According to a recent study issued by the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University in New York, about half of U.S. college students binge drink. The report states that 49 percent of full-time college students ages 18 to 22 binge drink, consuming five or more drinks at a time. The percentage of students who drink remained about even with a similar 1993 report. The statistics show a steady increase in the number of students who engaged in binge drinking. But the proportion of students who binge drink frequently, defined as drinking three or more times over two weeks, rose by 16 percent from 1993 to 2005. Drinking 10 or more times per month rose 25 percent, and drinking three or more times per month rose 26 percent.





Binge drinking impairs judgment, so drinkers are more likely to take risks they might not take when they're sober. They may drive drunk, which then increases the risk of being involved in car accidents. Driving isn't the only motor skill that's impaired, though. Walking is also more difficult while intoxicated. In 2000, roughly one third of pedestrians 16 and older who were killed in traffic accidents were intoxicated. People who are drunk also take other risks they might not normally take when they're sober. For example, people who have impaired judgment may have unprotected sex, putting them at greater risk of a sexually transmitted disease (STD) or unplanned pregnancy.



Studies also show that people who binge-drink throughout high school are more likely to be overweight and obese and have high blood pressure by the time they are 24. Just one regular beer contains about 150 calories, which adds up to a lot of calories if someone drinks four or five beers a night. Some studies have shown that people who binge-drink heavily like those who have three or more episodes of binge drinking in 2 weeks have some of the symptoms of alcoholism.



For teenagers, it can be hard for some of them to talk to adults about these issues, so an alternative person to talk to could be a trusted friend or older sibling. Drinking too much can be the result of social pressures, and sometimes it helps to know there are others who have gone through the same thing. A supportive friend or adult could help one to avoid pressure situations, stop drinking, or find counseling. There will always be someone who can help and put a halt on this dilemma.





Title:

Binge Eating - Men Also At Risk



Word Count:

422



Summary:

Binge Eating Disorder affects just about as many men as it does women, even though the stereotype is that eating disorders are thought to be a women’s disorder.  This stereotype ...





Keywords:

end binge eating, binge eating, binge eating disorder, emotional eating, overeating, binge eating help, binge eating support, health, dieting, weight loss, kristin Gerstley, end binge eating now, end





Article Body:

Binge Eating Disorder affects just about as many men as it does women, even though the stereotype is that eating disorders are thought to be a women’s disorder.  This stereotype is incorrect.  There are 25 million people that struggle daily with Binge Eating Disorder.  Out of that 25 million, you may be surprised to know that 40% are men.  According to Wikipedia.com, this means that three women for every two men suffer from Binge Eating Disorder.



There are different reasons as to why men develop Binge Eating Disorder.  One cause is if they play or played sports sometime in their life that required them to be thin or to lose a lot of weight for a particular competition, such as a wrestling match or running.  Football players and body builders are still at risk, but it is lower since these sports require some meat and muscles in order to be successful.  Another reason is that the chosen profession calls for thinness, such as modeling and acting.  Men feel a pressure, just as women do, to maintain a level of thinness when they are in the public eye and when they are in looked at.



A man is more at risk for developing Binge Eating Disorder at a older age than a woman does, especially if the man had a tendency to be overweight at a child.  This is because growing up a man believes that he needs to be strong and be able to protect not only himself, but also a female.  If he is thin, this translates to fragile and he will see himself as not being powerful and not being able to get the things that he wants in life because he is considered weak.



Treatment for men is the same as women; although, men are more reluctant to visit a professional since eating disorders are considered to be female difficulties.  The professional will go into detail to find out why the man comforts himself with food.  Once the reason why he binges comes to the surface, the professional can give him ideas of how to change his behaviors.  Once this happens and once the man feels comfortable with the professional, then the journey to recovery begins.



Clearly binge eating disorder is not only a female disorder, as many males are affected too.  Regardless of being male or female, it is important to admit that your relationship with food is not healthy and to seek help on how to make it healthy once again.



By: Kristin Gerstley

http://www.endbingeeating.com





Title:

Binge Eating Disorder - An Act Of Overeating



Word Count:

370



Summary:

Most of us do overeat and that should not be a concern. But once the eating gets out of control then it is sign to worry. Binge eating disorder is a condition which has newly come into the limelight as many people including kids are affected by it.



People who suffer from this disorder do not have control over their eating. Food becomes a gateway to suppress their emotion. All your emotions are channelized in one direction which later on creates more problems.



Even thou...





Keywords:

Home remedies for Binge Eating disorder, overeating, depression





Article Body:

Most of us do overeat and that should not be a concern. But once the eating gets out of control then it is sign to worry. Binge eating disorder is a condition which has newly come into the limelight as many people including kids are affected by it.



People who suffer from this disorder do not have control over their eating. Food becomes a gateway to suppress their emotion. All your emotions are channelized in one direction which later on creates more problems.



Even though binge-eating is not a so well-known phenomenon it has got into the mainstream affecting the young generation. Binge eaters are the ones who keep on eating even when they are not hungry, but are acting upon their emotions.



You would know you are a binge eater if



-you happen to eat in too much at one given point of time.

-you are unable to control your emotions when it comes to eating.

-you have no clue how much you have eaten and how much can be eaten.

-your eating tends to become more rapid and fast.

-you tend to cause pain by overeating you

-you feel guilty after eating



Even though there hasn't been any concrete proof on the reasons for binge eating. It has come to notice that people with history of depression are the main victims. Most of the negative emotions end up being binge eating disorder.



Some of the complications you can face by binge eating are



*Type 2 diabetes

*High blood pressure

*High cholesterol level

*Gallbladder problems

*Heart disease

*Weight gain

*Loss of self-esteem



Some methods to fight binge eating



*Congitive-behavioral therapy helps patients to monitor their eating habits and how to overcome them

*Interpersonal psychotherapy tries to know the relationship between family and friends to find the root of the problem

*Treatment with the help of medications to get you out of the depression

*Eating proper three meals a day which is rich in fiber and proteins

*Being around people you like avoid being alone

*Expressing your feelings by talking to friends and family

*Just take a walk or go for jogging if the urge to eat is too much

*Drink plenty of water and keep having nutritious and tasty food





title:Binge Eating is Not Black and White

author:Kristin Gerstley

source_url:http://www.articlecity.com/articles/health/article_4911.shtml

date_saved:2007-07-25 12:30:12

category:health

article:



It’s the little things that you will need to notice and congratulate yourself on when beginning the recovery process of Binge Eating Disorder.  These little things will be the stepping stones to gaining full control over yourself when food is involved.  These tiny stepping stones will prove to you that you are in control, at least somewhat control, of your actions.  It’s time for you to rejoice in them, instead of beating yourself up about why you aren’t fully recovered yet.

Are you someone that binges twice a day for about five days out of the week?  What are your trigger foods that you binge on?  Let’s say that an example day of binging for you includes three bags of chips, one whole cake, one gallon of ice cream, ten cookies, and three sugary, carbonated drinks.  When you start to take notice of you eating less, you need to pat yourself on the back.  Instead of three bags of chips, do you only consume one?  If so, this is a building block for your road to success.  Instead of ten cookies, do you only eat two?  Again, time to congratulate yourself for this accomplishment.

The reason why this is so important for your recovery is because most people see their life as black or white.  Their life is either good or bad, right or wrong, sad or happy.  Who puts these stipulations on us?  Why such extremes?  When you rid yourself of these chains and start living your life in most of the gray area, you will take things as they come and not be so hard on yourself for failing.  Extremes will lead you to failure because it will be highly impossible that you will be able to live that way.

When you can learn to accept yourself, including all of your flaws, this is when you move into the gray area of life.  The gray area allows for mistakes and is a constant learning experience.  The gray area also allows falling, but pushes you to get right back up.  The gray area is where we all need to be living; but sadly, it is not most of our realities.

We put insurmountable pressure on ourselves to be perfect.  We want the perfect car, the perfect outfit, the perfect body.  Society helps to fill our head with the perfect mentality.  Anything short of that will not do.  We are taught that perfectionism is the only way and that we should all constantly be striving for it.

Get out of that mindset.  You will only be setting yourself up for failure.  It’s the harsh reality of it.  Learn to live and prosper in the gray area.  Congratulate yourself for the small things that you overcome throughout your day.  It’s when you are at the point of seeing your obstacles being taken over by you that you will be creating your own path for recovery of Binge Eating Disorder.

By: Kristin Gerstley

http://www.endbingeeating.com

ZZZZZZ

Title:

Binge Eating is Not Black and White Thinking



Word Count:

503



Summary:

In order to begin the recovery process of Binge Eating Disorder, you must change your extreme thinking.   Extreme thinking, or black and white thinking, will most likely cause you to binge more and more.  When you let go of the holds you place on yourself, you can begin to welcome the little things that will lead you to recovery.





Keywords:

binge eating disorder, binge eating, end binge eating, binge eating help, binge eating support, compulsive eating, overeating, weight loss, dieting





Article Body:

It’s the little things that you will need to notice and congratulate yourself on when beginning the recovery process of Binge Eating Disorder.  These little things will be the stepping stones to gaining full control over yourself when food is involved.  These tiny stepping stones will prove to you that you are in control, at least somewhat control, of your actions.  It’s time for you to rejoice in them, instead of beating yourself up about why you aren’t fully recovered yet.



Are you someone that binges twice a day for about five days out of the week?  What are your trigger foods that you binge on?  Let’s say that an example day of binging for you includes three bags of chips, one whole cake, one gallon of ice cream, ten cookies, and three sugary, carbonated drinks.  When you start to take notice of you eating less, you need to pat yourself on the back.  Instead of three bags of chips, do you only consume one?  If so, this is a building block for your road to success.  Instead of ten cookies, do you only eat two?  Again, time to congratulate yourself for this accomplishment.



The reason why this is so important for your recovery is because most people see their life as black or white.  Their life is either good or bad, right or wrong, sad or happy.  Who puts these stipulations on us?  Why such extremes?  When you rid yourself of these chains and start living your life in most of the gray area, you will take things as they come and not be so hard on yourself for failing.  Extremes will lead you to failure because it will be highly impossible that you will be able to live that way.



When you can learn to accept yourself, including all of your flaws, this is when you move into the gray area of life.  The gray area allows for mistakes and is a constant learning experience.  The gray area also allows falling, but pushes you to get right back up.  The gray area is where we all need to be living; but sadly, it is not most of our realities.



We put insurmountable pressure on ourselves to be perfect.  We want the perfect car, the perfect outfit, the perfect body.  Society helps to fill our head with the perfect mentality.  Anything short of that will not do.  We are taught that perfectionism is the only way and that we should all constantly be striving for it.



Strive to get out of that mindset.  You will only be setting yourself up for failure.  It’s the harsh reality of it.  Learn to live and prosper in the gray area.  Congratulate yourself for the small things that you overcome throughout your day.  It’s when you are at the point of seeing your obstacles being taken over by you that you will be creating your own path for recovery of Binge Eating Disorder.



By: Kristin Gerstley

http://www.endbingeeating.com





Title:

Bingo History: Story of the Game Bingo



Word Count:

581



Summary:

Here you can read about the history of the popular game bingo, which includes dried beans, stuttering girls and mad professors.





Keywords:

bingo, lottery game, chance game, beano, Edwin S. Lowe, bingo cards, history, entertainment





Article Body:

The origins of contemporary bingo go back to 16th century Italy, where the lottery game Lo Giuoco del Lotto dItalia was introduced. The popular chance game was introduced to North America in the late 1920s by the name of Beano.  A toy salesperson of New York was responsible for changing the name of the game into Bingo and to the increase of its popularity throughout the US.



In the late 18th century, the original Italian lotto game made its way to France. Historical evidence shows that a game called Le Lotto was popular among the French high society who used to play the game in parties and social gatherings.



Le Lotto used to be played with special cards that were divided into three rows and nine columns. Each of the three columns consists of 10 numbers, while each column had five random number and four blank spaces in it. Each player had a different lotto card where he used to mark the number announced by the caller. The first player to cover one row won the game.



By the 19th century, the lotto game spread around Europe and started to serve as a didactic childrens game. In the 1850s, several educational lotto games had entered the German toys market. The lotto games purpose was to teach children how to spell words, how to multiply numbers, etc.



By 1920s, a similar version to the lotto game, known as beano was popular at county fairs throughout the US. In beano, the players placed beans on their cards to mark the called out number. The first player who completed a full row on his card, used to yell out Beano!, until one night in December 1929, when a New Yorker toys salesperson by the name of Edwin S. Lowe visited a country fair outside Jacksonville, Georgia.



On his way back to New York, Lowe had purchased beano equipment including dried beans, a rubber numbering stamp and cardboard. At his New York home, Lowe has been hosting friendly beano games. During one game, one excited winner who had managed to complete a full row stuttered out Bingo, instead of Beano. Listening to the excited stuttering girl, Edwin S. Lowe thoughts went away. Lowe decided to develop a new game that would be called Bingo.



While Lowe’s Bingo game was making its first steps in the market, a Pennsylvanian priest asked Lowe to use the game for charity purpose. After a short tryout period, the priest had found out that the bingo game causes the churches to lose money. Since the variety of bingo cards was limited, each bingo game ended up in more than five winners.



In order to develop the game and to lower the probabilities of winning, Lowe approached Prof. Carl Leffler, a mathematician from Columbia University. Leffler was asked to create bigger variety of bingo cards that each of them will have unique combination of numbers. By 1930, Lowe had 6,000 bingo cards and Prof. Leffler went insane.



Since then, the popularity of the bingo game as a fundraiser continued to grow. In less than five years, about 10,000 weekly bingo games took place throughout North America. Lowe’s company grew to employ several thousands of employees and to occupy more than 60 presses 24 hours a day.



Now, bingo is one of the most popular chance games in the world. It is played in churches, schools, local bingo halls and land based casinos in the US, the UK, Australia, New Zealand and other parts of the world.





title:Biohazards At Work

author:Alexandra Gubbins

source_url:http://www.articlecity.com/articles/health/article_3000.shtml

date_saved:2007-07-25 12:30:11

category:health

article:



Each week there are 9 people killed at work in the UK, with one person in 17 having an accident at work each year. The Health and Safety Executive estimates that at any one time there will be 2 million workers in the UK suffering from some kind of occupational ill health, from stress to manual lifting injuries.

Schedule 3 of the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations covers the law on biological hazards. Bio hazards can be defined as “…[a hazard] which is posed to humans by a biological organism, or by a material produced by such an organism” (Oxford University).

Biological hazards include viruses, bacteria, fungi, poisonous plants, and animal droppings.

There are thousands of people who work in industries in which they come into contact with biohazards. Some of these industries include:

- Medicine. At hospitals and clinics needlestick injuries pose a significant biohazard threat.

- Sewage disposal and working with water. Bacteria are the main biohazard in this line of work.

- Agriculture. Bacteria often present biohazards in agriculture, as well as viruses such as avian flu.

Medical workers

Needlestick injuries are a great risk to medical workers in hospitals and nursing homes, as well as in veterinary workers when injecting animals. They carry risk of infection of HIV, and Hepatitis B and C for both the people who are using the needles, and those disposing of them, such as waste disposal contractors.

To reduce the chance of an accident at work occurring, proper disposal of needles is essential. In the place of work there should be a clear procedure to dispose of used needles safely and with as little risk as possible.

Sewage disposal and water workers

Bacteria that cause illnesses such as Weil’s Disease and infections of the skin and eyes are a major health hazard for sewage and water workers.

There should be proper protection provided by employers for people working in this industry, including gloves, footwear, eye and respiratory protection, and face visors. Clean water, soap and towels should also be made available to prevent an biohazard related accident at work.

Agriculture workers

High levels of airborne bacteria and fungi are found in agriculture settings, and people working in the agriculture industry can suffer respiratory disorders as a result.

Wearing face masks, glasses and rubber gloves are ways in which the risk that bacteria pose, both airborne and otherwise, can be lessened for agriculture workers.

Avian flu was identified in 1997 as a virus that began infecting humans, and is beginning to be seen as posing a wider threat. Although no instances have been found of it yet in the UK, this may be a problem in the future. It is passed when a person inhales the virus from being near an infected bird.

Negligent exposure to biohazards

If the proper health regulations are not adhered to, workers become exposed to these biohazards and become unwell, sometimes with minor illnesses and sometimes with something much more serious.

People who have suffered an illness or accident at work through exposure to biological hazards should consult a legal professional about getting compensation.

At George Ide, Phillips we have solicitors who specialise in needlestick injuries and other claims following an accident at work. We have successfully handled thousands of personal injury claims on a no cost, no win, no fee basis for people in the UK.

If you would like free legal advice from George Ide, Phillips about making an accident at work compensation claim, either go to http://www.accident-compensation-solicitor-uk.co.uk/ or call 0808 144 0043.

ZZZZZZ

Title:

Biologic Treatments of Arthritis



Word Count:

1329



Summary:

Biological products are a relatively new class of drugs used for the treatment of RA. Biologics differ from conventional drugs in that they are derived from living sources, such as cell culture systems.





Keywords:

arthritis, treatment of arthritis, cure of arthritis, prevention of arthritis





Article Body:

Conventional drugs are chemically synthesized. Of the four currently licensed biologics, three help reduce inflammation and structural damage of the joints by blocking a substance called tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a protein involved in immune system responses. Elevated levels of TNF are found in the synovial fluid of rheumatoid and some other arthritis patients.



The first biologic to receive FDA approval for patients with moderate-to-severe RA was Enbrel (etanercept). Initially, it was taken twice weekly by injection, but a once-weekly preparation is now available. Enbrel has been shown to decrease pain and morning stiffness and improve joint swelling and tenderness. In 2000, the drug's approved uses were expanded to include delaying structural damage. Besides RA, Enbrel now has been approved for two other common forms of arthritis: psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis.



The two other TNF-blocking products approved to treat RA are Remicade (infliximab) and Humira (adalimumab), a drug that provided the long-awaited relief for Shirley through a 2002 clinical trial. All three TNF blockers have been demonstrated to improve physical function in studies of at least two years in duration.



"While all three inhibit the action of TNF," says Jeffrey N. Siegel, M.D., team leader for the FDA's Division of Therapeutic Biological Internal Medicine Products, "they do it in somewhat different ways." Remicade and Humira are monoclonal antibodies, laboratory-produced proteins similar to those made by a person's immune system that bind and remove TNF from the body before it can set off the immune reaction responsible for RA.



Enbrel, on the other hand, is a soluble cytokine receptor, which means it is similar in structure to protein molecules found attached to the surface of cells that bind TNF. Enbrel competes with these receptors to inhibit them from binding TNF, thus blocking them from setting off the immune process responsible for RA, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.



Siegel warns that caution is important when using these agents as treatments. "All TNF blockers are associated with infection," he says.



Kineret (anakinra), another biologic approved by the FDA for patients with RA, has been shown in clinical trials to improve pain and swelling and slow the progression of structural damage in patients.

Arthritis Treatment Devices



Two medical device products, Hyalgan and Synvisc, are preparations that mimic a naturally occurring body substance that lubricates the knee joint called hyaluronic acid. The products, which were approved by the FDA for the treatment of OA of the knee, are injected directly into the knee joint to help provide temporary relief of pain and flexible joint movement.



Another device used in arthritis treatment is transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), which has been found effective in modifying pain perception. TENS blocks pain messages to the brain by directing mild electric pulses to nerve endings that lie beneath the painful area of the skin.



A blood-filtering device called the Prosorba Column is used in some cases for filtering out harmful antibodies in people with severe rheumatoid arthritis.



Heat and cold can both be used to reduce the pain and inflammation of arthritis. Patients and their doctors can determine which one works best.



Thanks to the right treatment, Shirley says his pain level today is only about 10 percent of what it once was. "Looking back on those days," he says, "it's hard to believe all the things I can do now. I've regained mobility and strength." And once again, Shirley can mow the lawn, cook meals, fix things around his house, and even pursue his favorite hobby of bird watching.



"Rheumatoid arthritis is now an illness for which newer treatments offer the real likelihood of patients being able to pursue a lifestyle without the limitations imposed by joint pain and deformity," adds Birbara.

Importance of Diet and Exercise



Arthritis experts say there's value in physical activity, the right diet, and other non-medicinal interventions that can help prevent arthritis, reduce pain, and keep people moving, as emphasized in a 10-year initiative called Healthy People 2010. A comprehensive, nationwide health promotion and disease prevention program developed by the Department of Health and Human Services, Healthy People 2010 contains 467 objectives for improving the nation's health in conditions such as cancer, sexually transmitted diseases, and arthritis.



Research in 2004, for example, demonstrated that exercise and diet together significantly improve physical function and reduce knee pain in people older than 60 who are overweight or obese, according to both the Arthritis Foundation and the American College of Rheumatology. The results of the study are published in the May 2002 issue of Arthritis & Rheumatism. Similarly, pain and disability accompanying all types of arthritis can be minimized through early diagnosis and appropriate management, including self-management, physical and occupational therapy, joint replacement surgery, weight control, and physical activity.



According to the CDC, research shows that physical activity decreases joint pain, improves function and a person's mood and outlook, and delays disability. Exercise helps reduce the pain and fatigue of many different kinds of arthritis and helps people work and do daily activities and remain independent. Range-of-motion, strengthening, and endurance exercises, such as moving a joint as far as it will go, using muscles without moving joints, and aerobic exercises, respectively, are beneficial in decreasing fatigue, strengthening muscles and bones, increasing flexibility and stamina, and improving the general sense of well-being.



It's important that people stay at their recommended weight, especially as they get older, because being overweight makes them more at risk for OA. Extra weight increases the risk for getting OA in the knees and possibly in the hips. This is especially true for women. In men, extra weight increases the risk for getting another common form of arthritis, gout (excess uric acid in the blood), as well. Maintaining a healthy weight and avoiding joint injuries reduces the risk of developing arthritis and decreases disease progression.



Some people claim to have been cured by treatment with herbs, oils, chemicals, special diets, radiation, or other products. According to the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), however, there is no scientific evidence that such treatments cure arthritis. Moreover, some of these unproven treatments may lead to serious side effects. Patients should talk to their doctors before using any therapy that has not been prescribed or recommended by their health care team.

Juvenile Arthritis



Nearly 300,000 children in the United States have a form of juvenile arthritis or a rheumatic disease that occurs before age 16. The most common form in children is juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. The cause of most forms of juvenile arthritis remains unknown. Juvenile arthritis is not contagious, and there is no evidence that foods, toxins, allergies, or vitamin deficiencies play a role. Current research indicates that there may be a genetic predisposition to juvenile arthritis. In other words, the combination of genes a child inherits may contribute to the development of arthritis when combined with other undefined factors. Most of the symptoms of juvenile arthritis are due to inflammation as a result of imbalances in the immune system. Despite not knowing the exact cause or causes, there are many effective treatments available to help children and their parents manage juvenile arthritis. Experts say that most children with arthritis can expect to live normal lives.

The Future



Many government and private organizations are working together to carry out a plan to guide the use of the nation's resources to decrease the burden of arthritis for all Americans and increase the quality of life of those affected by arthritis. Called the "National Arthritis Action Plan: A Public Health Strategy," it provides a blueprint for reducing pain, activity limitations, and disability among people with arthritis, as well as for preventing certain types of arthritis.



As for the safety of future arthritis treatments, experience has shown that the full magnitude of some potential risks of all drugs has not always emerged during the mandatory safety and effectiveness studies conducted before the FDA can approve a drug. As always, the agency advises physicians to consider the evolving information on any medication in evaluating the risks and benefits of these drugs in individual patients.





Title:

Bionic Men: Using Mechanical Devices to Cure Impotence



Word Count:

786



Summary:

There are mechanical and surgical treatments for impotence that a sufferer can explore with the help of medical advice.





Keywords:

sexual impotence, psychological impotence, reasons for impotence, impotence symptoms





Article Body:

Over the last few years, impotent men around the world have relied on some little blue pills to help them obtain and maintain their erections. But the pills are not without their complications. Some men experience side effects while taking oral phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors such as Viagra (sildenafil), Cialis (tadalafil) and Levitra (vardenafil). These side effects can range from headache, flushing of the face and body, indigestion, runny nose, palpitations, nausea, vomiting, muscle pains and vision disturbances. These medications are also contraindicated for patients taking nitrate-based drugs or alpha-blockers, because interaction with PDE5 inhibitors can be fatal. Viagra has also been reported to cause permanently impaired vision or even blindness in some patients. Other drug treatments available involve direct injections to the penis or shooting pellets down the urinary pipe, both of which can be unpleasant for patients. It is because of these side effects from drug treatments that some men prefer to explore other possibilities such as mechanical or surgical methods to deal with their condition.



  There are a number of mechanical devices available to aid impotent men, such as vacuum pumps, penis rings and vibrators. Vacuum pumps are cylinders that fit over the penis, which allow the user to draw up blood to the member by sucking out the air. Once the member is engorged, a specially designed penis ring can be fitted on to the base of the shaft to help stop the blood from draining back to the body. Vibrating devices can also be used to vitalize the male member either by direct contact or by stimulating the prostate. Some men may feel too embarrassed to purchase such devices because of a social stigma attached to them. However, privacy issues can be dealt with by ordering these through the Internet.



  On the other hand, surgery is a much more drastic step to take when dealing with impotence. Surgery usually has one of three goals: to implant a device that can cause the penis to become erect; to reconstruct arteries to increase flow of blood to the penis; or to block off veins that allow blood to leak from the penile tissues. Prostheses are mechanical devices that surgeons insert into the penis to allow men to manually raise or inflate the penis for sexual intercourse and to lower it afterwards. Patients can choose to have either a flexible sterile rod put into the shaft or an inflatable implant that comes with its own fluid reservoir and pump, although the latter is preferred because it leaves the penis into a more natural state. Possible problems can occur as with many other implants, such as bleeding, infection and the breakdown of the mechanical device although the latter has been somewhat limited because of recent technological advances.





  There are cases of impotence that benefit from penile arterial revascularization. It is designed to keep blood flowing by rerouting it around a blocked or injured vessel at the base of the shaft, usually due to a pelvic fracture or blunt trauma. This procedure is recommended for men under the age of 45 with no known risk factors for atherosclerosis, a condition where progressive thickening and hardening of the walls of medium-sized and large arteries as a result of fat deposits on their inner lining. Surgeons microscopically connect nearby arteries to keep the blood circulating into the penis.



  On the other hand, venous ligation surgery is done to correct leaking veins. This leakage decreases the amount of blood to the penis, thereby resulting in a diminished erection. Surgeons intentionally block off problem areas to ensure that the appropriate amount of blood is trapped to create an erection. However, ligation only has a 50% long term success rate so it is rarely used to correct impotence.



  Patients who are considering vascular surgery should be aware that it is still widely regarded as experimental and may not be covered by your health insurance. There are also conditions that can exclude men from being a candidate for surgery, such as insulin-dependent diabetes, atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels and tobacco use. The procedures can also cause penile scarring(fibrosis), numbness or some pain.



  It is important to discuss the possible complications with your doctor before consenting to any type of surgery. Also, because of the experimental nature of the procedures, not all urologists may be trained to perform the delicate surgery. If necessary, get a second opinion. It might be a better idea to try non-surgical treatment options before attempting anything invasive. Most importantly, don't forget that the brain is the primary sexual organ in the body. Being open with your partner about the condition and exploring other avenues of pleasure can be just as beneficial to you as any medical procedures.





title:Biophilia

author:Dr. Randy Wysong

source_url:http://www.articlecity.com/articles/health/article_3531.shtml

date_saved:2007-07-25 12:30:11

category:health

article:



Have you ever wondered what causes that warm glow inside, the sense of peace and exhilaration when walking through the woods or sitting by the ocean and watching the sunset?  How about the beauty of a fresh snowfall clinging to trees, the smell and feel of the first warm day in spring, or the vistas of unspoiled prairies or mountain ranges?   Watching animals in the wild or even the behavior and antics of our pets can affect us similarly.   Virtually everyone is touched by such experiences even though we seem to be increasingly alienating and isolating ourselves from nature. Biologists call this phenomenon biophilia – defined as the human need for and love of natural places.

As you canoe a beautiful, crystal clear stream, is not the mood changed when you come upon an old tire lurking in the depths?   How about the beer bottle you trip over on your "wilderness" backpack adventure?  Do the plastic bags entangling your bare feet as you stroll the beach not spoil the mood?  What becomes of the view of the open prairie or desert with billowing factory smoke in the distance?  Is the wonder of the ocean sunrise diminished by offshore derricks interrupting the horizon?  Do you like the dead silence of the forest pierced with the distant sound of a chain saw?

The interjection of human activity into these natural settings spoils them.  It can change the mood from peace, wonder and personal reflection to disgust, anger and a sense of futility.  Tripping over a pop can in nature is like interrupting a beautiful symphony by starting up an un-muffled Harley Davidson.

On the other hand, the chaos of centuries of forest refuse strewn about is a thing of beauty.  In contrast, human refuse and junkyards are ugly and repulsive. The reason for this double standard is that we are, at our core, part of nature – not synthetics.  Just as birds of a feather flock together, we bind to our own kind as well.  Nature is our kind; synthetic and industrial artificiality is not.

What our world may be coming to.

Everything in nature is connected. Neurons and blood vessels course through the body interconnecting every single tissue with what is sensed from the external environment.   As we breathe, lung tissue connects to the atmosphere.  Seeing and hearing is the nexus of light and sound, via chemical reactions in the tissues of our eyes and ears, to the rest of the body. Smelling, tasting and touching similarly reach out for contact.

When we feel the wind in our face, the crunch of snow underfoot, listen to a bubbling stream, breathe the aroma of a forest, marvel at the flight of geese in formation, or gaze in awe into the nighttime infinite heavens, we are connecting.

Joining with nature is like coming home, harmonizing with the world, connecting to that which is familiar, touching our very origins.

Biophilia obviously speaks to protecting nature, but is also key to understanding illness since health is balance and balance requires connection to our source of life – nature.  There is a direct proportionality.  Break the interconnections with nature and illness will result in lockstep.  Restore these balances by returning to nature, and physical, mental and spiritual health is the reward.  Nature is indeed both a treasure and a lifeline.  We should treat it as such.

*Further Reading:

[The Wysong Optimal Health Program™]

http://www.wysong.net/optimal_health_page1.shtml

[Preserved Wetlands Are Not a Waste]

http://www.wysong.net/healthletter/hl_sep95.shtml

ZZZZZZ

title:Bipolar Depression

author:David Chandler

source_url:http://www.articlecity.com/articles/health/article_2455.shtml

date_saved:2007-07-25 12:30:11

category:health

article:



What is Bipolar Depression?

The distinguishing characteristic of bipolar depression, as compared to other mood disorders, is the presence of at least one manic episode.  Additionally, it is presumed to be a chronic condition because the vast majority of individuals who have one manic episode have additional episodes in the future.  The statistics suggest that four episodes in ten years is an average, without preventative treatment.  Every individual with bipolar depression has a unique pattern of mood cycles, combining depression and manic episodes, which is specific to that individual, but predictable once the pattern is identified.  Research studies suggest a strong genetic influence in bipolar depression.

Bipolar depression typically begins in adolescence or early adulthood and continues throughout life.  Bipolar depression is often not recognized as a psychological problem, because it is episodic.  Consequently, those who have bipolar depression may suffer needlessly for years without treatment.

Treatment for Bipolar Depression

Effective treatment is available for bipolar depression.  Without treatment, marital breakups, job loss, alcohol and drug abuse, and suicide may result from the chronic, episodic mood swings.  The most significant treatment issue is noncompliance with treatment.  Most individuals with bipolar depression do not perceive their manic episodes as needing treatment, and they resist entering treatment.  In fact, most people report feeling very good during the beginning of a manic episode, and do not want it to stop.  This is a serious judgment problem.  As the manic episode progresses, concentration becomes difficult, thinking becomes more grandiose, and problems develop.  Unfortunately, the risk taking behavior usually results in significant painful consequences such as loss of a job or a relationship, running up excessive debts, or getting into legal difficulties.  Many individuals with bipolar depression abuse drugs or alcohol during manic episodes, and some of these develop secondary substance abuse problems.  Therefore, it is advisable to treat Bipolar Depression at its early stage

ZZZZZZ

title:Bird Flu

author:Peter John Bell

source_url:http://www.articlecity.com/articles/health/article_3718.shtml

date_saved:2007-07-25 12:30:11

category:health

article:



Bird Flu Prevention

Bird Flu is coming to our shores, make no mistake. Its not if but when. Simple preventive measures can help to prevent its spread both to poultry and humans.

The Media have been harping on about Bird Flu for months. So much so that we have all become bored of it...Just like the imminemt "SARS" outbreak we were going to have a few years ago. Well don't become complacent, because its not if the deadly Avian Flu strain H5N1 reaches our shores, but WHEN!!

What is Bird Flue??

Bird Flu or H5N1 to give it its scientific name, first came to light in Hong Kong in 1997, where it jumped the species barrier from birds to humans and infected 18 poultry workers. Six of whom died. It has been steadily spreading throughout Asia since then and is now likely to spread throughout Europe also!!

What Are The Symptoms of Bird Flu?? Bird Flu infection in humans portrays classic flu symptoms such as Fever, Headache and Muscle Aches and Pains.Although as Bird Flu Primarily affects the respiratory tract, breathing difficulties and chest pain also ocurr.Another symptom is conjunctivitis (Eye Infections).

Preventing Bird Flue

If and when the Avian Flu Virus mutates into an easily transmittable human form. There are a few simple Anti Viral measures that can be taken to minimize the risk of you contracting the lethal H5N1 Virus. These include, the frequent washing of hands with Ant-Viral soap, the wearing of an anti viral mask and gloves when out in public, and other common sense measures which are discussed on the website. www.health-issues.co.uk

Whera Can I find the Latest News on Bird Flu

The latest News on Bird Flu and its worldwide impact can be found at www.health-issues.co.uk. There are many Health Related articles on this site including in depth information on the impending Avian Flu Pandemic.

Is The World Taking It Seriously

YES....There have Already been meetings of top associations from Industry, Farming, the World Health Organization, and even the Banks....Proving that this is a real threat and if Cpommerce and the Banks are worried then so should we...Find out more at www.health-issues.co.uk/bird-flu

So the conclusion to all this is: Bird Flu is a real threat both to Poultry and Humans...IT IS COMING!!! But using simple Anti Viral measures, we can help minimize its spread and stay alive!!!

More information and News on the Worldwide Spread of Avian Flue, and other Health related articles can be found by visiting www.health-issues.co.uk:

ZZZZZZ

title:Bird Flu and Tamiflu—Making Your Supply of Tamiflu Go Farther in an Emergency

author:Bradford Frank M.D., M.P.H., M.B.A.

source_url:http://www.articlecity.com/articles/health/article_3771.shtml

date_saved:2007-07-25 12:30:11

category:health

article:



I have discussed Tamiflu (oseltamivir) and Relenza (zanamivir) previously – see Bird Flu: Tamiflu and Relenza for Prevention and Treatment in the Articles section on our Web site, http://www.AvoidBirdFlu.com.  This current article adds important information about making your supply of Tamiflu go farther in an emergency situation.

First, as I noted in my previous article, it is important to be aware of the fact that the effectiveness of Tamiflu and Relenza has been studied against circulating strains of human influenza (so called seasonal influenza), not against the bird flu virus. In a study reported in the August 2005 issue of the Journal of Infectious Diseases, Dr. Yen and others from St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee found that in animal experiments eight-day regimens of Tamiflu were more effective than the suggested five-day regimen for treating infections with the H5N1 bird-flu virus.

The authors concluded that a prolonged and higher-dose oseltamivir regimen may be required for the most beneficial antiviral effect.  This possibility was recently underscored when two Vietnamese (one a 13 year old girl) died of bird flu—as reported in a December 2005 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine—even after receiving treatment within the required 48 hours after the start of infection with standard doses of Tamiflu.

Let’s assume that you have one treatment course of Tamiflu (one 75 mg tablet taken twice a day for five days, for a total of 10 pills), that you either acquired on your own or that was given to you by your healthcare provider or by the government. Unfortunately you are still not home free yet, so to speak. You now may face one of two problems:

Problem # 1: If preliminary scientific studies indicating that a course of treatment of bird flu using higher doses than those currently recommended by the FDA, for more than the current recommended five days of treatment are correct—as indicated by Dr. Yen’s research—you will need more that one dose pack.  In fact, the best treatment might mean taking two pills (150 mg) twice a day for eight or even ten days. That would mean that you should have FOUR dose packs (40 pills) for the treatment of one person, not just one!

Problem # 2: You have a dose pack—officially the amount need to treatment one person—but there are two people who just became infected with bird flu in your family.  If you combine this problem with problem number one, you now actually need EIGHT dose packs, not just two!

What can you do?  There are two possible solutions:

SOLUTION # 1: Take PROBENECID, a medicine approved for the treatment of gout, along with the Tamiflu. Probenecid interferes with the normal metabolism of Tamiflu, increasing the blood level of Tamiflu and keeping it in circulation longer—effectively doubling the amount of Tamiflu “exposure.”  The precise dose is unclear. Until more scientific information becomes available, in an emergency situation, for otherwise healthy adults, I would recommend taking one 500 mg table twice daily.  Probenecid is generally very safe.  Nevertheless, I have included detailed information about it below.

According to information about probenecid from the National Library of Medicine’s and the National Institutes of Health’s Web site Medline Plus (available at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/uspdi/202480.html):

Probenecid (proe-BEN-e-sid) is used in the treatment of chronic gout or gouty arthritis. These conditions are caused by too much uric acid in the blood. The medicine works by removing the extra uric acid from the body. Probenecid does not cure gout, but after you have been taking it for a few months it will help prevent gout attacks. This medicine will help prevent gout attacks only as long as you continue to take it.

Probenecid is also used to prevent or treat other medical problems that may occur if too much uric acid is present in the body.

Probenecid is sometimes used with certain kinds of antibiotics to make them more effective in the treatment of infections.

Probenecid is available only with your doctor's prescription, in the following dosage form (tablets):

a. Before Using This Medicine

In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For probenecid, the following should be considered:

Allergies—Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to probenecid. Also tell your health care professional if you are allergic to any other substances, such as foods, preservatives, or dyes.

Pregnancy—Probenecid has not been shown to cause birth defects or other problems in humans.

Breast-feeding—Probenecid has not been reported to cause problems in nursing babies.

Children—Probenecid has been tested in children 2 to 14 years of age for use together with antibiotics. It has not been shown to cause different side effects or problems than it does in adults. Studies on the effects of probenecid in patients with gout have been done only in adults. Gout is very rare in children.

Older adults—Many medicines have not been studied specifically in older people. Therefore, it may not be known whether they work exactly the same way they do in younger adults. There is no specific information comparing use of probenecid in the elderly with use in other age groups.

Other medicines—Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are taking probenecid, it is especially important that your health care professional know if you are taking any of the following:

• Antineoplastics (cancer medicine)—The chance of serious side effects may be increased

• Aspirin or other salicylates—These medicines may keep probenecid from working properly for treating gout, depending on the amount of aspirin or other salicylate that you take and how often you take it

• Heparin—Probenecid may increase the effects of heparin, which increases the chance of side effects

• Indomethacin (e.g., Indocin)

• Ketoprofen (e.g., Orudis)

• Methotrexate (e.g., Mexate)—Probenecid may increase the blood levels of these medicines, which increases the chance of side effects

• Medicine for infection, including tuberculosis or virus infection—Probenecid may increase the blood levels of many of these medicines. In some cases, this is a desired effect and probenecid may be used to help the other medicine work better. However, the chance of side effects is sometimes also increased

• Nitrofurantoin (e.g., Furadantin)—Probenecid may keep nitrofurantoin from working properly

• Zidovudine (e.g., AZT, Retrovir)—Probenecid increases the blood level of zidovudine and may allow lower doses of zidovudine to be used. However, the chance of side effects is also increased

Other medical problems—The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of probenecid. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:

• Blood disease or

• Cancer being treated by antineoplastics (cancer medicine) or radiation (x-rays) or

• Kidney disease or stones (or history of) or

• Stomach ulcer (history of)—The chance of side effects may be increased

b. Proper Use of This Medicine If probenecid upsets your stomach, it may be taken with food. If this does not work, an antacid may be taken. If stomach upset (nausea, vomiting, or loss of appetite) continues, check with your doctor.

For patients taking probenecid for gout:

• After you begin to take probenecid, gout attacks may continue to occur for a while. However, if you take this medicine regularly as directed by your doctor, the attacks will gradually become less frequent and less painful than before. After you have been taking probenecid for several months, they may stop completely.

• This medicine will help prevent gout attacks but it will not relieve an attack that has already started. Even if you take another medicine for gout attacks, continue to take this medicine also. If you have any questions about this, check with your doctor.

For patients taking probenecid for gout or to help remove uric acid from the body:

• When you first begin taking probenecid, the amount of uric acid in the kidneys is greatly increased. This may cause kidney stones or other kidney problems in some people. To help prevent this, your doctor may want you to drink at least 10 to 12 full glasses (8 ounces each) of fluids each day, or to take another medicine to make your urine less acid. It is important that you follow your doctor's instructions very carefully.

Dosing—

The dose of probenecid will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of probenecid. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.

• For treating gout or removing uric acid from the body:

 Adults: 250 mg (one-half of a 500-mg tablet) two times a day for about one week, then 500 mg (one tablet) two times a day for a few weeks. After this, the dose will depend on the amount of uric acid in your blood or urine. Most people need 2, 3, or 4 tablets a day, but some people may need higher doses.

 Children: It is not likely that probenecid will be needed to treat gout or to remove uric acid from the body in children. If a child needs this medicine, however, the dose would have to be determined by the doctor.

• For helping antibiotics work better:

 Adults: The amount of probenecid will depend on the condition being treated. Sometimes, only one dose of 2 tablets is needed. Other times, the dose will be 1 tablet four times a day.

 Children: The dose will have to be determined by the doctor. It depends on the child's weight, as well as on the condition being treated. Older children and teenagers may need the same amount as adults.

Missed dose—

If you are taking probenecid regularly and you miss a dose, take the missed dose as soon as possible. However, if you do not remember until it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.

Storage—

To store this medicine:

• Keep out of the reach of children.

• Store away from heat and direct light.

• Do not store this medicine in the bathroom, near the kitchen sink, or in other damp places. Heat or moisture may cause the medicine to break down.

• Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed. Be sure that any discarded medicine is out of the reach of children.

c. Precautions While Using This Medicine

• If you will be taking probenecid for more than a few weeks, your doctor should check your progress at regular visits.

Before you have any medical tests, tell the person in charge that you are taking this medicine. The results of some tests may be affected by probenecid.

For diabetic patients:

• Probenecid may cause false test results with copper sulfate urine sugar tests (Clinitest®), but not with glucose enzymatic urine sugar tests (Clinistix®). If you have any questions about this, check with your health care professional.

For patients taking probenecid for gout or to help remove uric acid from the body:

• Taking aspirin or other salicylates may lessen the effects of probenecid. This will depend on the dose of aspirin or other salicylate that you take, and on how often you take it. Also, drinking too much alcohol may increase the amount of uric acid in the blood and lessen the effects of this medicine. Therefore, do not take aspirin or other salicylates or drink alcoholic beverages while taking this medicine, unless you have first checked with your doctor.

d. Side Effects of This Medicine

Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.

The following side effects may mean that you are having an allergic reaction to this medicine. Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur:

• Rare

Fast or irregular breathing;  puffiness or swellings of the eyelids or around the eyes;  shortness of breath, troubled breathing, tightness in chest, or wheezing;  changes in the skin color of the face occurring together with any of the other side effects listed here;  or skin rash, hives, or itching occurring together with any of the other side effects listed here

Also, check with your doctor as soon as possible if any of the following side effects occur:

• Less common

Bloody urine;  difficult or painful urination ;  lower back or side pain (especially if severe or sharp);  skin rash, hives, or itching (occurring without other signs of an allergic reaction)

• Rare

Cloudy urine;  cough or hoarseness;  fast or irregular breathing;  fever;  pain in back and/or ribs;  sores, ulcers, or white spots on lips or in mouth;  sore throat and fever with or without chills;  sudden decrease in the amount of urine;  swelling of face, fingers, feet, and/or lower legs;  swollen and/or painful glands ;  unusual bleeding or bruising;  unusual tiredness or weakness;  yellow eyes or skin ;  weight gain

Other side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. However, check with your doctor if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome:

• More common

Headache;  joint pain, redness, or swelling ;  loss of appetite;  nausea or vomiting (mild)

• Less common

Dizziness;  flushing or redness of face (occurring without any signs of an allergic reaction);  frequent urge to urinate;  sore gums

Other side effects not listed above may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your doctor.

SOLUTION # 2: Unless you are a divine follower of the late Mahatma Gandhi, who used to drink his urine daily, this solution is not nearly as appealing as taking probenecid.  However, it apparently would be very effective. Dr. Grattan Woodson, a specialist in internal medicine at the Druid Oaks Health Center in Decatur, Georgia, offers the following advice for emergency treatment of bird flu:*  This is an advanced, potentially life-saving emergency strategy, that should only be done under medical supervision—unless none is available.

Tamiflu Re-Administration Strategy: Tamiflu is excreted unchanged almost entirely in the urine. If Tamiflu supplies are limited, as they most certainly will be [during a bird-flu pandemic], consider giving the patient two Tamiflu tablets at the same time, collect the patient’s urine and re-administer it to the patient via naso-gastric (NG) tube or orally. If managed carefully, this approach means that you can completely treat a patient with only 2 Tamiflu tablets [by re-administering the patient’s urine daily for five to 10 days].

*Woodson G: Preparing for The Coming Influenza Pandemic. Fluwikie.com. Available at: http://fluwikie.com/annex/WoodsonMonograph.htm#_Toc116746508.



ZZZZZZ

Title:

Bird Flu Drive Thru?



Word Count:

399



Summary:

I’ll have a burger and fries to go and while I’m here check me for the bird flu.



Well,… no not as such, but drive thru’s may be set up in VA hospitals in America as a suggestion by the government as a quick way of testing people who suspect they may have the bird flu.(This drive thru technique was used last year for a vaccine program in the U.S .)



With the virus already having been found in European birds now, precautions are already being put in place to combat its spr...





Keywords:

health,fitness,cardio,breathing





Article Body:

I’ll have a burger and fries to go and while I’m here check me for the bird flu.



Well,… no not as such, but drive thru’s may be set up in VA hospitals in America as a suggestion by the government as a quick way of testing people who suspect they may have the bird flu.(This drive thru technique was used last year for a vaccine program in the U.S .)



With the virus already having been found in European birds now, precautions are already being put in place to combat its spread to the U.S but it seems only a matter of weeks or months away before it arrives there too. If the disease mutates enough, at the moment it seems that the avian flu virus hasn’t mutated to the point of being easily spread as it centers itself too deep in the lungs and can’t escape through the usual avenues that the other flu virus is passed on…. e.g. from coughing and sneezing.



How is this going to affect you in your day to day living? It could bring up a lot of problems for everyone both socially and financially, due to the fact the all lot of people wont be able to go to work and we’ll all probably have to avoid being in crowded areas,…. so work and schools will probably have to close down or take some kind of precautions to avoid the spread of the virus. You may also find more and more people using the internet to carry on their work.



From listening to some of the recent news releases stockpiles of vaccines are already in place to vaccinate some but not enough for all of the population, so another headache to overcome as to who gets the vaccine and who doesn’t. But enough!.. of the bad news this may all blow over and we will look back at this “Avian flu” and laugh and compare it to all the ranting and raving with that took place a couple of years ago when we were all told that the “Millennium bug” would be the undoing of us all and planes would fall out of the sky.



And…either way whether it does or doesn’t happen, the big pharmaceutical company’s are guaranteed to be laughing all the way to the bank!!





title:Bird Flu Is In The U.S.!

author:Michael Murphy, CFA

source_url:http://www.articlecity.com/articles/health/article_3129.shtml

date_saved:2007-07-25 12:30:11

category:health

article:



In that great Hitchcock thriller, the birds start attacking Tippi Hedron (Melanie Griffith's mom, for trivia fans) in Mendocino for no particular reason.Today, Ms. Hedron works actively in films, international relief efforts and for animal causes.She may get an ironic opportunity to combine her charity works with birds again, because scientists around the world are looking nervously at the increasing possibility of a return of avian influenza, also known as the bird flu.First identified in Italy in 1900, it is the H5N1 virus implicated in the great Spanish Flu pandemic of 1918-1919 that killed about 40 million people.I say "implicated in" instead of "caused," because it was government policies that made the death toll much higher than it needed to be.But there is no doubt H5N1 is a major killer.

There are three steps H5N1 has to go through in order to get to people.First, there needs to be a lot of infected birds.Almost 200 million chickens have been killed or died in Asia in the last year due to avian flu infection.Strike One.  Next, unless someone eats diseased poultry, the flu has to cross species into an animal that can easily infect people.It has now crossed into pigs, which is where most human flu outbreaks begin.Pigs carry human influenza viruses.Viruses can combine (exchange DNA) in pigs, creating a variant of H5N1 that can spread as easily and rapidly as ordinary flu.Strike Two.

Finally, it has to hit an unprepared populace, with lowered immune systems and no effective drugs.Lowered immune systems are caused by, among other factors, cold weather, lack of sleep, excess weight, stress, high sugar intake and caffeine.Hmmm. Sound like anyone you know?

Serious scientists think H5N1 could kill as many people as the 1918 disaster, if only because there are now more than three times as many people in the world. The UN Coordinator for Avian and Human Influenza recently said a bird flu pandemic could kill as many as 150 million people.Other scientists have projected up to 354 million deaths.And you thought $3 gasoline was a major problem!

The H5N1 bird flu reappeared in Hong Kong in 1997.Eighteen people were infected, and six died.All the chickens in the area were slaughtered, and the outbreak was confined to Hong Kong.But it has now been found in Vietnam, Thailand, Japan, Mainland China, Malaysia and Indonesia.

It then showed up in Russia, almost certainly carried by migratory birds.So much for banning chicken.In August 2005, it appeared in Mongolia and Kazakhstan, and then in western Russia, poised to enter Europe.Roumania found infected and dead swans in October.An infected parrot died in quarantine in the United Kingdom.

The Senior United Nations System Coordinator for Avian and Human Influenza in charge of a response to H5N1 says a pandemic could begin at anytime, and kill five million to 150 million people.He confirmed the virus is in migratory birds, and said an outbreak could start in Africa, where immune systems are chronically depressed, or the Middle East as well as southeast Asia.What he didn't say is that the same migratory birds, mainly ducks, swans and geese, also travel thousands of miles to Canada and the U.S.The H5N1 virus is almost certainly in the U.S. already - it just hasn't been found yet.December, Janaury and February are the "flu season" in both the U.S. and Asia.

We have reviewed all the companies involved in bird flu vaccines, and found two stocks that should be bought immediately because they will make a fortune even if there is never a case of bird flu in the world again.Governments around the world are stocking up on vaccines just in case they are needed, and these stockpiles need to be replenished periodically.For the names of the two stocks, visit my website at http://www.NewWorldInvestor.net

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title:Bird Flu True to Form – a Pandemic Scenario

author:Ron Kernahan

source_url:http://www.articlecity.com/articles/health/article_3932.shtml

date_saved:2007-07-25 12:30:11

category:health

article:



Lee tried to stifle a sneeze but couldn’t. Invisible to the naked eye, a cloud of almost five thousand virus-filled droplets launched into the air at some 150 km/ hour or roughly 100 mph. Some passengers in the wide-body Airbus frowned. The Hong Kong to London flight was long and no one wanted to catch a cold.

Lee planned to fill every waking moment of his stay in London. A concert at the Millennium Dome, dinners at some of the finest hotels, shopping in crowded malls – “What a chance,” Lee thought. All he had to concentrate on was a few hours in front of the International Board. It was his job to present sales trends in China to the bosses who were also winging it towards Heathrow, one of the world’s busiest airports. “The global executives will get only good news from me,” figured Lee. “Pity I don’t feel better …”

The Diagnosis

Lee was exhausted. He had a cough, scratchy throat, runny nose and muscle aches. A fever started but it wasn’t until Lee began having difficulties breathing that he decided to get help.

Doctors huddled in subdued discussion. Experts were rushed in. It was finally determined that Lee’s body was fighting strenuously against two viruses. Lee had caught a highly infectious Influenza A virus – a flu bug. However, at much the same time he had also picked up a second virus called H5N1. The two viruses had mixed their genes and formed a hybrid. Since this was now a radically new pathogen, Lee had no immunity to it.

Lee was not the only one in this fight. Infected passengers from Lee’s plane from Hong Kong had connecting flights to major cities in most continents. The global executives Lee had addressed at the office had also flown home diseased. Sadly, some of the medical staff where Lee was diagnosed had also caught it not to mention the crowds Lee had interacted with at concerts, restaurants and on shopping sprees. The so-called Bird Flu or Avian Influenza had indeed spread its wings. It was the start of the first flu pandemic of the 21st century.

The News

Had Lee or any of the others known in time, they would have taken anti-viral drugs hoping to block or at least slow down the replication of the virus. At least the severity of some symptoms might have been eased not to mention a reduction in the duration of sickness. But time had run out - anti-viral medication needed to be taken within 48 hours of the first stages of the disease.

It wasn’t long before Lee was put on a respirator in quarantine. It also wasn’t long before the media found out Lee had Bird Flu. The public became nervous. The number of flu patients – real or imaginary – multiplied dramatically but nurses and hospital staff were strangely missing … using overdue holiday time or just not showing up for work at all. It was announced that schools, restaurants, and non-essential businesses would be closed. No deadline was given – no one knew for sure how long the measures would have to be in place.

The Public Announcement

Wisely, the public was advised to stock up on food and water. Newspapers advised people to stock up on toothpaste, toilet paper and treasure (cash). People were told to shop at off-peak hours and public transport was ordered to run 24 hours per day. But despite warnings to the contrary, doctor’s offices, hospitals and clinics were overrun. Faces masked in paper waited for hours in front of pharmacies in hope of getting relief. Despite clear instructions from health officials, panic broke out as folk finally fathomed that at best only one third of the population had access to anti-viral drugs. In rural areas and smaller towns, there wasn’t any chance at all.

The Short-term Havoc

Rumors and half-truths began to circulate causing public outcry and protests. Because the protests only helped spread the flu, quarantines were set in place. The public was told to stay at home indefinitely. Vibrant cities screeched to a halt as public transport shut down. Streets stank as garbage piled up. Shops were looted and in some cases those caught coughing were stoned. Safety services (fire, police, ambulance) were disrupted, fires burned out of control. Cross-border travel was curtailed killing tourism and all international sports events were cancelled. Food imports were banned creating shortages of meat, vegetables and wheat. Folk with chronic medical illnesses couldn’t get their medications. Soap and disinfectants – perhaps the simplest and most effective fight against the spread of disease – were in short supply; no one had thought to stock-pile soap.

The Controversy

Local governments and health organizations began to squabble over who had the power to do what. The question was of legalities: who would control distribution of anti-viral drugs and who would receive those drugs? Army barracks received attention but prisoners were ignored. Families with pets were labeled as ‘higher risk’ groups but no-one knew if these families should receive more help or less. As in-fighting became more severe, decision processing became more difficult. Who should give the daily press briefings? Who would organize mass cremation? Who would facilitate conferences for global medical meetings? The list grew rapidly.

The Waves

The first wave of the pandemic was over in three months time but not the shock. Bacterial disease such as cholera multiplied rapidly with catastrophic results across Africa and Asia. The longer-term, global recession began with the realization that supply-lines, manufacturing and food-production chains were desperately weakened through labor loss. Medical facilities were terribly understaffed. As usual, the poor had little chance of aid at all. And then came the second wave of Avian flu. It took over a year before the waves of sickness and death became controllable.

Lee actually survived it all. Although he “started” the pandemic, he also helped “end” it. Doctors used his blood to find the initial vaccine. Since Lee was also now immune, he not only volunteered to help where he could and also founded the World Association of Sensible Hygiene (WASH). More importantly, Lee and others like him helped disrupted societies regain their faith and hope and love. Since this was pandemic number 11 in the last 300 years, history had taught that it was inevitable that individuals and communities and countries would bounce back fairly quickly. But a bitter question remained. Would Lee and the rest of the world be better prepared for the next pandemic? Lee wondered that too as he bordered the wide-body Airbus destined for Mexico City.

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title:Bird Flu: Tamiflu and Relenza for Prevention and Treatment

author:Bradford Frank M.D., M.P.H., M.B.A.

source_url:http://www.articlecity.com/articles/health/article_3672.shtml

date_saved:2007-07-25 12:30:11

category:health

article:



According to a recent report on influenza in the Journal of Virology, “Although vaccination is the ideal way to reduce the interspecies spread of influenza viruses, the preparation of a new vaccine takes six months or more.  In the interim, antiviral drugs are the only option.”

Antiviral drugs can be used for both treatment and prevention of H5N1 bird flu, but have significant limitations. These drugs are expensive, supplies of them are limited, they have to be given within a short time period to be effective, and resistance either has already developed or can develop at any time. Even under optimal circumstances, none of them are 100 percent effective.

There are four antivirals that are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use against influenza—two older and inexpensive drugs, amantadine and rimantadine, to which the bird-flu virus has developed significant resistance—and two newer, more expensive and more effective drugs, Roche’s oseltamivir (brand name: Tamiflu), and GlaxoSmithKline’s zanamivir (brand name: Relenza; must be inhaled). The two new drugs belong to a class of antiviral agents called neuraminidase inhibitors. Tamiflu works by blocking the action of a specific enzyme, known as neuraminidase, on the surface of the influenza virus to prevent it from spreading and infecting other cells in the body.

Amantadine was once effective against H5N1, but its effectiveness has diminished drastically because the virus has developed resistance against it. There is some indication, however, that a combination of Tamiflu and amantadine might be more effective than Tamiflu alone.  Information about Tamiflu and Relenza is summarized below:

Tamiflu (oseltamivir; the first choice for prevention or treatment of bird flu)

1. Prescription antiviral medication approved for treatment of seasonal influenza by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Note that use of Tamiflu for treatment or prevention of avian influenza (bird flu) is an “off-label” use of the medication, that is, a use that has not been officially approved by the FDA. However, Tamiflu is widely recognized as the best available medication for prevention or treatment of bird flu, and its use in this situation is recommended by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO).

2. Mechanism of action: neuraminidase inhibitor (active against all nine influenza A neuraminidase subtypes recognized in nature, including recent pathogenic avian viruses [H5N1, H7N7, N9N2], as well as a virus containing the neuraminidase from the 1918 pandemic strain).

3. Available forms: 75 mg capsules and 12 mg/ml suspension.

4. Effective only if given within 48 hours of onset of symptoms.

5. FDA-approved for treatment for those one year and older.

a. Dose for treatment of influenza for those 12 and older: 75 mg twice daily for five days.

b. Dose for treatment of influenza for those under twelve: 2 mg/kg up to a maximum of 75 mg twice daily for five days.

c. Side effects occurring in five percent or more of patients taking Tamiflu for treatment were nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. These symptoms generally do not persist with ongoing treatment. Rare instances of serious side effects have been reported, but they are of uncertain relationship to Tamiflu.

6. FDA-approved for prophylaxis (prevention) of influenza for those 13 and older:

a. Dose for prophylaxis of influenza for those 12 and older: 75 mg daily for 10 days.

b. Not approved for prophylaxis of influenza for those younger than 12.  However, use of Tamiflu in this situation is probably safe and effective.  By deduction, dose should be 1 mg/kg up to a maximum of 75 mg daily for 10 days.

c. Side effects occurring in five percent or more of patients taking Tamiflu for prophylaxis were headache, nausea, and fatigue.

7. Use in pregnancy: Category C (meaning no scientific studies have been done to prove that it is safe in pregnancy—because of liability, no such studies are ever undertaken—but available evidence indicates that it is probably safe to use during pregnancy).

8. Significant drug interactions: none (although probenecid doubles the level of oseltamivir)

How effective is Tamiflu for prevention or treatment of seasonal influenza?  Clinical studies have shown the following:

Oral oseltamivir is highly protective against experimental human influenza, and early treatment is associated with reductions in viral titers, symptoms, nasal cytokines [inflammatory agents], and middle-ear pressure abnormalities. Early oseltamivir treatment of acute influenza in otherwise healthy adults and children aged one to 12 years reduces the time to illness alleviation by one to 1.5 days, fever duration, and viral titers in the upper respiratory tract. Early treatment reduces time to functional recovery by three days or more.

Treatment of children also reduces the risk for otitis media [inner-ear infection] and decreases overall antibiotic use. In healthy and high-risk adults, early treatment decreased the risk for lower respiratory tract complications leading to antibiotics and to hospitalization.  In is unknown whether treatment reduces the risk for transmission [of the virus from the infected person to someone else].

Prophylactic administration of once-daily oral oseltamivir (75 mg) is highly effective in reducing the risk for developing febrile illness during influenza season in unimmunized adults. Prevention of influenza reduces secondary complications in institutionalized older adults. Once-daily oseltamivir for seven to 10 days is also effective for post-exposure prophylaxis in household contacts, including children, and when ill index cases receive concurrent treatment.

Relenza (zanamivir; the second choice for treatment of bird flu)

1. Prescription antiviral medication approved for treatment of seasonal influenza by the FDA.

2. Mechanism of action: neuraminidase inhibitor. (It is a potent and specific inhibitor of the neuraminidase activity of influenza A and B viruses.  Compared to oseltamivir, zanamivir is more active against influenza B but less active against influenza A/N2 neuraminidases of clinical isolates, although the clinical importance of such differences is uncertain.  Zanamivir is inhibitory for certain influenza A neuraminidase variants that are resistant to oseltamivir.) [Emphasis added.]

3. Available forms: Not available in tablet or pill form; available only for oral inhalation with a proprietary Diskhaler device.

NOTE: The proprietary inhaler device for delivering zanamivir is breath-activated and requires a cooperative, trained patient.  The use of the Diskhaler device is not reliable in young children, very infirm or elderly persons, or those cognitively impaired. Although the inhaler has been used effectively in older adults, over half of hospitalized older adults could not correctly use the device after instruction.

4. Effective only if given within 48 hours of onset of symptoms.

5. FDA-approved for treatment for those seven years and older.

 10 mg (two inhalations) twice daily for five days.

6. Not FDA-approved for prophylaxis (prevention) of seasonal influenza (but may be effective).

7. Side effects: Inhaled zanamivir is generally well tolerated, and the frequency of complaints is not significantly different from those in placebo [sugar pill] recipients among adults and children aged five years and older.

However, post-marketing reports indicate a potential risk for acute bronchospasm, respiratory arrest, or worsening of COPD [chronic obstructive pulmonary disease] accompanied by pulmonary edema [water in the lungs], after zanamivir inhalation, particularly in persons with underlying airway disease [such as asthma].  Apparent declines in respiratory function have also been rarely reported in those without recognized airway disease.

Consequently, use in patients with underlying airway disease is not generally recommended in the United States, although treatment in at-risk patients is used in other countries. If used in patients with obstructive airway disease, zanamivir should be administered cautiously under close observation and with availability of fast-acting bronchodilators.

8. Use in pregnancy: Category C (meaning no scientific studies have been done to prove that it is safe in pregnancy—because of liability, no such studies are ever undertaken—but available evidence indicates that it is probably safe to use during pregnancy).

9. Significant drug interactions: none.

How effective is Relenza for prevention or treatment of seasonal influenza? Clinical studies have shown the following:

Early inhaled zanamivir (10 mg twice daily for five days) treatment of uncomplicated influenza in previously healthy adults and children aged five to 12 years shortens the time to illness resolution and return to usual activities by one to three days. Treatment benefits appear to be greater in those with severe symptoms at entry, in those older than 50 years, and in higher-risk patients.

Inhaled zanamivir treatment in adults is associated with a 40 percent reduction in lower respiratory tract events leading to antibiotic use and a 28 percent overall reduction in antibiotic prescriptions. In high-risk patients with primarily mild-to-moderate asthma or other chronic cardiopulmonary conditions, zanamivir treatment reduces illness duration and the incidence of complications leading to antibiotic use.

Prophylactic administration of once-daily inhaled zanamivir (10 mg) is protective against febrile influenza illness during influenza season (84 percent efficacy) or when used for post-exposure prophylaxis in households with or without treatment of the ill index case (82 percent efficacy).

One study found that two weeks of inhaled zanamivir was superior to oral rimantadine [another antiviral drug] in preventing influenza A infection in nursing home residents, in part because of a high frequency of rimantadine resistance, and inhaled zanamivir has been used to curtail transmission of amantadine-resistant influenza A in nursing homes. However, inhaled zanamivir is not approved for chemoprophylaxis (prevention) in the United States or most other countries.

Finally, it is important to be aware of the fact that the effectiveness of Tamiflu and Relenza has been studied against circulating strains of human influenza, not against the bird flu virus. In a study reported in the August issue of the Journal of Infectious Diseases, Yen and others from St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee found that eight-day regimens of Tamiflu were more effective than the suggested five-day regimen for treating infections with the H5N1 bird-flu virus. The authors concluded that a prolonged and higher-dose oseltamivir regimen may be required for the most beneficial antiviral effect.

Bradford Frank, M.D., M.P.H., M.B.A.

The Frank Group

P.O. Box 138

Lakewood, NY 14750

www.AvoidBirdFlu.com

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title:Bird Flu: Why Modern Medicine Won’t Save Us

author:Bradford Frank M.D., M.P.H., M.B.A.

source_url:http://www.articlecity.com/articles/health/article_3472.shtml

date_saved:2007-07-25 12:30:11

category:health

article:



Very often when people begin to learn about bird flu, they jump to the conclusion that because medicine has advanced by quantum leaps since the 1918-19 influenza pandemic (global epidemic), there is nothing to worry about. They are certainly right about the advance of medicine, which has been extraordinary by any measure. Unfortunately, when it comes to dealing with a bird-flu pandemic, these advances fall short in many areas. To name the most significant:

1. Bird flu is caused by an influenza virus, for which there are only four approved antiviral agents in the U.S. The virus has extensive resistance to two of these medicines already, and resistance might develop in the remaining two once they are used more widely in a pandemic. The two remaining medicines, Tamiflu (oseltamivir) and Relenza (zanamivir), are in extremely short supply and, even with planned increases in their manufacture, will remain in short supply for many years to come. These medicines must be given within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms, which can be difficult to accomplish for a variety of reasons. Even when they are available and given on time, their effectiveness is less than 100 percent. And because bird flu is very different than the usual influenza we are used to, higher doses given for longer periods of time may be necessary for optimal effect.

2. While we have many wonderful antibiotic medicines, these are not effective against bird flu, because antibiotics treat only bacterial infections, not viral infections.  Antibiotics can be used to treat bacterial infections that develop after viral infections have damaged the body, allowing bacterial infections to “take over.”  This can happen, for example, when viral pneumonia turns into bacterial pneumonia. However, this did not happen in the 1918-19 Spanish flu to any extent, nor in the 2003 SARS pandemic, and it doesn’t appear to be a significant factor in the deaths that have occurred so far from bird flu. Hence all our sophisticated antibiotics will not be of much help with bird flu.

3. The most common cause of death from the 1918-19 influenza pandemic, the SARS pandemic, and from bird flu is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The viruses from these diseases cause severe damage to lungs, which results in ARDS. Numerous treatments have been tried but generally have failed. Patients with ARDS require mechanical ventilatory support, meaning they need to be on a mechanical respirator. These are expensive machines, and the supply in the United States is only slightly above demand during the normal flu season. Simply put, when the bird-flu pandemic strikes, there won’t be enough of these machines, and so people who develop ARDS will not have access to this potentially life-saving treatment.

4. There won’t be enough isolation rooms to place the large numbers of patients with bird flu in, which will result in more people becoming ill through exposure to people with bird flu. Likewise, there won’t be enough of some medical equipment, because of increased demand for some items coupled with decreased supply—because of our reliance on a global supply chain, foreign manufacture, and just-in-time delivery. There won’t be enough personal protective equipment (such as disposable gloves, N95 face masks, gowns, face shields or goggles, head caps, and shoe covers), which will increase exposure and infection.

5. During the coming pandemic, there won’t be enough beds in hospitals for all the sick people with bird flu. Makeshift “hospitals” will have to be established outside of existing hospitals to care for all the ill patients.

6. An effective vaccine has yet to be developed, and the chances that one will be developed before a pandemic emerges are practically nonexistent. Once a vaccine is developed, it will be months into the pandemic, and many people will already have become ill. Because we have no natural immunity to this new virus, we might need two immunization shots to develop sufficient immunity. This makes implementing an immunization program more difficult, and decreases the amount of vaccine available for everyone.

Vaccines, like antiviral medicines, are not 100 percent effective in either preventing infection or minimizing symptoms once infected. A startling new report (a) found only limited benefit from influenza vaccines: “In people over 65, the vaccines ‘are apparently ineffective’ in the prevention of influenza, pneumonia and hospital admissions, although they did reduce deaths from pneumonia a bit, by up to 30 percent.”

According to the Influenza Vaccine Supply (IVS) International Task Force, “Whatever scenario, even the most optimistic, the worldwide [vaccine] production capacity will be clearly insufficient in case of pandemic.”

7. Shortages of nurses and other healthcare personnel will be significant, because of overexposure to people with bird flu—and thus a higher illness and death rate among healthcare workers, and because a high proportion will simply decide not to come to work. A similar situation occurred in New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina when 250 members of the police department (one-sixth of the force) abandoned their jobs during the hurricane and flooding. It also happened in Toronto during the SARS outbreak, when some nurses and other healthcare workers submitted their resignations (although many were persuaded to stay).

The shortage of nurses, which is already a big problem in the United States, was highlighted recently by Keji Fukuda of the influenza branch of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). According to Fukuda, scientists are racing to prevent what could be millions of deaths from a flu pandemic, but what could trip them up is the simple lack of nurses and hospital beds. He said, “No matter how good medical technology is, if we don’t have healthcare workers to care for sick people and hospital beds to put them in, it’s not a good situation.”

And it’s not only the limited numbers of nurses—it’s also a question of whether or not healthcare workers would come to work during a bird-flu pandemic. A recent article (b) reported the disturbing findings of a survey of 6,000 healthcare works in and around New York City:

“One assumption blown away by Hurricane Katrina is that if government does nothing else, at least it protects people’s health and safety.

The Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University in New York City set out to look at how many healthcare workers said they would show up for work, depending on the type of emergency. There was some good news: 87 percent of 6,000 workers surveyed in 47 facilities in and around New York said they would be able to go to work in the event of a mass casualty incident, and 81 percent for an environmental disaster.

Only 61 percent, however, would show up for a smallpox epidemic, just 48 percent during a SARS epidemic and 57 percent during a ‘radiological event.’

That’s a problem, isn’t it? Less than half of healthcare workers expect to work during a SARS [or bird-flu] epidemic, and less than two-thirds if terrorists set off a so-called dirty bomb in the financial district.

‘Although we might assume that healthcare employees have an obligation to respond to these high-impact events, our findings indicate that personal obligations, as well as concerns for their own safety, play a pivotal role in workers’ willingness to report to work,’ said Kristine Qureshi, a researcher in the epidemiology department at Columbia.”

And so “modern medicine,” no matter how advanced, will clearly have difficulty dealing with a bird-flu pandemic. In a sense, the next pandemic could very well be analogous to the Hurricane Katrina situation, with mass confusion, lack of resources, visible dead bodies, acts of cowardice and acts of heroism, financial disaster, panic, and every emotion possible—nothing like we are used to witnessing in America; shocking.

Partly because of the limitations of both government and healthcare capabilities, individuals need to prepare for the coming bird-flu pandemic themselves. There are four specific areas that must be addressed, as I have written in an earlier article (which can be accessed on our Web site.)

(a) Rosenthal E: 2 Studies Find Flu Treatments Fall Far Short.  International Herald Tribune. September 22, 2005. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2005/09/22/health/22flu.html?th&emc=th. Accessed on September 23, 2005

(b) Olmsted D: Health wrap: of disasters and diseases. Monsters and Critics News, September 9, 2005. Available at: http://news.monstersandcritics.com/health/article_1047166.php/Health_Wrap_Of_disasters_and_diseases.  Accessed on September 15, 2005

Bradford Frank, M.D., M.P.H., M.B.A.

The Frank Group

P.O. Box 138

Lakewood, NY 14750

http://www.AvoidBirdFlu.com

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title:Bird Flu – Waiting In The Wings

author:Andrew Taylor

source_url:http://www.articlecity.com/articles/health/article_4896.shtml

date_saved:2007-07-25 12:30:12

category:health

article:



Avian influenza is spreading at an alarming rate and if it continues its flight soon it would turn into another pandemic.

Starting in the mid-2003 in South-East Asia, the pathogenic avian flu is the largest and most severe form bird flu going by the number of countries it has affected. The H5N1 virus that typically affects the bird populace has proved lethal. So far it has caused the death or destruction of an estimated 150 million birds in countries like Vietnam, Japan, Republic of Korea, Thailand, Cambodia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Indonesia, China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Turkey, Romania and Malaysia. There are unconfirmed reports of bird flu from India and France also.

The H5N1 virus is also of serious concern for human health. It has been found to be highly contagious form of virus and can easily transmit to humans through the contact of excretal or nasal secretions from infected birds. If not detected and treated early, the bird flu can prove fatal. And if precautionary measures are not taken at the earliest, it could change into a form that is highly infectious and could easily spread from person to person. Such a change could mark the start of flu pandemic. Already, a number of countries have reported confirmed human cases and even deaths due to avian influenza and this number is constantly on the rise.

Bird Flu Prevention

‘Prevention is the best cure’ goes the famous adage. The precautionary measures initiated in anticipation go a long way in curbing aggravation.

Firstly, the poultry farm owners must send random samples of their birds for thorough examination to the nearest veterinary/avian lab. All the infected birds must be immediately culled and the others properly vaccinated. The workers at the poultry farms must cover themselves properly so as to avoid a direct contact with the infected secretions from birds.

It is perfectly safe to eat poultry products provided the food is thoroughly and properly cooked. It is believed that the avian influenza virus cannot survive temperatures above 700 C. Juices from raw poultry and poultry products should not be allowed during food preparation to touch or mix with items eaten raw. One must wash his hands properly with soap and hot water after coming in contact with the poultry products.

Bird Flu Treatment

Though vaccines are available to counter seasonal influenza but no such shot has been developed till date against the H5N1 virus.

Only two drugs are found to be effective against the deadly avian flu – Tamiflu (oseltamivir) and Relenza (zanamivir). These drugs are effective only if taken within 48 hours of occurrence of first symptoms. The inhibitive factors regarding bird flu treatment seem to be the prohibitive costs and the limited production of these drugs.

For convenience, the patients can buy Tamiflu online only after proper diagnosis and prescription for the drug.

The bird flu is certainly a potential pandemic threat and must be addressed globally on humanitarian basis.

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Title:

Birth Control 101



Word Count:

620



Summary:

This article is about the different contraceptives and how birth control works. Enumerated in this article are the different types of birth control methods how they function to prevent pregnancy. Choosing which one to use is serious and it is best to know more about them by consulting a doctor before finally deciding on which one to use.





Keywords:

how does birth control work





Article Body:

We now live in a world where sex is as normal as going out to the movies. Even teenagers as young as fifteen years old are aware of the concept of premarital sex. And chances are, a lot of adolescents aged 15 to 19 are already sexually active. It is because we take sex so lightly that the rate of accidental pregnancies are going higher and higher up the charts.



While we’re on the subject of being permissive enough to ignore teenage sex, think about this: Do these teenagers know what contraceptives are? Do they know which ones to use and how to properly use it? This article will help children understand birth control more.



What is contraception and how does birth control work?

Birth control is a set of actions, devices, medications used for the sole purpose of preventing conception or pregnancy. It works in three ways:

1. It prevents the monthly release of an egg cell (ovum) from the ovaries during menstruation.

2. It thickens the cervical mucus lining so that sperm cells would not be able to swim and join with an ovum.

3. It changes lining of the uterus to make implantation of a fertilized egg difficult.



What are the different birth control types available?

There are natural methods of birth control. These do not require the aid of any device of medication. The natural method of contraception includes:

1. Abstinence. This requires a person to totally abstain from engaging in sexual activities of any form.

2. Withdrawal. This requires the man to pull his penis out of his partner’s vagina before he reaches his climax and ejaculates.

3. Sexual outercourse. It allows sexual gratification by means of non-penetrative sex. It may be in the form of oral sex or masturbation.

4. Fertility awareness. This method allows for couples to determine a woman’s safe and unsafe periods by means of careful recording of the woman’s basal body temperature, her first and last day of menstruation, and the consistency of her vaginal mucus secretions.



The barrier method of contraception includes:

1. Male condom. It is a latex or polyurethane rubber cylinder worn on the man’s penis to block sperm from going into the partner’s body.

2. Female condom. It is a thin sheath or pouch worn to line the vagina to collect sperm ejaculated by a man during sex.

3. Cervical cap. It is a barrier made out of either latex or silicone which is placed over the cervix to prevent sperm from entering the female reproductive tract.

4. Diaphragm. It works much like the cervical cap.



The hormonal birth control method includes:

1. Oral contraceptive pills. These are pills that contain synthetic versions of the female hormones estrogen and progesterone which aim to normalize a woman’s hormone level to prevent ovulation.

2. Injectables. It is a progestin-only solution that is injected to prevent ovulation for three months.

3. Hormonal patches. It is a thin, 2in by 2 in patch that slowly releases hormones into the body within the span of a week before it is replaced.

4. Birth control implants. It is a thin flexible plastic rod to be inserted under the skin of the upper arm of the woman to slowly release synthetic hormones into the body within the span of a year before it is replaced.



The intra-uterine device (IUD) is a T-shaped rod placed inside the uterus to created a localized inflammation so that the bodies auto-immune system will create white blood cells to repair the infection and in turn kill sperm cells that get within the vicinity of the inflammation.



Choosing the best birth control method to use is a serious matter. Consult your doctor to know more about the different risks and benefits of these contraceptive methods before picking one to use.





Title:

Birth Control Alternatives Without Outside Interference



Word Count:

574



Summary:

Some people would rather not have pharmaceutical contraceptives in their body and may have religious reasons for not wanting to use birth control items such as condoms. For these people, more discipline and timing-oriented methods such as  abstinence and Natural Family Planning are the preferred choices.





Keywords:

birth control





Article Body:

Some people just don't like using certain types of contraceptives. There can be a number of reasons for this objection. It is believable to say that they would cite religious reasons for their objections, though that argument may be fading out, if some statistics are to be believed. Another typically cited reason would be that a number of popular methods of birth control are simply flawed. A condom is not always effective and a number of factors can make even the most potent birth control medication still have an appreciable risk of pregnancy. There are, of course, other methods that do not entail the use of  pharmaceutical and external tricks but instead rely more on good old-fashioned discipline. These methods present their own risks, largely due to the fact that the less experienced the person is in the method, the less successful it is.



There is no arguing that the lack of sex is inevitably going to be the best birth control available. The simple logic of abstinence is hard to deny, since if they're not having sex, there's no chance of getting pregnant. However, this may also prove to be the most psychologically taxing. While the whole “people have needs” argument is not as valid as some might lead you to believe, it does have a level of credence. The extreme discipline that abstinence requires is very difficult to attain, especially in today's environment, which has the patience and attention span of an average child of six. Abstinence as birth control may be the only guaranteed way to prevent pregnancy, but it is hardly the easiest one to get a grip on, especially in the long-term.



Most people simply don't have the discipline or self-control for abstinence without years of training and conditioning to help fight the basic urge to procreate. Even the ones that have had that sort of training find it difficult at times, if the various scandals that the clergymen of the Catholic Church have been involved in through the ages are any indication.



An alternative to it is a method known as Natural Family Planning, which is still firmly based in abstinence, but is less demanding on the length of time removed from sexual contact with one's partner. This method relies on reading the physical factors of the female half of the relationship, taking notes on things such as discharge and cervical temperature to evaluate whether or not she's in a fertile state. Obviously, as a birth control method, this still poses some risks. Reading physical signs, even ones as scientifically quantified as the ones that NFP uses, can often be highly subjective. Any misreading or misinterpretation of the body's signals can result in a variable risk of pregnancy. In general, experience and knowledge can help lessen the risk of human error, but experience usually comes from “field testing” the method.



Similar to NFP, the Creighton Model also uses the body's own signals as a basis for birth control scheduling. The method uses tell-tale signs of fertility and infertility, such as blood discharge and cervical mucus, to determine the time when the female is at the lowest possible risk of pregnancy. Other details, such as blood tests to detect estrogen and progesterone, are used to accurately time a woman's cycle. The method is touted as having an effective rate of 99.5%, along with the ability to be customized to accommodate for biological and physiological traits that are individual in nature.





Title:

Birth Control and Weight Gain: Truth or Myth?



Word Count:

609



Summary:

There are a lot of myths about birth control and weight gain.  Scientific researche have thus far found no connection between using birth control methods and products, and gaining weight.  This article focuses on the wrong perceptions about the issue of birth control and weight gain.





Keywords:

birth control and weight gain





Article Body:

Is there really a connection between birth control and weight gain? In one recent survey, 50% of all women felt that birth control pills would cause unwanted weight gain. Of these women, 20% said this belief was the primary reason they would not use oral contraceptives. There are also evidences that women switch methods or birth control or stop using the pill because they think it contributes to weight gain. However, the good news is that the review found no evidence to support a casual association between combination contraceptives or birth control and weight gain.



Researchers have found it difficult to prove a connection between birth control and weight gain. While many women do gain weight after starting the use of oral contraceptives, it’s hard to tell if this weight gain is actually caused by the use of the pill or other lifestyle factors. In most cases, women taking oral contraceptives report a weight gain of five pounds or less. Only a small percentage of women experience a weight gain of more than 10 pounds after beginning a birth control pill prescription. Supposedly, any weight gain or weight loss related to the use of birth control pills is a side effect that will happen within three months of beginning of the prescription. Some studies have shown that while the pill may add a couple of pounds at first from water retention, the added weight disappears as the body adjusts to the hormones.



Another study found no difference between women who took hormonal contraceptives and those who took a placebo. The other studies looked at women taking different types and doses of hormonal contraception, and came to the same overall conclusion.



The claim may have had some truth many years ago, when the pill contained high levels of estrogen, hormones that cause water retention and increased appetite. Nowadays, most versions of the pill have only half the amount found in early versions.



There is also another factor that has nothing to do with the pill. It is a fact that most women in the Western world start birth control as teenagers and continue it through their 20s, a period when women naturally tend to gain weight.  In addition, it is possible that women who expect to gain weight after starting on a birth control pill prescription are unconsciously changing their diet and exercise habits. However, if a woman has tried several different types of birth control methods and had no success in controlling unwanted weight gain with diet and exercise, she may want to ask her  healthcare provider if insulin resistance is contributing to her problems. A simple blood test will be able to determine the presence of this condition. If a woman is suffering from insulin resistance, a low carbohydrate diet may be necessary to stabilize her weight.



Any weight gain after starting pills of more than 5% of body weight may be a signal of a woman's tendency toward insulin resistance or abnormal glucose metabolism. With this amount of weight gain associated with an oral contraceptive, a woman should be evaluated for possible insulin resistance. If this condition is present, she will have to adopt a low carbohydrate diet. Simple sugars in any amount and high carbohydrate only snacks or meals will negate all other dieting efforts on a daily basis and frustrate any long term ability at weight control.



In most cases, unwanted weight gain associated with birth control can be prevented by paying extra attention to diet and exercise or simply switching to a different type of birth control. The link between birth control and weight gain can sometimes be exaggerated, and it's about time to break those myths.





Title:

Birth Control And Your Lifestyle



Word Count:

542



Summary:

This article is about the different factors to consider when looking for the best contraceptive method to use.  It's not enough that you look for a cheap birth control measures, it should also work with your goals for the future, the values you cherish, your daily lifestyle, and the habits you have.





Keywords:

cheap birth control





Article Body:

For people who aren't ready to start a family or have a child, birth control is a gift from the gods. But with the rising costs of commodities, people are looking for something that will fit their budgets. And from there, the search for cheap birth control products starts.



You may ask yourself, will cheap birth control products be safe and effective? Will they work just the same as the highly priced products? It is understandable that quality and price may cause confusion in your quest to find the best contraceptive method for you. But it doesn't have to be confusing. The best birth control method is one that conforms with your goals, values, and daily lifestyle. You should also take your lifestyle habits into consideration in choosing.



Birth control types to fit your goals

Look at your goal in the future – would you still want to have a child five or ten years from now? If yes, then there are a lot of different reversible birth control options such as the hormonal methods, the barrier methods, the intrauterine device, and the natural methods to help temporarily prevent pregnancy until such a time that you're ready for the responsibility. For people who already have children and think that they don't want any more, there are permanent birth control measures such as sterilization – vasectomy for men, and tubal ligation for women.



Contraceptive methods that work with your values

Some people have problems with using birth control methods simply because it goes against the values that they were brought up on. Some people think it is absurd to use contraceptive products or medications because it is unnatural and it tampers with the way the human body works. For those kinds of people, the natural method, withdrawal method, and abstinence works best.



Family planning methods that conforms to your daily lifestyle

Let's face it, we live in a fast-paced world where every cent you earn is important. This is especially true for couples who are trying to keep the household running on a limited budget. It is because of this limited resource that people try to look for a more convenient and cost-effective means of preventing pregnancy. For these people, intrauterine device (IUD) and hormone injection works well because it doesn't require for a regimen to be done daily and you only have to change the IUD every few years, and you only have to get a new hormone shot every three months.



Take your lifestyle habits into consideration

Certain habits may interfere with the effectivity of certain contraceptive measures.  For women over thirty-five who smoke, using the hormonal method may be out of the question as it increases their risks of certain diseases, like cancer, heart attacks, and strokes. Also, women with asthma who take bronchodilators may decrease the effectivity of the birth control pill and increase their risks of having surprise pregnancies.



Choosing the right birth control should not be based on just how much it'll cost you, you must also think of how effectively it'll work on you when you choose to use it. It is important that you consult your physician for all the benefits and risks the different birth control methods offer you and pick the best one from there.





Title:

Birth Control Considerations for Teenagers



Word Count:

506



Summary:

An unplanned pregnancy is a traumatic event, this is especially true among teenage girls. It has shown that the number of births to teenagers has decreased considerably over the last few decades. This decrease is most likely due to the increased availability of abortion and birth control. This article is about teen pregnancy and some birth control methods they can choose from.





Keywords:

birth control





Article Body:

Teen pregnancy is one of the most difficult experience amidst a young person's life. It can interrupt school or other plans in their young lives. It can create an emotional crisis resulting in feelings of depression, shame and fear.  The stress of how a teenager go through to break this news to her parents might be even greater, and finding help may seem an impossible task.

There are researches that indicate that sex education and access to effective contraception are essential in preventing unplanned pregnancy in the teenage population. Some teenage pregnancies occur as a result of young women's sexual inexperience and an inadequate understanding of their reproductive cycle. Th research suggests that knowledge about reproductive matters and access to contraception are necessary to prevent unintended adolescent pregnancy.

According to another research, it has shown that the number of births to teenagers has decreased considerably over the last few decades. This decrease is most likely due to the increased availability of abortion and birth control, rather than a decrease in sexual activity. There has been an increase in abstinence and the use birth control methods among teens in the late 90s, although this does not attribute the changes to sex education alone. With so many methods available and so many factors to consider, choosing birth control can be difficult. Teenagers now have a lot of options and making a choice can be a bit difficult, if not outright confusing.  The key is to carefully check available product literature and sources of information about birth control methods. Making an informed decision is the consumer's responsibility before using a birth control product or whatever product there is.

One of the first considerations a teenager might wish to have is whether she wants a permanent or temporary birth control.  This is a decision that will affect the rest of her life and can be made only after thinking it through carefully. If a teenager knows that she will not ever want to conceive or get pregnant, tubal ligation or tubal implants may be the appropriate method to use. An unplanned pregnancy would seriously impact a teenager's plans for the future and thus, choosing a birth control method that is highly effective is a must.

Some people argue that sexual abstinence is not a true form of birth control. But, birth control is any act, drug, or device that is intended to prevent pregnancy. This means that choosing to abstain is really a contraceptive. Among teens, abstinence is the most popular method of birth control. Among people aged 15-19, fewer than half have ever had sex. Over one in ten women of reproductive age have never had sex at all.

If a teenager has health problems or other risk factors, some birth control methods may not be right for them. Other health problems that might keep one from using a particular birth control method are relatively rare, especially in young women. However, before using any method, it is definitely important for a teenager to seek and talk with a health professional.





Title:

Birth Control Made More Accessible



Word Count:

534



Summary:

This article is about the different over-the-counter birth control products. Women nowadays are just too busy to stick to a birth control program that requires them to take pills everyday at the exact same time. It is too tedious. Listed in this article are some readily available contraceptive products that can be bought without a prescription.





Keywords:

over-the-counter birth control





Article Body:

There have never been so many choices available for birth control as we do now, and there’s still more to be released in the market soon. But even with the widespread availability of birth control products and techniques, a huge portion of the female population of the United States still end up with unexpected pregnancies.



Living in the modern world means we all have to keep up with its fast pace. We all try to accomplish too many things all at once that schedules are rarely met, and attention is hardly given to important details such as birth control. The oral contraceptive pill is one of the most effective means of birth control, but it just doesn’t fit a busy woman’s schedule to stop and take a pill. So how can she stay protected from accidental pregnancy?



It is not a problem, now there are over-the-counter birth control products that can help protect the busy average woman. Here are some of the contraceptives available over-the-counter:

· The male condom. Condoms are easy to use, everybody knows how to use it. You only need to put it on when you’re going to engage in sexual activity, and is discarded after use. It is cheap, portable, and readily available. Some condoms come lubricated with non-oil based lubricants and some are lined with spermicide. Condoms with vaginal spermicide are highly effective. Used properly, they are as effective as the oral contraceptive pill in preventing pregnancies. Aside from preventing pregnancy, it also offers a moderately high level of protection against sexually transmitted diseases. The estimated effectiveness of the male condom is about eighty-six percent.

· The female condom. It may be awkward to use at first, but female condoms are a good birth control measure for women whose partners are not wearing a condom. Like its male counterpart, it offers good protection against STDs, is available without a prescription, and is only good for single use. It should never be used when the male partner is wearing a male condom as there is a possibility that the vaginal condom will slip out of place. It is seventy-nine percent effective in protecting women from accidental pregnancy.

· Vaginal spermicide. It comes in different forms, like: jelly, foam, cream, film, suppository, or tablet form. All types contain a sperm-killing agent which also helps prevent two STDs, namely gonorrhea and chlamydia. Be careful in following packet instructions as it will determine the effectiveness of the product. An application is only good for a single intercourse, and additional spermicide needs to be re-applied for repeated intercourse. Spermicides need to be applied ten minutes before intercourse, and needs to stay applied for the next six to eight hours after intercourse to ensure that all sperm cells are kills. The woman should not douche or rinse the vagina during the six to eight hours wait period. Its estimated effectiveness is about seventy-four percent.



Choosing what birth control method to use should not only depend on its convenience of use and whether or not it costs less. Consider if it fits your lifestyle. Consult your doctor to understand the pros and cons of each type of contraceptive to know which one suits you best.





Title:

Birth Control Methods Don't Always Fight STDs



Word Count:

577



Summary:

Most people tend to assume that birth control methods can also be used to help prevent an infection by a sexually transmitted disease. However, the reality is that most of these contraceptives cannot fight off STDs and, in one case, may increase the risk of infection. It is important, therefore, that people be better informed about which methods prevent STDs and which are strictly used for birth control.





Keywords:

birth control methods





Article Body:

Sexually transmitted diseases are something that should be considered a major concern whenever sex education is the topic. These diseases can vary from the mild to the life-threatening, and while most people are aware of their existence, most are unaware of just how much risk they might be in. For the most part, unexpected and unwanted pregnancies are the foremost concern, such that birth control methods can sometimes be heavily emphasized. In the effort to prevent STDs from spreading, this does not always have to be a negative thing. Some birth control methods can help reduce the risk of STDs, though not all of them can do so. It is then important that people be made aware of which birth control methods reduce the risk of STDs and which ones don't, allowing them to make better informed decisions.



Birth control pills, intrauterine devices, and the so-called Natural Family Planning (NFP) methods all do not reduce the risks of STD transmission. In the first two cases, the distinction is absolute, as neither of them blocks the exchange of bodily fluids that may carry the diseases. In the case of NFP, the distinction is less all-encompassing, since these methods generally involve a complete lack of exchange of bodily fluids for certain intervals. However, NFP's main flaw is that it only provides protection while there is no direct sexual contact with an infected person’s genitals, blood, and bacteria or virus-carrying body fluids, but it leaves a person exposed to possible infection the moment any sexual contact is made. So while there may be a reduced risk of pregnancy, the risks of STD infection are no lower than if NFP had not been used.



Spermicides are generally effective at preventing conception, but not for removing the risk of STDs. Risk for STDs is still present since by the time the average spermicide has been used, STD infection may already have spread. According to some studies, there is actually an increased risk of STD infection from using spermicidal products in comparison to other known forms of birth control. These studies have not yet had their results confirmed beyond reasonable doubt. However, most doctors prefer to err on the side of caution.



Condoms, diaphragms, and other forms of contraception that involve blocking the release of bodily fluids and sexual secretions from one person to another are the methods that help prevent STD infection. Most STDs are transferred via bodily fluids such as semen, vaginal secretions, and the like. Birth control methods that prevent the transfer of such substances during intercourse, or block the fluids from reaching the partner's body, can therefore reduce STD risk. Absolute abstinence also prevents STD infection, but only for as long as the abstinence is maintained. It should be noted that, aside from abstinence, most birth control methods that rely on blocking the exchange of fluids do not have the ability to prevent pregnancy completely at the same time. It is therefore advisable to use a more effective form of birth control as additional security.



Procedures such as vasectomies and tubal ligations do not prevent STD infection, even if they do prevent the onset of pregnancy. This is because, while both procedures block the ability of sperm and egg cells from making contact with one another, they do not prevent the release of other fluids. Not all STDs are carried through body fluids, so preventing them from escaping the body alone is not enough to prevent an infection.





Title:

Birth Control Options Everyone Should Know



Word Count:

759



Summary:

While the most effective way to avoid both pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases is to refrain from sexual contact or practice total abstinence, a number of birth control options are readily available and have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Deciding what method to choose largely depends on your needs.





Keywords:

birth control





Article Body:

There are different reasons why people, especially women, opt for birth control. Some women don't want to get pregnant because of health reasons. Finances, emotional maturity, family approval, and career concerns also influence decisions about pregnancy. A more compelling reason for using certain birth control methods is that these products also help in getting protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

While the most effective way to avoid both pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases is to refrain from sexual contact or practice total abstinence, a number of birth control options are readily available and have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Deciding what method to choose largely depends on your needs. What's good for one person may not be effective for another. Factors such as a person's health, frequency of sexual activity, number of sexual partners, and the desire to have children in the future should all be taken into account.

In recent years, more types of birth control methods have hit the market. Aside from prevention of pregnancy, a new wave of pills, patches, and implants has given women more control over their reproductive cycles, including the unpleasant symptoms of premenstrual syndrome.

Aside from the different factors to consider in deciding which birth control method to choose, it is also important to know their benefits and advantages, as well as their possible health risks. The list below may help you sort through your options:

The Pill – It is considered to be 98-99% effective if taken as directed. Benefits include a more predictable cycle with monthly periods that are lighter, shorter, and less frequent. There is also a relief from premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and acne.  The woman using the pill would also reduce her risk of ovarian cysts, ectopic pregnancy, benign breast cysts or lumps, and ovarian and endometrial cancer. Side effects include unexpected bleeding and spotting, vomiting, and diarrhea. Certain sedatives and antibiotics can reduce the effectiveness of pills. Generally not prescribed for women who smoke, are over age 35, and have family (or personal) history of certain health problems. These include: blood clots; breast, uterine, or liver cancers; serious heart problems (like heart attack); and stroke.

Patch – It is considered to be 99% effective if used correctly. This is a once-a-week contraception for women who can't or don't want to take daily pills. Benefits include reduced risk of ovarian cysts, ectopic pregnancy, benign breast cysts or lumps, and ovarian and endometrial cancer. Compared to pills, however, the patch may expose the user to a slightly higher dose of estrogen and risk of blood clots. Generally not prescribed for women who smoke, are over age 35, and have family (or personal) history of blood clots; breast, uterine, or liver cancers; serious heart problems (like heart attack); and stroke.

Vaginal Ring – This method is 99% effective if used correctly. It's a once-a-month form of contraception for women who don't want to take daily pills. Benefits include a steady release of hormones, so there are fewer hormonal ups and downs. It reduces risk of ovarian cysts, ectopic pregnancy, benign breast cysts or lumps, and ovarian and endometrial cancer. However, in rare cases, the ring can slip out of the vagina during intercourse. Generally not prescribed for women who smoke, are over age 35, and have family (or personal) history of blood clots; breast, uterine, or liver cancers; serious heart problems (like heart attack); and stroke.

IUD (Intrauterine Device) – This device is considered to be 99.9% effective. It can prevent pregnancy for up to 5 years and does not contain estrogen. Periods get lighter. Periods get lighter over time. About 20% of women have no period after one year. It may shorten, lighten, or even eliminate periods. It does not cause weight gain. However, it may cause irregular bleeding or spotting for the first few months.

Implant – The implant is believed to be more than 99% effective. It can be used up to three years, but can be removed at any time. It does not contain estrogen. However, it may cause irregular and unpredictable monthly periods and spotting may occur.

Permanent Birth Control – As a permanent birth control method, it is considered to be 99.8% effective based on four years of follow-up. Zero pregnancies occurred in clinical trials. No hormones are used and monthly periods should more or less continue in their natural state. It has nonsurgical sterilization with no incisions involved. Works for both overweight and very thin women. However, this procedure is NOT reversible. Surgical removal of micro-inserts could result in complications. Since no birth control procedure is 100% absolutely effective, there is always a risk of pregnancy.





Title:

Birth Control Patch: The Patch of Death?



Word Count:

636



Summary:

This article is about birth control patches.  It questions the safety of using this method of contraception as there have been multiple cases filed against the manufacturer of this product.  Many women have experienced blood clotting on top of the other unpleasant side effects.  There have also been reported cases of fatality because of using birth control patches.





Keywords:

birth control patch





Article Body:

A lot of different birth control devices have been created over the centuries and are now being marketed to the public.  All of them supposedly have been tested by the Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) if it is safe to be marketed to and used by the public.  However there is an ongoing controversy regarding the birth control patch.



In the United States, a number of women in the San Francisco area have filed complaints about the adverse effects they experienced since they started using birth control patches.  A lot of these women have developed blood clots on different parts of their bodies, and a few women have died from complications brought about by this contraceptive patch.



The Birth Control Patch

The contraceptive patch is a transdermal patch attached to the skin that is used to release synthetic estrogen and progesterone hormones into the body to prevent pregnancy.  This means of contraception can only be acquired through a prescription and is acclaimed to be just as effective as the combined oral contraceptive pill.  At the moment, the only available brand of birth control patch is Ortho Evra.  It is informally referred to as “the Patch”.



Birth control patches work by releasing hormones into your system through your skin.  It prevents eggs from being released from the ovaries, it thickens the cervical mucus lining to prevent sperm from reaching the egg, and it changes the lining of the uterus to prevent implantation.  It is worn for one week at a time and it is placed directly on the skin of your abdomen, upper arm, upper torso, or buttocks.  It is replaced once a week on the same day each week for a three-week period.  The birth control patch is not worn during the fourth week to allow for the menstrual flow to occur.



Side Effects

Just like any other medication, it has side effects to go along with the benefits it provides its users.  Here are some of the noted side effects from using the birth control patch:

l Skin irritation at the site of application

l Headaches

l Breast tenderness, swelling, pain

l Irregular vaginal bleeding or spotting

l Moderate weight gain

l Nausea and vomiting

l Bloating

l Yeast infections

l Depression



The scariest side effect of using a birth control patch is its thromboembolic risks.  All combined hormonal birth control products poses a really small increased risk of severe or fatal clot formation and migration (thromboembolism).  It has recently been documented that birth control patch users may double the increased risk of developing a non-fatal venous thromboembolism as compared to women who use oral contraceptive pills.  At present there have been a few reported cases of fatalities directly pointing to the birth control patches as primary cause of death.



A Cry For The User's Safety

On November of 2006, a group of 40 women filed a lawsuit against the only that manufactures birth control patches, Ortho-McNeil.  They wanted the product to be pulled out from the market to protect other women who are not aware of the severity of its side effects.  The FDA said that any hormonal contraceptive may cause blood clot as estrogen is also responsible for blood coagulation, however too much blood clot may indeed lead to other medical complications which may end in fatality.  Because of  the piling complaints against Ortho-McNeil, they re-tested the product and re-hashed the product label, indicating that it may cause blood clotting.



Choosing the right contraceptive product is not as simple as going for the most convenient or the cheapest one your money can afford.  The first and most important factor that you should consider is your own health.  Using a birth control patch may be convenient for you, but in the long run, will you still find it convenient after you've experienced all its adverse effects?





Title:

Birth Control Pills and the Era of Seasonal Menstruation



Word Count:

505



Summary:

The approval of continuous-use birth control pills began the era of seasonal menstruation. Having more control over their reproductive cycles, women gained access to a contraceptive that will not only minimize the occurrence of menstruation, but would completely eliminate monthly periods for up to a year.





Keywords:

birth control pills





Article Body:

The era of seasonal menstruation began in 2003  upon the approval of continuous birth control pills for commercial use.  The said new generation of pills gave women the option to regulate their menstruation and limit its occurrence to only four times a year. The need to have more control over their reproductive cycles due to lifestyle, career, and health reasons had prompted many women to use this type of contraceptive. Using the said medication, women can now delay menstrual periods for as long as an entire year.

Lybrel, the first birth control pill that made it possible for women to be one-year free from menstruation, was approved for sale and public use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in May 2007. While this estrogen-progestin hormonal pill works like the 21-Days On, 7-Days Off Cycle Pill, it does not have a “week off” period that usually leads to bleeding.

While there are still concerns about the ill-effects of preventing monthly periods and its negative effects on health, in general, experts confirmed that there was no physiological “downside” to a period-free life. According to one expert, many American women have been doing away with their monthly periods using the traditional birth control pills without encountering any problems.

According to Dr. Camelia Davtyan, a gynecologist and associate professor of medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles, the “period” women get while on conventional birth control pill is not connected to the natural cycle of egg production. “It's not a natural period. It's an artificially induced period that happens because she stops taking the hormones for seven days. So, she gets some vaginal bleeding,” added Davtyan.

Some women have a psychological attachment to their menstrual period as an affirmation of their femininity. More than the side effects, they feel more secure about their health when they are having regular menstruation.

Complete elimination of monthly period is just emotionally uncomfortable for some women. “They don't feel right about not having their period. For those women, obviously Lybrel and other such products are not good products for them,” said Dr. Michael Petriella, vice chairman of obstetrics and gynecology at Hackensack University Medical Center, in Hackensack, New Jersey.

But for women who experience troublesome premenstrual syndrome (PMS), acne breakouts, blood-clotting, and painful endometriosis, understanding that they don't need to bleed prompted them to seek for contraception that will alleviate these physical, as well as emotional symptoms linked to menstruation.

Convenience and modern lifestyle encourage women not to have bleeding altogether. Having monthly periods mean wearing pads, and/or tampons which could limit them from engaging in sports and other physical activities.

The new generation birth control pills, which include the lighter-period pills, the no-PMS (premenstrual syndrome) pills, and the no-acne pills, are more likely to appeal to younger women and those with menstruation problems like endometriosis and menstrual migraine.

All these pills are variations of the traditional birth control pills, which is a combination of mini-doses of estrogen and progestin. At present, there are no high-dose pills on the market anymore.





Title:

Birth Control Pills Create Mutant Trout!



Word Count:

565



Summary:

It may seem like an idea right out of some science fiction novel, but the reality is that the high levels of estrogen from birth control pills are causing mutations in fish and frogs. The hormones, coming from the sewage runoff of major cities, is  mutating aquatic life near major urban areas across the US. While most people are not worried about this at the moment, experts believe that it is only a matter of time until the high levels of hormones in the water affect humans.





Keywords:

birth control pills





Article Body:

The use of birth control pills are starting to become more prominently used in the continental US, with the statistics showing that more and more people are using it. There are reports of side effects and unusual reactions to them, but these are generally considered to be a natural part of the process. After all, any medication, even herbal and natural ones, can result in someone experiencing potentially harmful or uncomfortable side effects. However, most of these medications are not found to have any profound effect on anyone or anything else, aside from the person taking the medication. However, there are some signs that show birth control pills may be responsible for mutations and “alterations” to the natural environment.



It has been recently discovered that the hormones contained and triggered by birth control pills, once washed into natural water supplies, can have an effect on aquatic life. The most dramatic, and most recent, example being the discovery of mutated trout in a stream near Boulder, Colorado. While it wasn't unusual for a vast majority of the trout population to be female, the fact that 101 females were present in contrast to 12 males was rather disturbing. Some experts have commented that such drastic differences could pose difficulty in properly maintaining the population. However, even more alarming were the 10 samples that exhibited both male and female physical characteristics.



Initially, these 10 mutations were taken as natural occurrences, but further investigation found that these creatures developed their unusual traits due to exposure to high levels of estrogen and progesterone. It took time, but it was eventually traced back to the various birth control pills and other hormone-based medication being used by the human population in Boulder. This isn't a limited problem, however, with reports coming in about similar mutations and effects on a variety of other species coming in from all over the US.  In particular, rainbow trout male fertility is found to drop to an alarmingly low level because of exposure to the synthetic estrogen found in a number of birth control medications.



While this may seem utterly unimportant in the face of larger issues, some environmentalists say that there might be more to this problem than some people assume. The levels of estrogen and other synthetic hormones in the water may not have a direct effect on human beings now, but as the use of birth control increases and more of these hormones are washed into the water supply through human sewage, the problem can only get worse. Also, it is believed that the main reason that nobody has noted the effects of these high levels of synthetic hormones in the water on humans is that nobody has actually conducted a serious study on the effects of it yet.



However, some politically astute observers will note that this is unlikely to be made a major environmental issue. Unlike the debate between genetically modified crops and organically grown ones, this issue is intrinsically tied with an aspect of people's lives that most organizations would be unwilling to meddle in. Some believe that the debate will come down to sex education and sexual health against environmental preservation, with the latter being the most likely loser in the public arena. Of course, that is probably going to be the case until human mutations occur. At which point, some environmentalists and biologists believe, the damage may already be too much to undo.





Title:

Birth Control Pills: Further Evaluation Is Needed



Word Count:

480



Summary:

Further research is needed to identify whether SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin) changes induced by birth control pills may or may not be completely reversible after discontinuation of oral contraceptives, and whether this leads to long-term sexual, metabolic, and mental-health changes in some women.





Keywords:

birth control pills





Article Body:

While a certain study on birth control pills suggests a long-lasting negative effect on women's sexual function, it does not, however, prove that it can cause sexual dysfunction on women who are not on the pill.  But it does add to previous research findings that some birth control pills can lower a woman's free-testosterone level. Women with low testosterone are prone to a number of health problems that includes sexual health.

According to Dr. Claudia Panzer and Dr. Irwin Godstein of Boston University Medical Center, they found significantly lower scores in the Full Scale (female sexual function test) and in the domain of sexual desire for women on oral contraceptives compared with those who had never used oral contraceptives.

“There was significantly more sexual pain in the women who were taking oral contraceptives,” added Panzer, who practices her profession in Denver, and Goldstein, who is editor in chief of the Journal of Sexual Medicine where the study appeared.

One finding that is considered very alarming is that when these women stopped taking birth control pills they had long-lasting increases in a protein that sucks up testosterone.

“Further research is needed to identify whether SHBG (sex hormone binding globulin) changes induced by oral contraceptives may or may not be completely reversible after discontinuation of oral contraceptives, and whether this leads to long-term sexual, metabolic, and mental-health changes in some women,” wrote Panzer.

The study looked at 124 women, all of whom had “sexual health complaints.” Half of these women were using different kinds of birth control pills. Another 39 women had used the pill for at least six months but stopped at the beginning of the study, while 23 women had never used the pill. These 23 women who had never used the pill were slightly older (average age 36) than those still on the pill (average age 32) and those who stopped using the pill (average age 32).

The study suggested that women who had used birth control pills reported greater sexual dysfunction, less sexual desire, and greater pain during sex than those who never used the pill. Those who had used oral contraceptives had four times higher SHBG levels than those who had never used this birth control method. It is believed that SHBG lasts in the body for only about two weeks. Sure enough, the women who stopped using the pill saw about a 2.5-fold drop in their SHBG levels after 106 days. However, higher-than-normal SHBG levels persisted.

Panzer and her colleagues followed 11 of these women for a year or more. Their SHBG levels remained much higher than normal. That could be a problem, observed the researchers, as women with high SHBG levels might have lower testosterone levels.

“SHBG values may remain elevated to values significantly higher than 'never users' for a prolonged period of time despite discontinuation of oral contraceptives,” warned Panzer. “This is an early observation, which needs to be evaluated further,” she said.





Title:

Birth Control Pill: Health Benefits and Lifestyle Concerns



Word Count:

519



Summary:

Oral contraceptives or birth control pills are patronized by majority of sexually active women. Pills are not just safe, convenient, and inexpensive, but these are also relief provider to a number of health conditions. In this article, the author enumerates the different health conditions that can be treated by regular intake of birth control pill. The author also explains a number of lifestyle concerns on taking oral contraceptions.





Keywords:

birth control pill





Article Body:

Oral contraceptives are preferred to use by millions of women worldwide as a form of birth control, for these are very efficient, inexpensive, convenient, and safe to use compared to other types of birth control methods. However, these contraceptive medications require prescription from health practitioners or gynecologists. With the wide selections of birth control pills available today, women should go for the ones that their trusted doctors recommend.



Aside from the facts that birth control pill is cheaper and convenient, this form of oral contraception is also highly regarded for its capacity to treat other types of medical and health conditions. Yes, birth control pills give a lot of health benefits aside from preventing pregnancy.



The following are health conditions that can be treated with oral contraceptives:



   1. Dysmenorrhea. This is an extreme abdominal pain that is experienced during the first few days of menstruation.

   2. Hirsutism. This is an abnormal hair growth, which is common on the face and neck areas, among females. Maintained intake of pills can significantly reduce and prevent additional hair growth.

   3. Irregular periods.

   4. Amenorrhea.

   5. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding. This is an abnormal bleeding in the vagina that triggers during a menstrual cycle.

   6. Acne.

   7. Hypernorrhea. This is an abnormal and quite heavy flow of menstruation.

   8. Cystic ovarian syndrome. This involves infertility and formation of tiny ovarian cysts. 



   Some lifestyle concerns on using birth control



Birth control pills do not work overnight. Since some birth control pills may not work in as fast as one week, it is highly recommended among women to use other types of contraception while they are on their first pill pack. Intake of oral contraception requires discipline and organization, for these are important in tracking the use of medications. Tracking here means ensuring that the pills are taken on time and in proper order. When traveling, one should keep an extra one month pack in case of emergency and pills may possibly be unavailable.



Once a woman decides to take birth control pills, she is required to see a gynecologist at least once a           year for consultation. Checkups generally include pelvic and breast exams, pap smear, and blood           pressure measurement. Depending on gynecological status and health, some women may even be            required to visit their gyne  a few times more than usual for additional follow-up consultations.



Most gynecologists require women who are taking pills to discontinue the intake of contraceptive  medication once they suspect they are pregnant or are already sure that they are pregnant. This will prevent any unwanted  complication on the unborn baby.                   



As for women who already gave birth, they can resume on taking birth control pills a few weeks after                  giving birth. Doctors, however, do not advice the intake of birth control pills that contain estrogen, for these can lessen the quality of the mother's breast milk. Progestin-only pills are the ones recommended by gynecologists to mothers who are still breastfeeding. In frequent checkup visits, women who are taking birth control pills will have no problem on asking or consulting to their gynecologists about their concerns and queries regarding the use, side effects, and benefits of birth control pill intake.





Title:

Birth Control Questions And Answers



Word Count:

551



Summary:

This article shares some commonly asked birth control questions. Although contraceptives have been in production for four decades now, a lot of people seem to still have little understanding of birth control and its different kinds.  Also included is a short tip on how to choose the best birth control method.





Keywords:

birth control questions (birth control question)





Article Body:

Birth control has been around for over four decades now, and yet people only have the slightest understanding of what it is and how it can help them.  In this article, we are going to try to shed light on some of the most common birth control questions asked by people.



What does birth control do? How does it work?

Birth control is a group of actions, devices, and/or medications that is observed to intentionally prevent or lower the chances of becoming pregnant. It is intended to be used by people who are sexually active but are not yet ready to raise a child.  It works by doing the following:

l Preventing sperm cells from reaching egg cells.

l Preventing the release of new egg cells during ovulation.

l Preventing implantation of a fertilized egg into the uterus.



How many kinds of contraceptives are there?

There are two major types of contraceptives, the reversible and the irreversible. Reversible contraceptives include: the natural method requires a person to take note of a woman's menstrual cycle, body temperature, and/or cervical mucus secretions to determine her safe and unsafe days to engage in sexual activity; the barrier method, which aims to prevent sperm from reaching egg cells, is made up of the male and female condom, cervical cap, diaphragm, and different forms of spermicides; the hormonal method, which works by altering a woman's hormone levels, includes the use of oral contraceptives, injectables, hormonal patches, and the likes; the intra-uterine device (IUD) that involves the insertion of a T-shaped device into the uterus to produce a localized swelling that produces white blood cells that end up killing sperm cells; and the traditional method, which includes sexual abstinence, coitus interruptus, and sexual outercourse.



The irreversible birth control method permanently stops a person's ability to bear and produce offspring. The only irreversible contraceptive method is sterilization, and it is done by means of vasectomy for men, and tubal ligation and hysterectomy for women.



What are the most commonly used birth control methods?

Sterilization takes top spot as the most commonly used contraceptive method around the world. Followed in order by the IUD, the oral contraceptive pill, the male condom, hormonal injections or implants, and withdrawal method.



Can contraceptives protect me from sexually transmitted diseases?

There are certain types of birth control methods that can protect you from sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and there are those that cannot. Barrier methods that require the use of latex sheaths to prevent contact of seminal fluid and the vagina are the most effective contraceptives to protect against STDs. Other methods that do nothing but change the level of the hormones or kill sperm are less efficient in safeguarding one's health from sexually acquired infections.



How can I choose which one is right for me?

The best birth control method differs for every person. What works for you may not be as effective to the someone else, and vice versa. However, you must always keep in mind that choosing is not as simple as drawing straws.  Talk to a physician or a licensed sexual health professional regarding the different benefits and risks of using the different contraceptives. From there, you can try out the different forms of birth control and see which one works best for you and your needs.





Title:

Birth Control Tricks That Don't Work



Word Count:

672



Summary:

In the modern era, there are a number of so-called “tricks” that a woman or a couple can do to prevent pregnancy. However, a decent understanding of how the menstrual cycle and conception works will help a person comprehend and distinguish the myths from the real effective birth control strategies.





Keywords:

birth control





Article Body:

Women have been trying to prevent themselves from having children for centuries, with most societies tolerating or accepting such practices. The fact is, ancient methods of birth control have been in use even during periods that were thought to be controlled by conservatism, religious extremism, and plain ignorance about scientific principles of human reproduction. Some of these actually work while others simply don't.  Surprisingly, in this day and age, many people still think these traditional birth control methods are effective.  There are also those who prefer to see these folk methods as myths until science backs up the claims about the supposed effectiveness of these methods. This sort of skepticism is a positive thing, since birth control that doesn't work is essentially useless. However, there are times when that same skepticism doesn't seem to quite apply to more modern birth control myths. While some of them might have a degree of scientific data to back them up, quite a number of birth control urban legends are just that: legends.



One of the most prominent among these stories involves carbonated drinks. Usually, the stories list things like Coca-Cola or Sprite, though most any carbonated soda drink will do. As a pseudo-testament to the prevailing popularity of this story, it was referenced in the Anne Rice erotic novel “Belinda” and actually put through a scientific test on the Discovery Channel show “Mythbusters.” The stories generally say that the use of these drinks as a contraceptive involves shaking the cans and spraying it into the vaginal cavity, where the acidic content will theoretically kill sperm cells. Sadly, as scientific testing has proved, this method doesn't exactly work.



In a similar vein to the above, another idea that people have had over the years is that rinsing out the sperm can work. This is a fairly flexible myth, taking on a variety of forms in different areas. In some cases, there are as many ways to rinse out the sperm as there are people telling the story. These include taking a shower or bath immediately after, using a liquid to rinse out the sperm from the vagina (some variations of the carbonated drink myth involve this), and having the woman urinate. While some experts say that showering or bathing after sex could have a psychological effect, preventing conception using this tactic is nothing more than a myth.



Other people believe that it is impossible for a woman to get pregnant if she does not experience orgasm. If the media is to be believed, that would mean that most women in the US can never get pregnant. The fact is, experiencing an orgasm – or any sexual stimulation at all, really – is compeltely and utterly unnecessary to achieve pregnancy. This myth is often connected to the one that states that certain positions during sex prevent pregnancy. Both are ridiculous when it comes down to it, though the latter has some more outrageous claims. A particularly outrageous one claims that having intercourse standing up, in a closet, during a full moon is the best possible birth control. Sadly, according to statistics, there are some people out there that believe this.



The “withdrawal” method, which involves having the man “pull out” before achieving orgasm, can also be categorized as a myth. The release of sperm does not always accompany the male orgasm, with some men being able to release semen into the woman repeatedly without achieving orgasm. Even if the male orgasm is accompanied by the release of sperm, there are other factors that make this tactic highly dubious in the best of circumstances. For one thing, most males release a small amount of fluid prior to orgasm that contains some sperm. Also, even if the fluid is released outside the body, if the sperm manage to make it into the vagina, then there is still a chance of pregnancy. Consider that these cells are very microscopic and the fluid may be difficult to differentiate from vaginal secretions during sex.  Make a microscopic mistake --- and you've got yourself a situation.





Title:

Birth Control: An Overview



Word Count:

513



Summary:

This article is about the different birth control types.  The article gives a brief overview of the most commonly used birth control types, discussing how they work, the different forms of the different birth control methods, and whether they offer protection from sexually transmitted diseases or not.





Keywords:

birth control types





Article Body:

We live in a more sexually permissive world, and with that liberty came a rise in the number of unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases. It is because of this that more and more birth control products are being created and marketed. But how much do you really know about the different birth control types?



The hormonal method

This contraceptive method aims to prevent pregnancy by means of regulating the production of women's naturally occurring sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, to create a more consistent hormone level. A low level of estrogen stops the ovaries from releasing egg cells, while a low progesterone level impedes the preparation of the uterine lining to make it non-conducive for implantation. Hormonal contraceptives may come in the form of birth control pills, hormonal patches, injectables, implants, or vaginal rings. With perfect usage, the hormonal method has a high effectivity percentage, although it does not protect its users from sexually transmitted diseases (STD).



The barrier method

This birth control method works by forming a protective barrier against sperm. The barrier method includes the male and female condom, the diaphragm, the cervical cap, the contraceptive sponge, and spermicides. Barrier methods are more convenient and easier to use for men than for women. With the exception of spermicides and the contraceptive sponge, the barrier method offers a moderate amount of protection against sexually acquired infections.



Withdrawal

It is a popular birth control method for people who engage in sexual activities unprepared. In this method, the man has to pull out his penis before he ejaculates. It requires both practice and self-control to properly pull off the withdrawal method. This method offers very little protection against STDs and AIDS.



Natural methods

This birth control method requires no drugs or chemicals, making it side effect-free. It works by being able to determine when a woman is fertile and avoiding sexual contact during those days. This is accomplished by keeping a record of a woman's temperature, and observing changes in a woman's cervical mucus secretions. The natural birth control method is highly effective if followed strictly. This method offers no protection at all against STDs.



Sexual Outercourse

Simply put, this method only discourages penetrative sex like anal and vaginal intercourse. This method includes masturbation and oral sex. Although highly effective in avoiding unwanted pregnancies, it does not offer protection from AIDS and sexually transmitted infections.



Abstinence

This method requires a person or a couple to refrain from engaging in any kind of sexual activity. Even if it is a difficult method to practice, it is a sure way of preventing pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections.



It is important to understand that with the exception of abstinence and sexual outercourse, there is still a small chance that you'll get pregnant by accident. Most birth control methods are not 100% effective, after all. Consult a doctor or a health care professional to know more about the different benefits and side effects the different contraceptive methods may bring. The important thing to do is to find the one that works best for you and sticking to it.





Title:

Birth Control: Its Origin And History



Word Count:

651



Summary:

This article is about a brief history of birth control methods.  It shows the different kinds of contraceptive measures ancient people used.  This article also briefly discusses how some of the birth control methods have evolved into their future forms.





Keywords:

history of birth control





Article Body:

With the help of modern science and the latest technology, more and more contraceptive methods are fast becoming available to the public. Although many  campaigns are being launched left and right to widen the public awareness on the subject of birth control and help explain how the different contraceptive devices and products work, these often overlook the history of birth control.  How did birth control come about?



Back in the day, there were no scientific explanations to prove how birth control worked and people just improvised and went with whatever seemed to work.  The oldest methods of contraception (not including abstinence from sex) are the withdrawal method, certain barrier methods, and herbal methods.



The withdrawal method, also known as the coitus interruptus, involves withdrawal of the penis from the vagina before a man reaches his orgasm.  It probably predates any other contraceptive method.  Experts said that once the connection between a man's emission of semen into the vagina and conception was suspected or established, men have started practicing it.  Different religions have their own views on the subject of withdrawal.  According to the book of Genesis, Onan incurred the wrath of God by “spilling his seed on the ground” in opposition to the custom to impregnate his sister-in-law.  Ancient Chinese and Indian beliefs indicated that coitus reservatus, or withdrawing the man's penis without ejaculating, helps retain a man's virility as they believed that ejaculating releases the yan, the essence of masculinity.  They believe that this method isn't regarded as the most reliable method of contraception as some men lose control and forget to “pull out” when it's time.



Barrier methods were designed to stop sperm from reaching a fertile egg by means of caps and spermicides.  Early Egyptian women have historic records of using a vaginal suppository made up of a concoction of substances that were said to kill sperm.  Asian women were said to have used oiled paper as cervical caps, while European women used beeswax.  The first condom came about sometime in the 17th century.  It was first made of animal intestine.  Although the first condom is not as effective as the modern latex condoms, it was used both as a means of birth control and as protection from syphillis, which was then greatly feared as there were still no known cure for the disease.



Throughout the course of history, a lot of different abortifacients have been used by many women.  These are natural or synthetic substances that may induce an abortion.  A certain 2nd century Greek gynecologist named Soranus suggested women to drink water that blacksmiths use to cool metal.  Some women drank solutions mixed with mercury, arsenic, or other toxic materials for the purpose of preventing pregnancy.  It works by poisoning the woman's body so that it will not be conducive to support pregnancy.



The herbal method was said to have been used by ancient tribes to control population.  The herbs tansy and pennyroyal were said to have worked the same way as the above-mentioned abortive chemicals, poisoning a woman enough to prevent her body from conceiving, but not enough to kill her.  But aside from being abortive, some herbs were used as preventive measures for pregnancy.  The hibiscus rosa-sinensis may have antiestrogenic properties that change the hormone levels of women.  Papaya seeds were said to have been used as a male contraceptive.



The modern day intra-uterine device (IUD) was said to have come from a folktale about Arab traders who inserted small stones into their camels' uterus to prevent pregnancy.  However, the first IUD that covered the vagina and the uterus was first marketed in the early 1900s.  Then finally, the first modern IUD was created in 1909.



Times have changed, and so have birth control methods.  They have been enhanced and improved to further accommodate the people who intent to use them.  People who have become more and more liberal as culture and society have evolved.





Title:

Birth Control:  Shaping Your Family's Health and Future



Word Count:

639



Summary:

In most countries, there is no limit as to the number of child a parent can have as long as he can provide for their needs and welfare. However, family planning is not just about birth control but laying a solid foundation for a better future.





Keywords:

birth control





Article Body:

Some people ask themselves if it's okay to engage in premarital sex and in their minds try to weigh its pros and cons. There are couples who engage in premarital sex way before they even get into high school. At the onset of puberty, kids begin to be curious about their sexuality. And without proper guidance, these kids explore and venture into the realm of the senses without much thought of the dire consequence of their impulsive actions. Come to think of it, teens are not the only ones guilty of such wanton behavior but even adults as well. Indeed, the world has shaped a permissive attitude towards premarital sex.

On the positive side of the scale, there is peer acceptance and the gratification of sexual desires. After all, the kind of message we receive in the media today, be it on TV or in the movies, is that “everyone is doing it.” But its downside carries the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, unwanted pregnancy, and the heavy weight of moral consequence such as guilt. Thus, morality plays a vital role in dealing with the issues about premarital sex.  But for those couples who have learned to “wait”, the prospect of married life and eventually, raising their own family becomes a satisfying experience.

Parenthood is one of the noblest tasks a married couple has to take as they carry on with their relationship. Some who are not blessed to have their own children would even go to the extent of adopting someone else’s child just so they can experience parenthood.

In most countries, there is no limit as to the number of children couples can have as long as he can provide for their needs and welfare. However, due to economic considerations, many couples have decided to put a limit to the number of kids they want to raise, much to the consternation of the church. We all know that the church advocates procreation and is totally against family planning or birth control. Thus, we are faced with the dilemma of choosing between having a big and happy brood than a small but a well-planned family.

Family planning is not just to limit the number of kids a family but is also a means to improve the quality of life of each family member. It’s not just about birth control but laying a solid foundation for a better future.

The type of birth control you choose depends on your needs. Some people only need to prevent pregnancy. Modern couples try not to have babies in the first two years of marriage in order for them to enjoy each other as husband and wife. This will enable them to have strong bonding and prepares them for the coming of their future children. If and when they decide to have kids, they try to plan or limit the number and succession of their offspring. By doing so, they are able to manage and monitor the needs of their children in terms of their financial, emotional, and physical capabilities.

Other couples may also resort to contraceptives to protect themselves or their partners from diseases that can be passed on by having sex. These diseases are called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): AIDS, chlamydia, herpes, genital warts, gonorrhea, and syphilis.

Statistics released by Planned Parenthood shows that birth control paved the way for improved family life: “The maternal death rate has fallen more than 60 percent. The infant death rate has declined by more than 70 percent. Birth control not only saves lives — it helps women and their families prevent poverty, plan their futures, and take charge of their destinies.”

To decide which method to use at this point in your life, talk with your family doctor about the pros and cons of each birth control option.  Better yet, think before you do.





Title:

Birth Defects and Chemicals



Word Count:

767



Summary:

While an embryo may die due to a chemical exposure and result in a miscarriage, a developing fetus will survive but can suffer altered DNA that results in malformations, deformities, retardation and birth defects - lifetime serious personal injuries that can and should have been avoided.





Keywords:

Birth Defects, Chemicals, Outrageous, Exposure,  Levels, Work





Article Body:

While an embryo may die due to a chemical exposure and result in a miscarriage, a developing fetus will survive but can suffer altered DNA that results in malformations, deformities, retardation and birth defects - lifetime serious personal injuries that can and should have been avoided.



It is not as if scientists haven't known that dangerous chemicals cause birth defects or only learned that fact recently.



Chemical manufacturers for decades did not report all known risks of chemical exposure, relying on the weakest reports assuring safety, to avoid loss of sales.



The same chemical suppliers that find themselves defendants in cancer cases are also defendants in birth defect cases because chemicals that cause mutations upset DNA.  Mutagens are carcinogens and teratogens.  The same chemicals that cause cancer are also responsible for birth defects.



Manufacturers are held responsible for birth defects becaus of failing to warn, but they have successfully provided themselves with a handmaiden in their defense known as the American Conference of Industrial Hygienists.  It is largely a chemical industry dominated organization that has set exposure levels for workers to prevent acute, i.e. immediate adverse physical reactions.  Unfortunately OSHA has adopted these weak standards. The result is that when chemical companies are sued for birth defects their chief defense is "we have done all that we are required to do" and the pregnant mother's exposures were within the levels allowed by law.



But it doesn't end there.



Proposition 65 was adopted by California voters demanding a healthy and clean environment.  As a result the State of California sets health-based environmental exposure limits for specific chemicals in air and water.



The maximum concentrations are not allowed to cause more than one additional cancer per million people exposed to the chemical over their lifetime.



California has very stringent public health standards.



OSHA, on the other hand, allows manufacturers and employers to expose workers to levels of chemicals that are thousands of times higher than the health levels set by Cal EPA.



Methylene chloride, benzene, epichlorohydrin, trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene have been used in industry for years. Toxicologists confirm that these chemicals are known carcinogens.



The difference in how these chemicals are regulated by environmental and health laws and OSHA is astounding.



Under environmental regulations, the maximum concentration of methylene chloride that can be discharged to the air, if converted to what is known in industry as an "8 hour time weighted average," is .001 parts per million [ppm].



Under OSHA rules the "allowable" level of exposure for methylene chloride is 25 ppm, which is 25,000 times greater than the health standard.



For benzene, the OSHA level is 1 ppm, even though the health standard is 1 part per billion [ppb]. The OSHA standard is 1,000 times greater.



Health regulations allow exposures to epichlorohydrin of 0.001 ppm, while OSHA allows 2 ppm, which is 2,000 times greater.



The maximum concentration of trichloroethylene under health standards is 0.007 ppm or 7 ppb. But the OSHA level for TCE is 25 ppm. That's 3,571 times higher.



OSHA levels for perchloroethylene are 25 ppm, but under health regulations the allowable limit is 0.003 ppm. The OSHA limit is 8,333 times greater.



On a day-to-day basis, workers have been exposed to high levels of dangerous chemicals, which have been thousands of times stronger than levels allowed by public health laws.  As outrageous as it is, it is legal.



Employers don't worry because they cannot be sued.  Workers are relegated to filing claims with the Workers' Compensation Appeals Board for "benefits" [an oxymoron] that are extremely limited.



Unborn children exposed to chemicals during pregnancy are not forced into the WCAB system because they are not employees.  Children are entitled to full constitutional protections against a parent's employer for the injuries suffered in the womb.



In most states the time limit on bringing suit does not start to run until a person becomes an adult on their 18th birthday.  Usually two years is allowed or before the 20th birthday, except for Tennessee that has a one-year time limit.



Most states recognize "delayed discovery." This discovery rule provides that the statute of limitations period starts to run when an injured person has, or should reasonably have, knowledge s/he has suffered injury.



Not all claims of delayed discovery are successful.  So, filing before an injured person's 20th birthday stops a chemical company from raising a statute of limitations defense or attacking a delayed discovery claim.



As a practical matter because it is necessary to identify the manufacturers of chemicals causing injury and to prove the level of exposure, mothers who worked with chemicals during pregnancy should promptly take action before valuable co-workers can no longer be found to testify in their support.



Onward,



Richard Alexander





Title:

Birth Size Could Be Linked to Use of Antidepressant Drugs



Word Count:

553



Summary:

Children who were born smaller than average may end up experiencing things such as depression and anxiety later in life, a British study showed. The problems, in theory, are caused by the same factors that cause fetuses to grow slower in the womb. However, the study has encountered problems because the researchers ignored several variables that could have impacted the outcome.





Keywords:

antidepressant drugs





Article Body:

In direct opposition of the old saying, size may actually matter. At least, they appear to matter when it comes to determining which children are more likely to need antidepressant drugs in their later years. Some recent studies have found evidence pointing to the possibility that babies that are smaller than average are more likely to develop a number of behavioral disorders, with depression being the most notable among them. Statistical data was gathered to serve as background verification, which had data that supported the theory. However, this is still not entirely accepted, and additional research into the matter needs to be conducted.



The research speculated that certain conditions in the mother's womb that lead to smaller babies at birth may also be responsible for mood disorders, such as depression. The study involved an estimated 4,600 babies who were born in 1946. Researchers noted down details such as weight, the condition at birth, and the life signs. Forty years later, those babies were checked up and the results showed that those children who were born smaller than average had developed a mood disorder and used antidepressant drugs at least once in the past. According to the statistical data gathered, there appeared to be a relationship between birth size and mental health. In theory, a baby's size at birth is inversely proportional to the state of that child's future mental health, such that bigger children are less likely to be effective in dealing with anxiety or depression.



One problem with this conclusion, however, is the fact that the research team did not really do any research on the other probable causes. There was no effort to eliminate  other possibilities over the course of the data analysis, at least, according to opponents of the theory. Some critics have also pointed out that the study is incomplete, in the sense that not all of the potentially relevant information was noted by the research team. Among these are medical history (both mental and physical), possible hereditary traits, and other factors. This casts a sizable amount of doubt on just how accurate the theory is, even if it does have enough information to prompt further research into the matter. It should be noted that some of those studies are dedicated solely to eliminating some of the variables that affected the final results.



There were also other things that proved notable, even if not all the pertinent data was taken. For example, there was the fact that all of those who had developed mental illness problems and used antidepressant drugs in their adult lives also developed slower than other children. In particular, milestones such as their first word and the ability to walk on two legs were notably performed a significant amount of time later than average children. It was noted that these same individuals also were of smaller than average birth height and weight, lending some credibility to the theory.



Still, as stated above, the idea has not yet been proven conclusively. There is still a large number of variables that have not been taken account for and possible causes that were not eliminated, or even noted. These are glaring weaknesses in the argument to support the results of the study, especially since the details ignored by the research team could easily have had a significant impact on their findings.





title:Bisphenol A and You!

author:Terry Connors

source_url:http://www.articlecity.com/articles/health/article_3649.shtml

date_saved:2007-07-25 12:30:11

category:health

article:



Mr. McGuire: I just want to say one word to you - just one word.

Ben: Yes sir.

Mr. McGuire: Are you listening?

Ben: Yes I am.

Mr. McGuire: 'Plastics.'

-- The Graduate

Yes, plastics.  The miracle of modern science.  Without plastics.  . . why, there are a whole bunch of things we wouldn't have.  And you want things, don't you?  Of course you do.  You can't do without things.

A Bisphenol A molecule

According to a  study by the University of Cincinnati, Bisphenol A - a chemical that mimics estrogen in the human body - affects developing brains at much lower concentrations than previously thought.  The research team, led by Dr. Scott Belcher, PhD, showed that the maximum effect of Bisphenol A occurs at 0.23 parts per trillion.

I hear you groan: "Please, don't lecture us about something else that can kill us.  Every day, its something new - how are we supposed to remember what to avoid?"

Rest assured, dear reader, there is nothing you can do to avoid Bisphenol A. . . at least, not at the concentrations necessary to do harm.

Bisphenol A is used to manufacture polycarbonate plastic (used in many food containers - including baby bottles).  It is also used to make an epoxy-resin coating that lines the inside of most of our canned food.  It is also used in electrical wiring, and has a myriad of other uses.

Lets pause here for a moment to clarify something.  Just because something is made from something else, does not mean that there is any of the original material present in the finished good.  If the final product is much more chemically stable than the original material, there is very little chance that the original material will be present at any detectable level.

However, that is not the case with polycarbonate and epoxy resins made from Bisphenol A.  These products have been shown to be somewhat unstable, which can lead to a breakdown into Bisphenol A, which can lead to subsequent human exposure.

Previous research (by a pro-Bisphenol A organization, no less) has shown that the typical daily exposure to Bisphenol A for the average person measures about 20-30 nanograms per kilogram of body weight.  Thats about 20-30 parts per trillion, in other words -- 100 times higher than the amount necessary to damage a developing brain.

"So, what does it do?  How does it kill me?  How can I avoid this horrible fate?"

First, it won't kill you.   Although there are many other reports from over the years that have linked Bisphenol A to breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer, you have to ingest much more Bisphenol A to get these effects.  As much as several parts per million, in fact.

However, Bisphenol A has its greatest impact at the low dose of 0.23 parts per trillion on developing brains.  It affects the brains by "appearing" to be estrogen in the body.  This can block normal estrogen functionality, which research has shown to be crucial at certain developmental stages in the human fetus.  It is unclear what this inhibited estrogen action will have on the person in later life.

As a former chemist who used to work with inks and coatings, I know that Bisphenol A is very easy to formulate with.  It has been used for decades, and there are a large number of resources on Bisphenol A to assist a bench chemist formulate.  I also know that there are many other materials that can be used that are much safer, and no more expensive than Bis-A.

I know its hard to keep straight what is really dangerous and what isn't.  A huge number of people have been sucked in by the Aspartame hoax, for example, and all of them have the best intentions.  However, Bisphenol A is a known carcinogen, a known sensitiser, and now is a possbile teratagen.  We also know that it unecessary to use Bisphenol A since there are other, safer, materials that can replace it.  So why don't we?

I'm not really sure, but I bet it has something to do with money.

ZZZZZZ

Title:

Blackjack Strategy Tips: How to Win in Blackjack



Word Count:

674



Summary:

Here basic blackjack strategy is explained in a clear and simplified manner. Read, memorize and win.





Keywords:

blackjack strategy, casino games, blackjack rules, internet casinos, single deck blackjack game, casino, gambling, hobbies, entertainment, sports and leisure





Article Body:

Blackjack is one of the few casino games that are beatable in the long run. It means that by using a basic blackjack strategy you can have an advantage over the casino and eventually step away from the blackjack table as a winner. Here you can find the basic blackjack strategy explained in a simplified manner.



The blackjack strategy is based on the mathematical probabilities of the game and it provides you guidance on the best decisions to make at every possible situation during the game. It takes about an hour to memorize this strategy but it is worth every minute. This does not man you will win every single blackjack game from now on, but with the help of the blackjack strategy, patience and persistence, you can significantly improve your chances of beating the casino in the long run.



Note that some blackjack rules vary from one casino to another. In some casinos, both brick and mortar and internet casinos, blackjack is played with one card deck while in others the blackjack game occupies four decks or more. In addition, in some of the casinos the dealer hits on a soft 17 while in others he is required to stand and doubling after splitting is allowed only in some of the casinos.



Here you can find a basic strategy to a single deck blackjack game where the dealer hits on soft 17. Playing other blackjack variants would require you to make some adjustments for a few borderline occurrences.



First, here is a short introduction to the terms mentioned here:

Hard Hand: two initial cards that do not include an Ace.

Soft Hand: two initial cards that one of them is an Ace

Stand: when a player is not asking to be dealt more cards after the two initial cards.

Hit: when a player calls for an additional card to be dealt

Double: when a player doubles his initial bet after the initial deal, but it requires him to hit only one card.

Split: when a player separates the initial two cards into two individual hands and plays them as 2 hands.



Finally, here is a basic blackjack strategy:

When your initial two card hand sums up to 8 or less: hit

When your hand sums up to 9 and the dealer hand value is between 3 and 6: double if else: hit when your hand sums up to 10 and the dealer hand value is between 2 and 9: double; if else:

When your hand sums up to 11 and the dealer hand value is between 2 and 10: double; if else hit.

When your hand sums up to 13, 14, 15, or 16 and the dealer hand value is between 2 and 6: stand; if else hit.

When your hand sums up to 17: stand.

when your initial two card hand contains Ace 2 or Ace 3 and the dealer has either 5 or 6: double; if else: hit.

When your hand contains Ace 4 or Ace 5 and the dealer has 4, 5 or 6: double; if else: hit.

When your hand contains Ace 6 and the dealer has 3, 4, 5 or 6: double; if else: hit.

When your hand contains Ace 7 and the dealer has 2, 7 or 8: stand; if he has 3, 4, 5 or 6: double; if else: hit.

When your hand contains Ace 8 or Ace 9: stand

When your hand contains a pair of 2s or 3s and the dealer hand value is between 2 and 7: split; if else: hit

When your hand contains a pair of 4s and the dealer has either 4 or 5: split; if else: hit

When your hand contains a pair of 5s and the dealer hand value is between 2 and 9: double; if else: hit

When your hand contains a pair of 6s and the dealer hand value is between 2 and 6: split; if else: hit

When your hand contains a pair of 7s and the dealer hand value is between 2 and 7: split; if else: hit

When your hand contains a pair of 8s: split

When your hand contains a pair of 9s and the dealer hand value is between 2 and 7 and either 8 or 9: split; if else: stand

When your hand contains a pair of 10s: stand

When your hand contains a pair of 8s: split





Title:

Blackjack: Learn How to Become a Champion



Word Count:

621



Summary:

Here, you will find practical and easy to learn tips on playing blackjack at home or at a casino that will turn you into a champion.





Keywords:

card games,blackjack,online casinos,gambling





Article Body:

Learn How to Play and Win Blackjack after practicing some basic steps that can be learn easily. Blackjack is one of the more easier card games that you will come across, and its basic concept is simple: get 21 as the sum of your cards or get as close to 21 but higher than the sum of your opponent's cards.



1) Do not try and reach 21.

Yes. Even though blackjack is also commonly called 21, trying to reach 21 with every hand is an amateurish move. You will, most certainly, lose the hand. Statistical research conducted has shown that the odds of reaching 21 is lesser than the odds of getting more than 21.



2) Try and Beat the Dealer.

Since blackjack is a one on one battle: you versus the dealer, focus on beating the dealer. Instead of trying to get 21, try to guess what hand the dealer will receive and accordingly play your hand. Remember that the dealer at a regular casino or even at an online casino has to stop taking more cards if the cards on the table add up to 17. But if their cards add up to 16 or any number less, they will have to take another card.



3) Look at the dealer's card facing up.

The only way to play is to look at the dealer's card facing up. If it is a low card like a two or anything up to a 6 or 7, try and get a high number combination. If it’s a 9 or 10, the odds are high that he has a 10 underneath or at least he will be forced to take another card. So, reach anything up to 20 or 21, but its better to even stop at a 18 or 19 and hope they will over-run the sum of 21.



How Blackjack is Played at a Casino:

1) Place your bet on the table.

Each blackjack table has a set beginning bet and this ranges from a dollar to ten or twenty for the high-rollers crowd. This is the amount of chips you will have to put down, and this signals to the dealer that you are taking part in the next round.



2) You will get a card.

The dealer then deals a card to you and all the other players who have also placed a bet down.



3) The dealer places a face-up card in front.

This is one of the cards of the dealer, and since its facing up, all the players have a chance to judge the outcome of his cards.



4) The dealer deals the second card.

The dealer, then, deals you and all the players an additional card. This is the time to have a look at them and at the dealer's card and decide whether you wish to get another card.



5) The dealer asks.

The dealer now turns to each player and asks them if they wish to receive another card. If you wish  it, the dealer will give you a card. Then, the dealer will ask you again. Note that the dealer will be with you until you decide that you do not want to receive any more cards. Then, the dealer moves on to the next player, then, the next, and so on.



6) The dealer starts playing.

Only when all the players have said that they do not want any more cards, does the dealer start playing. He takes cards until he has reached 17 or above. Then, he has to stop.



7) The dealer opens the cards.

When he's done, the dealer first reveals all his cards. Then, he moves from one player to the other opening their cards. After revealing each player's hands, the dealer pays out the bet or takes the bet away according to who has won and who has lost.





Title:

Bladder Cancer  And The Effects Of Colon Cleansing



Word Count:

427



Summary:

You have probably heard about some of the many ways that you can cleanse your colon, but you may not understand the benefit of colon cleansing.





Keywords:

colon cleansing,bladder cancer,stage 4 cancer,cleaning your colon,constipation,blood in stool,





Article Body:

You have probably heard about some of the many ways that you can cleanse your colon, but you may not understand the benefit of colon cleansing.  There are many reasons that you are going to want to have a colon cleansing done at least every couple of years.



Herbs are good in intestinal cleansing since they get rid of pounds of foul smelling food debris that have been stocked inside the colon.  Often colon cleansing can take up to a month and there are products that are very effective such as powers, teas, and pills.  Increase your level of exercise to assist in eliminating constipation and speed up detoxification and colon cleansing.



Increase the fiber in your diet and include whole grains, fruits and vegetables to help activate colon cleansing and constipation relief.  For detoxifying or cleansing the colon, it is also important to include probiotics in your diet in order to replenish the good bacteria in the intestines.  Many people swear to the fact that after years of self-medication and doctor visits, a colon cleansing is what finally cured them of many of the diseases they were suffuring from for years.



As the awareness of colon cleansing is reaching more and more people, new methods of colon cleansing are also available.  A colon cleansing kit consist of a 3 part system. The tea, powder, and the pills as mentioned above. But far from the only thing on the market.





Constipation is caused by so many different contributing factors that it is very challenging to come up with a colon cleansing recipe that will work fairly widely.  Juice fasting is a great way of cleansing the colon. The second way is to use cleansing herbal formulas which often contain herbs that are known to kill parasites, reactivate the peristalsis (muscular action of the colon) and eliminate mucus and compacted feces from the sides of the colon wall.



Often the colon wall muscles will expand and lose tone.  Good colon health implies the proper and adequate functioning of the colon and toxic-free state of the colon.

The best thing to do is to make sure that you are having a colon cleansing done every couple of years so that you are not going to have any complications in the near future because of all the toxins that you may be taking in.  Please remember that it is important to consult a medical practitioner for advice before you start a colon cleansing program.  Happy colon health to you, and please visit my websites to learn more about colon detoxification cleansing.





Title:

Bladder Cancer: Another Health Risk Posed by Cigarette Smoking



Word Count:

517



Summary:

The article talks about heightened risk of smokers in developing bladder cancer. Though treatable, certain treatments may lead to the development of certain side  effects that may affect one's sexual health. However, quitting the habit may drastically reduce the risks of developing certain cancers and lead to overall health improvement.





Keywords:

cigarette smoking





Article Body:

Cigarette smoking has been strongly linked to ailments such as heart disease, lung cancer, and other respiratory and circulatory diseases. However, there are several other cancers that can be developed because of cigarette smoking such as bladder cancer. Bladder cancer affects about 53,000 thousand individuals across the United States and smokers are twice more likely to get lung cancer than non-smokers.



Cigarette smoke contains more than 4,000 chemicals, 60 of which are highly carcinogenic. Smoking means exposing oneself to chemicals like hydrogen cyanide, butane, nicotine, carbolic acid, ammonia, and other harmful chemicals. As these substances are inhaled, they are absorbed into the lungs and eventually into the bloodstream. The blood then gets filtered by the kidneys and is incorporated in the urine. These carcinogens damage the urothelial cells that line the bladder walls and cause the development of tumors.



In some cases, bladder cancer often causes no symptoms until it has reached an advanced cure that may be difficult to cure. Noticeable symptoms of bladder cancer are non-specific, which means that these conditions may be linked to other health conditions other than cancer. Some of the symptoms of bladder cancer include the following:



Presence of blood in the urine;

Pain or burning sensation during urination without the occurrence of urinary tract infection (UTI); and

Urinating more often or feeling the strong urge to urinate without producing much urine.



Because of modern technology and advanced medicine, treatments for bladder cancer are now widely available. Treatment depends on the stage of the disease, the type of cancer, and the patient's overall health. Surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and immunotherapy are some of the common methods performed to treat this kind of cancer. However these treatments may produce a number of side effects that may affect one's sexual health. These treatments may cause certain signs and symptoms that may make sexual intimacy with one's partner more difficult. But this does not mean that a healthy sex life after cancer treatment cannot be achieved. Doctors should be consulted for possible remedies for these conditions.



Some sexual health problems that may be caused by cancer treatment may include the following:



Inability to achieve or maintain an erection (erectile dysfunction)

Difficulty climaxing

Orgasm without discharge of semen (dry orgasm)

Weaker, less satisfying orgasms

Loss of libido

Pain during sex



The development of different kinds of cancers that are linked to cigarette smoking have made the need to quit smoking more important. Despite the availability of many methods for cancer, people can drastically lessen the risks of developing bladder cancer by quitting cigarette smoking --- a goal that might be easier said than done for certain individuals. These individuals may use various quit smoking products like nicotine gums, patches, and others that are out in the market. These products are scientifically proven to aid individuals who want to quit smoking. These products work by temporarily supplying the body with nicotine through means other than cigarettes. This helps calm physical withdrawal symptoms of cigarette smoking. Using these products and coupling them with the right attitude a sure formula for the prevention of bladder cancer and improve one's overall health and well-being.





Title:

Bladder Infections



Word Count:

1174



Summary:

Using the Six Steps of Healing, Wise Woman Susun Weed offers ways to deal with bladder infections (UTIs).





Keywords:

susun, susan, weed, herb, empowerment, tired, fatigue, energy, disease, breast, cancer, hrt, ert, flash, flush, hysterectomy, fibroids, fibroymyalgia, pregnant, pregnancy, fertility, infertility, UTI





Article Body:

“If you let that fiery wise blood just sit there in your belly, great granddaughter,” admonishes Grandmother Growth, “you'll get the urge to quench that heat. You'll get a tickle, a twinge, an urgent call. But you won't have the moisture you need. It's boiled away. It's gone up in steam.



“So I'll say it once more: circulate your wise blood, granddaughter. Spiral it around and up to your crown. Take action on your anger. Pleasure yourself. And you'll be one of those old crones, like me, whose eyes sparkle with mirth and flash with intention.”



Step 1:  Collect Information



Bladder infections are also known as cystitis, urethritis, and UTIs (urinary tract infections). When bacteria grow in the bladder, the resulting infection usually causes symptoms such as: a burning sensation during voiding, overwhelming urgency, frequent but minuscule urinations, incontinence, bloody urine, and pelvic pain. Up to 25 percent of bladder infections in post- menopausal women are silent or symptomless.



Bacteria enter the bladder in three primary ways: when feces are spread to the bladder opening (such as wiping from back to front after toileting), when the tube leading to the bladder is irritated or bruised (as from use of a diaphragm, pelvic surgery, or prolonged/vigorous vaginal penetration), or when there is an in-dwelling catheter.



The thinning and shrinking of reproductive and bladder tissues that may occur in the post- menopausal years contributes to bladder infections in older women, as does lessening of vaginal acidity.



Sometimes tiny ulcerations appear in the wall of the bladder; this is called interstitial cystitis (IC). Some of the remedies in this section are contraindicated for women with interstitial cystitis.



These remedies are substantially the same ones that delighted and aided the readers of my first book: Wise Woman Herbal for the Childbearing Year.



Step 2:  Engage the Energy



 Flow, flow, flow. Head off that bladder infection by drinking a glass of water hourly as soon as you feel the first urgency or burning. It is tempting to stint on drinking if you find yourself unexpectedly incontinent, but don't. Bladder infections only make incontinence worse.




 Urine is ideally neutral to slightly acidic (pH 5.8–pH 7). Very acidic urine (below pH 5.5) encourages infections. An established infection gives rise to alkaline urine (pH 7.5 or higher), which causes stinging and burning. Test your urine with pH paper at any time except first thing in the morning. Cranberry juice lowers pH; vitamin C raises it.


 Cantharis is a homeopathic remedy for scalding urine.


Step 3:  Nourish and Tonify



 Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) contain substances that kill bacteria and make your bladder wall so slippery that any escaping bacteria can't latch on and thrive there. Unsweetened cranberry juice (or concentrate) is the most effective form. (The sugar or corn syrup in cranberry cocktail-type juices and cran-apple juices can feed the infection.)




Drink freely, at least a glass a day, up to a quart/liter a day for acute infections unless your urine's pH is already low.



 Pelvic floor exercises help prevent and relieve bladder infections too! Try this one: After urinating, close your eyes, relax, breathe out, and see if you can squeeze out an extra dribble.


 An overgrowth of vaginal yeast may be irritating your bladder or urethra. Eat one cup of plain yogurt 4-5 times a week.


Step 4:  Stimulate/Sedate



 Uva Ursi (Arctostaphylos uva ursi) is an old favorite for strengthening the bladder and ending chronic silent bladder infections. I prefer a hot water infusion of the dried leaves, but know women who have successfully used cold water infusions, tinctures, even vinegars. A dose is 1 cup/125 ml of infusion; 10-30 drops of tincture; 1 tablespoonful/15 ml of vinegar; 3–6 times a day initially, then 1–3 times a day for 7–10 days. In very chronic cases, eliminate all forms of sugar (even fresh fruit, fruit juice, and honey) for a month as well.




 Yarrow is a urinary disinfectant with a powerful antibacterial action and an astringent effect. A small cup of the infusion, once or twice a day for 7–10 days, tones up weak, lax bladder tissues. Combines well with uva ursi. Results may be felt within hours.


 In my experience, Echinacea purpurea and E. augustifolia are as effective as antibiotics in clearing bladder infections and do not contribute to vaginal yeast. (See Step 5b.) A dose is 1 drop echinacea tincture per 2 pounds/1 kilo body weight. (For 150 pound/70 kilo person, use 75 drops or three dropperfuls.) In acute cases, I give the dose every 2 hours. As the infection clears, I lengthen the amount of time between doses until I'm down to 1–2 doses a day, which I continue for another 2–10 weeks.


 Women who wash their vulva with soap and water are four times more likely to get vaginal and bladder infections. Douches, bubblebaths, tampons, nylon underwear, and pantyhose may also irritate the urethra and contribute to bladder infections.


 Known bladder irritants include: alcohol, black tea, coffee, sodas, citrus juices, chocolate, cayenne, and hot peppers. (An herbal tincture in an alcohol base won't irritate the bladder if you take it diluted in a glass of water or a cup of herb tea.)


 Urinating after love play flushes out bacteria and cuts down on UTIs. Urinating before love play increases your risk of a bladder infection.


Step 5a:  Use Supplements



 Ascorbic acid wrings the kidneys, flushes the bladder, and raises urinary pH. Try 500 mg hourly for 6–8 hours. CAUTION:  IC sufferers — avoid!




 Be careful about taking calcium supplements if you are prone to bladder infections. Calcium supplements increase bacterial adherence to the bladder wall, increasing bladder infections.


Step 5b:  Use Drugs



Antibiotics are the standard medical treatment for women with bladder infections. But taking antibiotics frequently causes vaginal yeast overgrowth (which can lead to bladder infection). One — nitrofurantoin (Macrodantin) — seems to cause microscopic scarring and ulceration of the bladder wall, precipitating IC.



Step 6:  Break and Enter



Dilation of the urethra is expensive, painful, and causes tiny scars on the urethra, which may lead to interstitial cystitis. I have seen it referred to as “the rape of the female urethra”. No controlled study has shown this procedure to be effective at limiting chronic bladder infections. Do pelvic floor exercises instead.





Legal Disclaimer: This content is not intended to replace conventional medical treatment. Any suggestions made and all herbs listed are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, condition or symptom. Personal directions and use should be provided by a clinical herbalist or other qualified healthcare practitioner with a specific formula for you. All material contained herein is provided for general information purposes only and should not be considered medical advice or consultation. Contact a reputable healthcare practitioner if you are in need of medical care. Exercise self-empowerment by seeking a second opinion.







Susun Weed

PO Box 64

Woodstock, NY 12498

Fax:  1-845-246-8081





Title:

Blade Versus Bladeless LASIK Eye Surgery: What Is The Difference?



Word Count:

420



Summary:

As a patient you must know the difference between the two surgery types.





Keywords:

lasik, laser eye surgery, eye surgery, lasek, eye, vision





Article Body:

Patients considering LASIK eye surgery may come across medical jargon, such as "blade" and "bladeless" LASIK. To a layman, such terms might appear overwhelming. However, as a patient you must know the difference between the two surgery types, and the rewards and risks associated with each.



Traditional LASIK makes use of a microkeratome to cut a thin hinged flap in the cornea. The flap is then folded back to reveal the stroma – the middle layer of the cornea. A high precision laser, called the excimer laser, is used to reshape the corneal surface so as to correct any refractive error. The flap is then repositioned to act as a natural bandage. Since the microkeratome used to create a flap is in fact a surgical blade, the procedure is also known as blade LASIK.



A more recent innovation, introduced in 1999, makes use of a high energy laser (IntraLase or femtosecond laser) to create a flap during surgery. As opposed to traditional LASIK, IntraLase does not employ a surgical blade, and hence the procedure is often marketed as "bladeless" or "all laser" LASIK. The term itself has raged a debate among eye surgeons, as to whether it should be used in IntraLase advertisements or not. Several surgeons assert that the term "bladeless" implies that traditional LASIK, which makes use of a surgical blade (microkeratome), is a scarier proposition, when in fact it’s not.



The creation of the flap is an important part of the laser eye surgery procedure. It’s true that flap predictability is better with a laser flap, that is, with bladeless LASIK. Moreover, there is a reduced possibility of flap complications, such as partial flaps, flap dislocation, free flaps etc. However, an expert surgeon wielding a contemporary microkeratome can very well match the finesse of bladeless LASIK. Although the chances are rare, there is an issue of transient light sensitivity as well – a unique risk associated with bladeless LASIK. Moreover, the bladeless LASIK procedure costs an extra $300 per eye, when compared with traditional LASIK.



All said and done, LASIK itself is one of the safest refractive surgery procedure. Whether it’s blade or bladeless, it largely depends on the eye surgeon of your choice. If the surgeon has loads of experience carrying out microkeratome procedures, it’s better to have it that way. If otherwise, you may go in for the relatively new bladeless LASIK surgery.



Finding a LASIK surgery that you are confident about will be able to give you more information about blade and bladeless LASIK.





title:Blast Away Your Negative Stress With Yoga

author:Jeff Smith

source_url:http://www.articlecity.com/articles/health/article_1576.shtml

date_saved:2007-07-25 12:30:11

category:health

article:



Will you be able to manage the stress in your life?

It seems that everyday brings more and more stress. Yoga  is a terrific way to counter all the stressors in today's fast-paced society.

Now it's clear, not all stress is equal.

All stresses place demands on your life.  Stress turns negative if you perceive that demand to be outside of your control.

Yoga is a powerful way to bring control back into your life,  allowing you to change the way you percieve demands reducing  negative stress in your life.

Your yoga program will directly confront the negative stress in your life, making you more prepared to take on the demands of  positive stress - helping you to grow spiritually, emotionally and intellectually.

The more relaxing Hatha Yoga could easily be used to wind down from a very stressful day, or you could choose forms of power Yoga such as Ashtanga where you can loose yourself in yoga poses that help you build strength and stamina.

Too many people turn to harmful methods to help overcome the  lack of control in their lives.

They turn to alchohol, cigarettes, overworking, drugs or simply giving up on their dreams and ambitions in life.

Will you escape the life of the captive monkey who eventually gives up trying to escape their prison?

Will you open your mind, heart and schedule to Yoga?

Use relaxation yoga to free you from life's negative stress,  you will be amazed at the results.

ZZZZZZ

title:Bleeding Gums

author:Scott Baker

source_url:http://www.articlecity.com/articles/health/article_1631.shtml

date_saved:2007-07-25 12:30:11

category:health

article:



Bleeding gums can be one sign of periodontal disease, gingivitis, or other serious problems. Other symptoms of poor dental health may include persistent bad breath, toothache, and receding gums. Untreated, bleeding gums and gum disease can lead to serious medical problems. Good oral hygiene, including thorough brushing and the removal of plaque and tartar from the teeth, is crucial. However, brushing alone is not enough to stop bleeding gums. Total oral hygiene requires a comprehensive plan to care for the entire mouth, including the teeth and gums, but also including all of the tissue inside the mouth.

Bleeding gums may indicate other medical problems. The Academy of General Dentistry points out that bleeding gums and problems that occur in the mouth may point to other serious conditions: * Bad breath and bleeding gums are a strong indicator of diabetes.

Gum disease can complicate a heart condition.

A sore and painful jaw is a clue for a potential heart attack.

Dental x-rays may show the first signs of osteoporosis

Bleeding gums may also be an indication of canker sores. Canker sores are caused by a virus. Bleeding gums may occur when canker sores become irritated. Bleeding gums may also be caused by age. As we age, many people find that their gums begin to recede, making them literally "long in the tooth." Untreated, receding gums can lead to tooth loss. Your dentist can determine whether your bleeding gums are caused by canker sores, receding gums, periodontal infection or periodontal disease, or other causes. An accurate diagnosis to determine why you have bleeding gums is an important part of choosing the appropriate course of treatment.

Help for Bleeding gums

Bleeding gums and other oral health problems are treatable if they are caught early and taken care of before the condition gets out of hand. Millions of Americans neglect to take care of their gums, teeth and mouth, often with tragic results. If you have a toothache, canker sore, receding gums, or excessive plaque or tartar, then you should take steps to correct the problem. Bleeding gums are unhealthy and unattractive. You don't have to live with bleeding gums. You can learn more about bleeding gums, gum disease and possible solutions by visiting:  http://stopgumdisease.here.ws

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title:Blood Pressure and Its Importance

author:Beverley Brooke

source_url:http://www.articlecity.com/articles/health/article_2171.shtml

date_saved:2007-07-25 12:30:11

category:health

article:



For every heart beat blood is pumping around your body and into your arteries. Systolic pressure is when your heart is at its highest pressure during beats, and when the heart is resting and the pressure falls, this is called diastolic pressure.

Maintaining a healthy blood pressure is extremely important in living a successful healthy and long life. The danger with high blood pressure is that it often goes unnoticed for years, and can lead to serious heart trouble, heart attack or stroke. Not the type of event any of us wishes to experience, especially if high blood pressure can be picked up early and treated accordingly.

Just recently famous UK politician Robin Cook collapsed and was pronounced dead on arrival to hospital from suffering a heart attack directly linked to the high blood pressure disease hypotension. He was only 59; the age we’re people of all society groups should be checking their blood pressure regularly (at least once per year) and seeking treatment if the doctor suggests it’s high for your age.

High blood pressure took the lives of over 40 thousands Americans in 2002 alone and nearly 1 in 3 adults suffers from high blood pressure. Alarmingly, since 1992 up to 2002 the deaths from high blood pressure rose 27% - this is too much. If you’re concerned about your own blood pressure I highly recommend you seek your doctor’s advice and perhaps take a test or even purchase your own blood pressure monitor.

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Title:

Blood Pressure Basics



Word Count:

404



Summary:

The blood pressure is the pressure of the blood within the arteries. It is produced primarily by the contraction of the heart muscle. Know about the blood pressure basics here.





Keywords:

blood pressure, low blood pressure, high blood pressure, health





Article Body:

There are no hard and fast figures which represent a normal blood pressure. And very often doctors and other experts cannot even decide between them what an ideal blood pressure range is for an adult.



However it is usually agreed that somewhere between 110/70 and 125/80 is considered to be an average blood pressure for a grown person, though someone with naturally low blood pressure may be closer to a range of 100/60



A blood pressure of 140/90 is considered to be high, though as a person gets older, this falls into the more normal range for people.



Blood doesn’t circulate in an even stream around the body, but travels in a constant series of spurts. Therefore the pressure peaks in the blood vessels just after a heart beat and then ebbs until the next one. This is a continuous process.



The two blood pressure figures represent the pressures when the forces are at their peak and at their lowest ebb. The stronger the arteries are, the more they resist the force of the blood and the lower the blood pressure.



As a person gets older, and the elasticity of their arteries weakens, the figures tend to rise. However the lower figure should still be under 90 until that person at least reaches their sixties.



Many studies looking at blood pressure in both black and white people have found there is a higher prevalence of hypertension (High blood pressure) in black people than there is in white. This has led to further research in determining whether this is racially determined or just based on socioeconomic and dietary factors.



Some people suffering high blood pressure may find they just can’t pinpoint a cause for their problem. They may be fit, have a very healthy lifestyle yet their blood pressure remains consistently high for no apparent reason. This is called Primary or essential high blood pressure. However if the raised blood pressure is due to an underlying medical problem, it is known as Secondary High Blood Pressure.



Nearly one in four people in the Western world have high blood pressure. Many people don’t appreciate it is a dangerous condition that can lead to a heart attack kidney failure or stroke if it is left untreated. Yet there are thousands of people unaware they have high blood pressure who are walking around with a lethal time bomb ticking away inside them.



Guide to Blood Pressure, low and high blood pressure and treatment.





title:Blood Pressure Medications: A Concise Guide

author:Ray Kelly

source_url:http://www.articlecity.com/articles/health/article_3079.shtml

date_saved:2007-07-25 12:30:11

category:health

article:



High blood pressure is unfortunately something that most people have to deal with as they age. This is especially true for the average person in the western part of the world. The national average for high blood pressure is approximately 24% in the United States with most other Western countries within close proximity of that number.

Medication is the most frequent form of treatment outside of individual lifestyle choices. However, there are a wide variety of drug types used to treat high blood pressure and they each approach the problem in a unique fashion. A physician will prescribe the type of drug best suited for the needs of the individual patient.

DIURETICS

A diuretic is a medication that reduces the amount of water and sodium in the blood. The reduction in water helps to reduce the overall pressure on the walls of the blood vessels and as a result lower the overall blood pressure. A diuretic is usually prescribed in addition to another type of medication as opposed to being used a sole treatment by itself. Diuretics are often called “water pills” and the physician may refer to them as such.

BETA BLOCKERS

Beta blocks work to reduce the heart rate and lower the blood pressure by inhibiting the bodies “fight / flight” response. Essentially a beta-blocker blocks the ability of epinephrine and norepinephrine to stimulate the sympathetic nervous system. This action prevents the increased heart rate and high blood pressure, which is a direct result of that stimulation. The beta-blockers prescribed for high blood pressure have a calming effect and give the person a greater tolerance for stress.

ACE INHIBITORS

Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, or ACE Inhibitors, as they are commonly known helped to reduce blood pressure by preventing the hormone Angiotensin II from forming. Angiontensin II normally constricts the blood vessels as well as acting on the brain to increase the need for salt and hydration.

ANGIOTENSIN ANTAGONIST

Angiontensin antagonists target the same hormone as ACE inhibitors, described above. However, rather than inhibiting the production of Angiotensin II it blocks its effect on the cells of the heart and blood vessels. These medications are also referred to as ARB’s, which stands for angiotensin receptor blockers. This is a newer type of medication which helps to modulate the renin-angiotensin system which has a big role in maintaining the bodies overall blood pressure and the volume of blood in the body.

CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS

This class of medications reduce the overall level of calcium in the heart which in turn reduces the blood pressure since the level of calcium dictates the force with which the heart pumps blood. Individuals with a weak heart (cardiomyopathy) are advised to not take a calcium channel blocker.

ALPHA BLOCKERS

Alpha-blockers bring blood pressure lower by limiting the nerve impulses sent to the blood vessels, which allows the blood to pass more freely. Whereas the beta-blockers affect the heart to decrease blood pressure, the Alpha-blockers affect the blood vessels.

ALPHA-BETA BLOCKERS

The Alpha-Beta class of drugs combines the effects of both the Alpha-blockers and the Beta-blockers, and thereby bring about lower blood pressure. See the descriptions for both to understand how they work.

NERVOUS SYSTEM INHIBITORS

Nervous system inhibitors work at the level of the brain as opposed to the circulatory system. Essentially this class of drugs reduces the nerve impulses sent the blood vessels thereby allowing them to be more relaxed which results in lower blood pressure.

VASODILATORS

A vasodilator works similar to many of the other drugs by relaxing the blood vessels and as a result lowering blood vessels. However, these medicines do not target the hormones or the heart directly. There are a large variety of these types of drugs and they act in different ways.



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Title:

Blood Pressure Monitors



Word Count:

334



Summary:

Blood pressure monitors allow you to keep track of your own blood pressure, in the peace and quiet of your own home, without having to go to the doctor. This will put you in control of your own health, so that you can look for signs of your blood pressure changing, and then visit the doctor when you need.





Keywords:

Blood Pressure Monitors, Digital Blood Pressure Monitors, Reliability of Blood Pressure Monitors, Wrist Blood Pressure Monitors





Article Body:

Blood pressure monitors allow you to keep track of your own blood pressure, in the peace and quiet of your own home, without having to go to the doctor. This will put you in control of your own health, so that you can look for signs of your blood pressure changing, and then visit the doctor when you need.



Measuring your blood pressure at home and keeping a record of the measurements will show you and your doctor how much your blood pressure changes during the day. Your doctor can use the measurements to see how well your medicine is working to control your high blood pressure. Also, measuring your own blood pressure is a good way to take part in managing your health.



To measure your blood pressure at home, you can use either an aneroid monitor or a digital monitor. The aneroid monitor has a dial gauge that is read by looking at a pointer. The cuff is inflated by squeezing a rubber bulb. Digital monitors have either manual or automatic cuffs.



One advantage of the aneroid monitor is that it is portable, and its cuff has a built-in stethoscope. The aneroid monitor also has some disadvantages. First, it is a complicated device that can easily be damaged and become less accurate. This monitor may not be appropriate for hearing-impaired people, because of the need to listen to heart sounds through the stethoscope.



Because the digital monitor is automatic, the blood pressure measurement is easy to read, since the numbers are shown on a screen. Some electronic monitors have a paper printout that gives you a record of the blood pressure reading.



A disadvantage of the digital monitor is that body movements or an irregular heart rate changes the accuracy. You should have your monitor checked once a year. Proper care and storage are also necessary. Make sure the tubing is not twisted when the monitor is stored, and keep it away from heat. Periodically check the tubing for cracks and leaks.





title:Blood Pressure Monitor - Is You're Blood Pressure OK?

author:Beverley Brooke

source_url:http://www.articlecity.com/articles/health/article_2396.shtml

date_saved:2007-07-25 12:30:11

category:health

article:



The focus on reducing high blood pressure in today's society is more so then ever now we now know that living with a high blood pressure can result in having a stroke or a fatal heart attack.

High blood pressure is the most common cardiovascular disease amongst the older generation aged 60 plus – high blood pressure actually effects 2 in 3 in those aged 70 or above and often comes without warnings, lending it the name ‘The Silent Killer'.

The reason heart attacks are common amongst those with high blood pressure is simply because the heart must work far more then normal and eventually is unable to carry out the excessive workload high blood pressure demands in the body.

Due to the silent nature of a high blood pressure it's recommended you monitor your blood pressure regularly, especially if you're in the 60 plus age range. Once a year is enough to keep tabs on your blood pressure and it's cheap and painless – therefore no one has any excuse not to monitor theirs!

Your doctor will have a blood pressure monitor and you can get yourself checked out there and then in the doctor's office or surgery. It's very swift. There is however other methods of monitoring your blood pressure and these include devices you can use at home. The type of device you will need to monitor your own blood pressure is called the sphygmomanometer – this comes with the cuff and systems to register your blood pressure accurately. You can even get ones which give automatic read-outs. I recommend searching around the Internet and choose the right device for you as there are many choices out there.

The most important factor is you exercise regular and take good care of yourself.

ZZZZZZ

title:Blood Pressure Treatment: High and Low Blood Pressure Tips and Medication!

author:Ashley Green

source_url:http://www.articlecity.com/articles/health/article_2822.shtml

date_saved:2007-07-25 12:30:11

category:health

article:



High blood pressure is on the rise worldwide. But, doctors believe that small lifestyle changes can go a long way in preventing this silent killer.

High blood pressure (BP) is one of the 10 leading health risks worldwide and causes seven million deaths a year, according to WHO report. The organsiation estimates that about one-third adults in most countries suffer from high blood pressure.

By 2025, more than 1.5 billion people will have high BP and most importantly, the world's poorest countries will be the worst hit, warns US experts. The expert's warning is the result of the study based on two decades of global data. Based on the trends, the researchers believe that the prevalence of high blood pressure will increase by about 60 percent by 2025. And they expect to see it slightly more in women(30 percent) than in men(29 percent)

Looking at these alarming figures, there could be a worldwide epidemic of strokes and heart attacks in the future.

Here are some steps to control your Blood Pressure (BP)!

. Shed those extra kilos. Cut down on calories. The more overweight you are, the more susceptible you are to high BP.

. Stop smoking. This will keep your BP in control and will also diminish your risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases.

Must Visit: Find enormous quit smoking tips, motivation and an effective quit smoking program at http://www.weightloss-health.com/quit_smoking_ways.htm

. Add more fruits, vegetables and low-fat diary products to your diet.

. Eat foods high in calcium, magnesium and potassium like banana, raisins, potato and dates.

. Reduce your salt intake as it is linked to high BP. According to experts, one shouldn't consume more than 2 grams of sodium per day.

Must Visit: Get free low sodium diet and recipe at http://www.weightloss-health.com/low_sodium_diet_recipes.htm

. Curb your alcohol consumption as excessive alcohol raises your BP.

. Exercise regularly. A 30-minute workout is healthy.

. Use relaxation methods like yoga, meditation and biofeedback to lower your stress levels.

Caution: You may have high blood pressure for years without knowing it. Since high blood pressure is silent killer, only way to find out if you are suffering from it is to have your blood pressure checked regularly. The Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of high blood pressure(JNC), has formulated norms to diagnose pre-hypertension, where blood pressure readings show 120-139 over 80-89 mmHg, which help identify people who are at a higher risk for high blood pressure, heart disease and strokes.

Not many know that high blood pressure can lead to heart and kidney ailments and may be fatal too. Those who have recently become hypertensive can heal themselves by losing weight, increasing physical activity, curbing alcohol consumption, increasing fruit content in their diet and practicing yoga. Also one should watch out for sleep apnoea- a common cause for hypertension at http://www.weightloss-health.com/sleep%20apnea%20treatment.htm.

Exercise Tips to fight Hypertension!

. Low level aerobic training (biking, treadmill)

. Walking

. Water aerobics, swimming

. Resistance Training (Bench Press, squats and leg press).

. Circuit training

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Title:

Blood Pressure: An Overview



Word Count:

844



Summary:

What is Blood Pressure?



Blood pressure is a measurement of the pressure exerted by the circulating blood on the walls of the arteries, veins and chambers of the heart. The pressure of blood is measured in the context of systolic and diastolic activities. When the ventricles in the heart contract, it is termed as a systolic activity, while the relaxing ventricles mark a diastolic activity.



The pressure of blood is highest during the systole activity and lowest during t...





Keywords:







Article Body:

What is Blood Pressure?



Blood pressure is a measurement of the pressure exerted by the circulating blood on the walls of the arteries, veins and chambers of the heart. The pressure of blood is measured in the context of systolic and diastolic activities. When the ventricles in the heart contract, it is termed as a systolic activity, while the relaxing ventricles mark a diastolic activity.



The pressure of blood is highest during the systole activity and lowest during the diastole activity. The unit of measuring blood pressure is millimeters. A normal blood pressure reading is 120/80 mmHg.



A normal healthy person maintains the blood pressure reading of 120/80 mmHg. A deviation from this normal reading can result in a blood pressure disorder. There are basically two abnormal conditions of blood pressure. They are known as high blood pressure or hypertension and low blood pressure or hypotension.



High Blood Pressure/ Hypertension



A person is known to suffer from high blood pressure when their measurement of blood pressure increases over that of a normal reading. A normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg. When this blood pressure increases to, say 140/ 90 mmHg, the person is known to have high blood pressure.



High blood pressure is often termed as 'a silent killer'. You might be suffering from a high blood pressure for a long period of time and not know it at all. When a person develops high blood pressure, it usually lasts for lifetime.



Why High Blood Pressure?



Your heart pumps the blood and supplies it to the various organs of your body via arteries. The arteries, when leaving your heart, narrow into arterioles. The arterioles further narrow themselves into capillaries. These capillaries supply oxygen and nutrients to the various body organs.



Due to certain nerve impulses, the arteries become dilated or contracted. If the arteries become contracted, the passage of blood is hampered and it increases the pressure of blood. The condition causes high blood pressure or hypertension. This condition strains your heart and can even damage your blood vessels. If the vessels get damaged, the blood supply can further affect various body organs connected to the damaged vessels.



The human body generally bears and handles this sudden increase of pressure for a long period of time. This is one of the sole reasons for the fact that you can live your whole life, without any ill-effects or symptoms, from high blood pressure.



Two Forms of High Blood Pressure



There are two forms of high blood pressure, essential hypertension and secondary hypertension. Around 95 % of hypertension cases are related to essential hypertension. The cause of essential hypertension is multifold though.



There are several factors which result in essential hypertension. One of the major factors is high salt intake. Other factors that can contribute to the cause of essential hypertension are tobacco smoking, alcohol abuse, obesity, diabetes mellitus, a sedentary lifestyle and genetic causes.



Secondary hypertension amounts to at least 5 % of the cases of hypertension. The factors contributing to secondary hypertension are pregnancy, a slow pulse, drugs, kidney diseases, certain types of cancers, malformed aorta and aortic vale disease.



High blood pressure largely remains undetected in its first stage of occurrence. A person would probably never know about it. But if the condition of high blood pressure prolongs, it can cause serious damages to the various body organs. High blood pressure can directly affect the person in the form of kidney failure, congestive heart failure or heart attack.



Low Blood Pressure/ Hypotension



In the medical terms, low blood pressure is called hypotension. A person is said to have low blood pressure disorder, if his blood pressure falls below the normal reading of 120/80 mmHg.



Why Low Blood Pressure?



There are many causes of low blood pressure. Among the common cause include acute illness. The condition can be characterized with the symptoms such as severe blood loss, infection, fluid loss or damage to the heart. The age-factor plays an important role in low blood pressure. Increasing age causes your arteries to stiffen and cause a drop in the pressure of blood.



Damage to adrenal glands can also lead to low blood pressure conditions. Damage to adrenal glands affects the production of aldosterone in your body. This hormone controls the salt amounts in the body. If the aldosterone hormone gets affected, it leads to the loss of salt from your body, further resulting in low blood pressure. This causes dizziness when you stand up. Low blood pressure can also be caused due to the usage of diuretics.



A person with low blood pressure shows symptoms of chest pain, headache, prolonged diarrhea or vomiting. The person also suffers from burning sensation while urination, stiff neck, high fever and irregular heartbeat. The person, at times, suffers from shortness of breath and a cough with phlegm.



Normal is healthy!



Neither high blood pressure, nor low blood pressure is good for your body and health. You should get your blood pressure checked regularly for either of these two disorders. The proper treatment and control of your blood pressure will definitely enable you to live a healthy and happy life!





Title:

Blood & Glory: Do Video Games Make Monsters?



Word Count:

733



Summary:

Video games have been blamed for everything from the Columbine incident to over-aggressive behavior in Marines. However, this is an unfair judgment, as not all games are violent. Also, there are now studies being conducted to determine the use of these games as therapeutic aids.





Keywords:

mental health, stress relief





Article Body:

Video games have been taking the flak for the surprising rise in teen and childhood violence over the past few decades. Everything, from the increase of guns among inner city kids to the Columbine tragedy, have been blamed on video games. Some US Senators have even attempted to have the entire industry banned based on the “fact” that video games turn kids into violent, amoral, sadistic monsters. However, these moralist crusaders tend to ignore the other potential factors in such a “transformation.” What is not often discussed about this issue is the possibility of parental neglect and the predisposition of some children to violence even prior to being exposed to video games.  Some studies are now being conducted to determine how video games affect a person's mental health, in the hope of getting to the bottom of this “video game debate” once and for all.



While research is always necessary, there is always the possibility that the results of these studies would be too generalized.  For starters, like literature, video games have different genres, with each genre having a separate set of core elements that define how the game is played.  For example, the role-playing game (RPG) genre is traditionally focused on developing a long, continuous plot, hoping to ascend from being a mere game to becoming a sort of emotional investment. In contrast, action games rely more on a fast trigger-finger and quick thinking, with little or no attention given to how the plot or characters develop. Both genres of games can have completely different effects on a person's mental health, if there is even any effect at all. Sure, playing a dating simulator or a “visual novel” can have some effect on how a person deals with social situations. However, these games do not automatically turn players into sociopaths like Ted Bundy and Jack the Ripper.



Violent video games, according to recent studies, can actually have other uses. In a study conducted by the University of Southern California, environmental simulations are being used to treat soldiers suffering from post-traumatic stress syndrome. This is done by ironically immersing them in the same combat environment they came from. While the data as of now is not yet complete, it does reflect that it is actually helping them cope with combat stress, and not twisting their mental health. This actually keys in to what video game players have been saying for decades, which is that video games make for excellent stress relief.



Indeed, in contrast to the sales numbers, very few violent incidents have been blamed entirely in video games. There is no concrete study that has been conducted into it, but the anecdotal evidence of countless gamers the world over can attest to just how good a stress relief tool for a person. Yes, there will always be some who will have their mental health affected by playing a video game, but it would be far too simple and far too easy to make a scapegoat of a massive, global industry that makes billions every year. This is especially true when one considers that not all games are violent, and not all of them encourage causing mass destruction and mayhem. Yes, violence sells games, but blood and gore do not a hit game make. For example, the “Final Fantasy” and “Mario” series of games have both set and broken sales records in the past, but neither of them espouse the same level of violence as “Grand Theft Auto” or “Resident Evil.”



Whether video games are a modern form of stress relief or a tool for twisting someone's mental health will likely always be a subject of debate. However, the debate always tends to ignore other factors, such as how the games ended up in the hands of children in the first place. It is illegal to sell a game with an “M” rating to someone below 18, which means that unless the parent or a similar authority figure bought it for them, there is no way a child can get their hands on the game. Yes, there are those flashy and violent arcade games, but if a child is spending hours on end in an arcade, doesn't that imply just a little bit of parental neglect? Besides, peer pressure and parental influences can often have a more powerful effect on a child's mental health and social development than whatever was playing on the X-Box 360.





Title:

bluebasins bath & body launches its line of natural skin care body products



Word Count:

330



Summary:

bluebasins, Canada’s newest premier line of bath and body products, is pleased to announce its line of natural skin care Canadian products.





Keywords:

bath body, natural ingredients, natural skin care body products, shea butter, aromatherapy essential oils, handmade, ingredients natural, smoothe skin, natural skin care products, at home spa, body bu





Article Body:

Toronto, ON, Canada – bluebasins, Canada’s newest premier line of bath and body products, is pleased to announce its line of natural skin care Canadian products.



“I invite you to have a look at your average bath or body product,” says Makeda A. Paul, owner of bluebasins. “Can you pronounce all the ingredient names listed? This is why I created bluebasins – to give consumers a choice, without sacrificing quality.”



bluebasins bath & body's natural skin care product line offers a wide array of products, created by hand and with all-natural ingredients. Products include handmade soaps, body shampoos, facial masks, body scrubs, bath melts, body butters and more. Because the products are not mass produced, bluebasins is able to incorporate the best natural ingredients including Sweet Almond Oil, Macadamia nut Oil, Shea Butter, Cocoa Butter, Ylang Ylang essential oil, Rosehip powder, Dead Sea salts and other aromatherapy essential oils. By blending these natural ingredients together, wonderful synergies of products are created that are good for the mind, body and soul.



“At bluebasins, we aspire to create a near-spa like experience for our customers, right in the comfort of their own homes,” continues Paul. “We take pride in knowing all of the ingredients in our products and work with our clients to find out what ingredients would be most beneficial for their unique skin type.”



In addition to custom orders, bluebasins has a wide array of their most popular items available on their website. Your skin is one click away from looking and feeling its best.



“Your skin is yours for life – at bluebasins, we can help you look after it to make it as healthy and smooth as possible,” concludes Paul.



bluebasins bath & body natural skin care products show consumers an alternative natural way to take care of their body. For more information, visit their website at www.bluebasins.com.



-30-



Makeda A. Paul, Owner

P.O. Box 52554

Mississauga, Ontario, Canada

L5J 4S6

Phone: 416-473-7457

E-mail: info@bluebasins.com

Online : www.bluebasins.com





Title:

Blueberry As A Superfood According To Skin Care Expert Dr. Perricone



Word Count:

453



Summary:

According to skin care legend Dr. Perricone, the blueberry is a superfood with many health benefits and should be made a staple of every diet. Here's why...





Keywords:

Perricone, Dr. Perricone, diet, healthy skin, skin care, blueberry, antioxidant, superfood





Article Body:

Copyright 2006 David Maillie



Often times, when we think of superfoods we think of spinach, grapes, green tea and other vegetables and extracts that are primarily listed for their levels of antioxidants.  Did you know that the blueberry is one of the most nutritious and powerful superfoods?  According to Dr. Perricone, one of the worlds foremost skin care experts, “Blueberry along with the acai berry have one of the highest known levels of antioxidants of any food.”  Higher than red wine and green tea combined.  It is full of amino acids, vitamins, and antioxidants, and essential fatty acids.  Whole, fresh blueberries are best, but pure blueberry juice and combination blueberry and pomegranate juice can be found at your local grocery store in the produce section.



Blueberries have many uses as blueberry extract has been used in ancient herbal and medicinal treatments for thousands of years.  Many skin care treatments now use blends of blueberry extracts along with other herbs to help revitalize the skin and hasten healing.  These treatments have been clinically proven to decrease healing time for skin peels (especially deeper skin peels like the TCA skin peel).  They have also shown marked ability at reducing scarring in wound and burn treatment, although more research is needed.



Dr. Perricone in his best selling book The Perricone Prescription states that for optimum skin care one should regularly eat high antioxidant foods like blueberry, acai, pomegranate, and spinach.  These foods with their high concentrations of antioxidants and nutrients help combat and can even reverse the aging process.  With the right diet full of antioxidant rich foods one can virtually stop wrinkles in their tracks.  A good diet along with a good skin care regimen can produce amazing results.  A good skin care regimen includes a mild cleanser (no soap as it is too harsh and will dry out your skin), a moisturizer packed with antioxidant extracts, and skin peels to increase exfoliation and reduce oily build up (which can lead to acne).  It is also a good idea to use a high spf sun protectant.



The leading medical colleges are currently researching high percentage antioxidant extracts like blueberry for anti cancer properties and possible and promising treatments.  In clinical settings there is evidence that these antioxidant rich foods do have a marked effect on several types of cancer.  In addition to anti cancer properties, the blueberry has shown an positive effect on the nervous system, and increase in cognitive function and reasoning, and an increase in muscle function and regeneration.  Truly the blueberry has many current and promising functions and, as a superfood like acai according to Dr. Perricone, should be made a staple of every diet for additional health, great skin care and longevity.





Title:

Blue Cross Blue Shield—Connected To The Community



Word Count:

852



Summary:

Oldest Health Benefit Provider Committed to Improving Health Care



75 years ago Blue Cross Blue Shield (BCBS) was created to ensure healthcare for lumber and mining workers in the Pacific Northwest and hospital coverage for teachers in Texas. Now providing care benefits to more than 94 million Americans, BCBS is the oldest and largest health insurance companies in the United States.



With plans in all 50 states, plus Washington D.C. and Puerto Rico, the BCBS Association s...





Keywords:

BlueCross,Blue,Shield,Connected,to,the,Community,Oldest,Health,Benefit,Provider,Committed





Article Body:

Oldest Health Benefit Provider Committed to Improving Health Care



75 years ago Blue Cross Blue Shield (BCBS) was created to ensure healthcare for lumber and mining workers in the Pacific Northwest and hospital coverage for teachers in Texas. Now providing care benefits to more than 94 million Americans, BCBS is the oldest and largest health insurance companies in the United States.



With plans in all 50 states, plus Washington D.C. and Puerto Rico, the BCBS Association serves as the trade organization for the 38 independently run local BCBS health benefit groups that serve 1 in 3 Americans. Using their clout to create a national presence, BCBS offers numerous community programs that are dedicated to education, research and collaboration. Programs related to research and professional development includes the Foundation on Health Care and the Academy for Health Care Management. Those associated with public education consist of labor outreach through the National Labor Organization (NLO), an educational campaign, focusing on the issue of performance enhancing drugs, called Healthy Competition and the PBS television series Second Opinion.



BCBS Foundation on Health Care



The BCBS Foundation on Health Care, which is a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit group, coordinates health service research amongst numerous organizations across the nation. The Foundation acts as a facilitator between government agencies, colleges and universities and health plans. It sponsors both the Health Services Research Advisory Council (HSRAC), composed of nationally recognized health care experts, and the Health Services Research Alliance (HSRA), whose participating institutions are located in 25 states.



The HSRAC helps to identify key areas of and provide guidance in multi-plan health services research, offers input regarding how changes in the accessibility and delivery of health care may impact individuals, groups and communities and gives assistance relating to the funding and development of potential studies.



Organizations within the HSRA work collaboratively through the BCBS Foundation to provide key studies that are population and evidence-based. The Foundation is dedicated to creating important partnerships between various institutions, expanding funding opportunities and strengthening its presence in the health insurance and health care community. The group disseminates information relating to health care conferences, promotes data based studies relating to medical issues and works to improve the quality of services and their delivery.



Academy for Healthcare Management



The academy was formed when the BCBS Association and the American Association of Health Plans and Health Insurance Association of America (AAHP-HIAA) joined forces to offer online educational opportunities for professionals interested in broadening their knowledge of the challenges, priorities and procedures connected to managed care operations. Participants are given the opportunity to utilize up-to-date management concepts in everyday, real world situations, learning via instant response and assessment.



Course materials, which are regularly modified, provide students with information, principles and problems designed to solidify basic knowledge and expand upon advanced concepts and practices as they relate to the healthcare industry. Upon completing coursework, along with earning Continuing Education credits, students can be designated as a Professional, Academy of Healthcare Management (PAHM) or Fellow, Academy of Healthcare Management (FAHM).



National Labor Office



BCBS created the NLO over forty years ago, and they continue to fund it today. The NLO is the arm for labor outreach, which focuses on keeping union members abreast of health care developments, strengthening ties to organized labor and providing quality programs and services to the over 20 million union members and their families.



Primarily, NLO acts as a liaison between BCBS and labor, providing educational materials, developing relationships between various organizations and offering important information. Pending legislation, new healthcare products, developing trends, managed care and bargaining strategies are all addressed by the NLO.



Along with communicating with unions, the NLO facilitates the exchange of information and discussion of issues between union officials and BCBS senior officers. Together, they work to address concerns specific to each union, including developing a healthier working environment, defining value-related healthcare and supplying health plan analysis, reporting and design.



The NLO communicates with unions via newsletters, the web and informational meetings as well as through its central office.



Healthy Competition



The Healthy Competition program was developed by BCBS in response to the increased use and popularity of performance enhancing drugs by both professional and amateur athletes. Healthy Competition encourages those involved in athletics to safeguard their health and the integrity of their sport by competing drug free.



The program offers information related to drug use, sports and good health. It delineates profiles of the three types of performance enhancing drugs—stimulants, blood doping substances and anabolic steroids. Healthy Competition supports research and education and promotes public awareness through various initiatives.



PBS Second Opinion



BCBS provides sponsorship for the 2005-2006 season of Second Opinion, the PBS series that engages various medical professionals in discussion of actual medical cases. The program attempts to broaden the public’s understanding of medical issues, choices and procedures encountered in our complex and ever changing world.



BCBS is the major health benefit provider in America. It has grown greatly since its initiation 75 years ago. However, through a commitment to professional and public education and betterment, it continues to focus on serving individual groups, as it did when it first started providing benefits to teachers, lumbermen and miners.





Title:

Boca Raton Home Health Care and Elder Care



Word Count:

510



Summary:

Home health care services are a primary requirement for people anywhere in the world.  Home health care services include skilled nursing, personal care assistance, respite and similar services for the elderly and others.





Keywords:

South Florida In Home Health Care,South Florida Care Giver Agency,





Article Body:

Home health care services are a primary requirement for people anywhere in the world.  Home health care services include skilled nursing, personal care assistance, respite and similar services for the elderly and others. These services are important for people of all ages and especially people who are recuperating from illness or need help with regular activities. If you staying in Florida and looking for home health care there are host of service providers from whom you can chose. Whether you are looking for Boca Raton home health care, Boynton Beach, Broward, Century Village or Coconut Creek Home Health Care there are service providers who can offer support round the clock. Sometime it becomes important to seek professional and trained support for helping elders or patients in the house. During these times we need to approach a home health care service provider with our request for trained nurses or staff.



Home health care services can extend to assistants who can help you with your shopping to companions who can simply spend time with you when you are feeling lonely or going out for a movie or medical appointments. Specialized home care services involve trained personal who can really make a difference to a person’s life. Home health care service is all about personalized care which can help a patient to quickly start off with normal life or extend support to a person in dealing with household work. In today’s stressed out world these services are a great boon to people who need a helping hand to complete their household chores.



In Boca Raton home health care providers offer an exceptional level of service to clients who need home health care help. You should ideally seek the services of an agency which is licensed with the Agency for Healthcare Administration (AHCA) in Florida. Apart from Boca Raton there are numerous Coral Springs home health care, Davie home health care, Delray Beach home health care, Ft Lauderdale home health care, Greenacres home health care and Lake Worth home health care service providers. So if you are a resident of any of these places you do not have to worry when you need home health care support. When looking for service it is important to check out the rates that are being offered by the providers. Many service providers provide good amount of discounts to clients. The provider that you select should provide the highest level of service and have trained personal on their rolls.



If you are in need of home health care service for your loved ones the best way is to check out the wide listing of home care service providers and contact the leading ones. Almost all the agencies display the same kind of service hence it is important to enquire in detail. The agency should have licensed nurses and trained professional staff who have experience in home health care. Home heath care is an important step to recuperating from any illness hence any negligence would extend the time that you need to stay away from normal life.





title:Bodily Attributes!

author:Seamus Dolly

source_url:http://www.articlecity.com/articles/health/article_576.shtml

date_saved:2007-07-25 12:30:10

category:health

article:



The revolution is indeed underway.

Money married to desire, imagination and necessity has produced a technological revolution which will see incredible changes and potential. This is not about any morbid fixation, but rather about complimentary technologies. Some religious ideologists, or ethically sensitive groups, may not approve.

Fine! Each to his own.

But, someone dealing with paralysis, for example, has hope for a productive future.

Cybernetics, which is the introduction and implementation of hardware or non-organic components, into the body, has enormous potential.

Micro processors and less invasive wireless technologies ( no need for physical connection ), result in the remote control of peripheral devices. A robotic arm, to mention a simple application that everyone is familiar with, can be controlled to manipulate the external world, or perform relatively simple tasks like switching on the kettle. Simpler again, and often more important, would be to scratch oneself, when itchy. If you ever wore a cast, you’ll know what is meant by that.

Artificial limbs are fairly common, and can range in complexity or performance. It is fairly safe to say that we all know someone who depends on these (though it might not be obvious ).

The artificial eye is a breakthrough and is here, and though it requires refinement, it will improve. And why wouldn’t it? We all know of cameras and how their images are transportable. The thing here is to allow a blind person, for example, to access what a camera sees, where the eye has been irreversibly damaged or impaired. The optic nerve, however, may be just fine, so an interface between a camera and it, is one approach, and the approach that has returned some results.

Artificial hearing, in its earlier form, was known as a hearing aid, and is around a long time, and implants within the head, dramatically increases its potential,. It is this type of hardware implants that cybernetics encompasses. A merging of the biological and electronic environments, if you will.

People who suffer physical injury or disease, that render them into a limited field of possibility, will be the initial beneficiaries.

Apparently, there is an area of the brain called the paroidal reach region, that can function, where complete paralysis exists. It runs through the plan before a physical act occurs. Some believe that where this region is functional, external manipulation is possible.

A processor is implanted; it picks up on the electrical firing activity produced, and communicates this information wirelessly, to an external device.

The theory is that if we can think it, well then we can do it.

Wasn’t it Napoleon that said “If we can perceive it, we can achieve it”. I really doubt though, that he was referencing cybernetics. However, it is known that the hardware to device communication is possible.

It is also known that the device control is possible. Modern machinery from production machinery to marine vessels have what is known as dynamic positioning control. Research vessels can hold position to within five inches of any point, in the Atlantic or other oceans, under normal sea conditions. Twenty years ago, this tolerance was two foot, or feet. Special electrical motors ( though no longer considered special ), make this possible. The older technology was mechanical gearboxes that had a limited reaction time/control.

So, these or similar motor technologies, can be used for robotic arms, legs, eyes, ears, switches, switches for switches, internet connection, or indeed anything that a futuristic mind can contemplate.

What is not generally known, is the brain coding, or is it?

Can it be figured out? Yes! When? Soon, so hang on.

Look to the internet and the advances that have occurred. Anyone with a phone connection has access to databases, and software features to limit their labour, and such things can be thought of as brain extension. Well isn’t it? If you didn’t have it, you would be less capable! Complimentary tools are indeed complimentary. We are not born with them, but we are born with the power or ability to create them, where resources and some support exist, and when the time in a technological sense is right, or close to it. What is meant by that is that a caveman, for example, could have been a genius, but definitely lacked support from his peers, and the framework to achieve much.

At any point in time, none of us can do all that we want, whether we start early enough or not.

The best we can do is to add something and if the time/circumstances is/are right, it could blow up into something phenomenal.

Indeed, whatever we do, is in addition to what has been done before us.

The neurosurgeons of today are simply adding to the knowledge base of their eighteenth century counterparts. Needless to say, you wouldn’t let such counterparts near your feet, let alone your head. But they have a part to play in the success stories of today. Indeed, some might say that they were “freed” from the “blight” of litigation. That is true, but a little distractive.

You can no longer say “never”, only “never, within my lifetime”, and you could still be wrong, such are the modern day variables.

ZZZZZZ

title:Body And Soul - Keeping It Together!

author:Jon Wickham

source_url:http://www.articlecity.com/articles/health/article_485.shtml

date_saved:2007-07-25 12:30:10

category:health

article:



LET'S START WITH THE BODY . . .

H E A L T H

It is said that the first thing a man does when he wakes in the morning is to look out of the window to see how the weather has changed overnight, and the first thing a women does on waking is to look in the mirror to see what the night has done to her face. Enough said … but if your look in the mirror is followed by 'Oh, my God … I could do with a face-lift, etc. etc.' (don't worry, we've all been there) before you start layering on more make-up and deciding to embark yet again on another diet/exercise regime (which will probably have been forgotten anyway by the weekend), let's stop wishing, and start by trying to make the best of what we have got.

We may not be able to recapture the healthy glow of youth, but we may be able to inject a little sparkle by giving as much thought to the inside of our bodies as we do to the outside. Just think of what would happen to a house if it were not built on firm foundations. Also how would our cars run if we filled them up with the wrong fuel? Similarly, how can we expect our bodies to function smoothly if we just worry about the paintwork and not concentrate on the engine? So analyse what you are putting into your body. Is it mainly 'comfort/grab-a-snack - I'm in a hurry' food, eg buns, crisps, chocolates etc., or is it nourishing food with all the vitamins and minerals the body requires to operate efficiently?

Many moons ago, a colleague of mine, who had a connection with a pharmaceutical company, said the idea had been muted within the company that as the elderly often start the day with a cup of tea and digestive biscuit, then a good way of ensuring that they receive all the necessary vitamins and minerals was to add them to the digestive biscuit It seemed a great idea, but when you think of how we absentmindedly dip into a packet of biscuits, then we would probably overdose on vitamins. Although we need vitamins we can also have too much of a good thing. It is worth remembering that whereas the body will expel too much of say Vitamin C, the body will store Vitamins A & D and an overload of these vitamins can have a detrimental effect. So leave it to the experts to get the balance right. It is better to start the day (together with your nourishing breakfast) with a good multi-vitamin and mineral tablet. The tablet container will show the RDA (which stands for the 'recommended daily allowance'), and it will also show how the tablet equates with this.

A good multi-vitamin and mineral supplement is the Holland & Barrett's

Formula for the 50 PLUS called ABC PLUS SENIOR (on half-price offer at the present time).

Another supplement I would recommend for those of us whose memory is not what it used to be is 'Ginkgo Biloba'. (Also on half-price offer at the moment). This has been in use for years on the continent as an aid to improving the circulation. It is said that it not only improves the supply of blood to the head and subsequently improves the memory (so hopefully we'll remember where we put the bottle of tablets) but it also improves the blood supply to the extremities, which is great if you suffer from cold hands and feet. Ginkgo, by the way, comes from the Ginkgo tree, which is one of the oldest trees known to man. You can therefore appreciate how vital it is that we do not allow plants to become extinct.

Remember the old wives' tale that 'fish is good for the brain'? (When I hear this saying, my mind always goes back to a lecturer jokingly saying that his mother was determined that he would do well and always made him eat fish before an examination, and, of course, to her delight he did do well). Well, now it has been proved that Omega 3 (pure fish oils) not only benefits the brain but the whole body. It is high in essential fatty acids, which help to maintain a healthy heart and circulation.

Another very good supplement is Selenium. This was naturally present in the earth and in our vegetables years ago, but sadly has become depleted over the years with intensive farming and chemicals. So we can put back this missing ingredient. I certainly felt a difference on taking this as a supplement.

Now, if you are prone to numerous infections, coughs, colds, etc., then your immune system needs a boost. In addition to the usual Vitamin C, a couple of good supplements for this are Zinc and Echinacea. It's a good idea to take Echinacea well before the 'flu time' is upon us in order to get it into the system.

We have always known the importance of making sure that we have enough calcium in order to maintain bone strength, but it is only in the past few years that Glucosamine has come to the fore as an aid to the joints. Glucosamine is believed to stimulate cartilage growth and prevent it wearing down and hopefully reducing the subsequent pain. I have a friend who swears this has helped her painful joints. Chondroitin is often added to the Glucosamine as this helps to attract fluid into the cartilage Healthy Direct (www.healthydirect.co.uk) has a special offer on this powerful combination of Glucosamine, Chondroitin and Vitamin C. They also operate a free postage and packing with prompt delivery service, which is great if you have difficulty in getting to the shops.

Notice that throughout I have been using the word 'supplement' as no tablets are going to replace a healthy diet. I remember being told by a doctor when I was in my twenties that the way towards a healthy life was to eat a small amount of a wide variety of foods and that way the body would obtain the necessary vitamins and nourishment. Whilst I agree with the 'variety' advice, I am not sure with the present day treatment and overlong storage of foodstuffs (particularly fruit and vegetables) whether there are many vitamins left by the time they reach the table. It came as a shock to hear at one lecture that when they tested an orange for its Vitamin C content, the results came back as a surprising 'nil'. Still to end on a happy note, the fibre content was there, and we must eat plenty of FRESH fruit and vegetables not only for the vitamins but also for the fibre and enzymes necessary for the digestive process to function properly. But more on that - together with a breakdown of all the essential vitamins and my favourite subject - FOOD - (I'll try not to think about or mention chocolate cake)

IT'S … 'HOLD-BACK-THE-YEARS' FOOD …… next time

Looking forward to chatting to you again and also looking forward to hearing from you …

ZZZZZZ

Title:

Body Art: It's Cool To Be Safe



Word Count:

702



Summary:

The skin acts as the human body's main protective barrier.  Tattoo and body piercing makes a person at high risk of skin infections.





Keywords:

bacterial infections, skin infections, skin disorder





Article Body:

It may seem like a cool idea to use your body as a medium for artistic expression.  Body art has become the “in” thing to do among today's generation, young and old alike.  One cannot walk down the street, go to the mall, or watch TV without seeing somebody with a tattoo on the arms, nape, navel, ankle or piercings in the ears, lips, nostrils, eyebrows, belly buttons, tongues, and cheeks.  Piercings can now be done on just about any part of the body.

But before you think of getting one for yourself to ride on the bandwagon of being “cool” --- you might want to know first how safe it is and the things you need to be aware of if you do decide to have one.  A tattoo or piercing may take only a few minutes or hours to acquire but may cause possible risks of bacterial infections which may lead to long term medical conditions.  Getting a tattoo should not lead to health complications and lifetime of regret.

So here are a few short notes on some of the more popular types of body art:

Body Art

Body art is considered an extension of performing arts where the artist makes use of his or her own body for the purpose of artistic expression.  Body art comes in different forms, the most common of which are tattoos and body piercings. Other types of body art are called scarification, branding, “scalpelling”, shaping, full body tattoo and body painting.



Tattoos

A tattoo, also known as dermal pigmentation, is a permanent mark or design made on the skin by inserting pigments through pricks into the skin's top layer for decorative purposes.  The procedure entails  repeated piercing of a needle into the skin.  With every puncture of the needle that is connected to a small machine with tubes containing dye, it injects ink droplets into the skin.  There is small amount of bleeding involved in this process which may last for several hours depending on the size of the tattoo design.  The process may cause slight to moderate pain.

The skin acts as the human body's main protective barrier.  Getting a tattoo puts a person at high risk of skin infections, allergic reactions, blood-borne diseases, skin disorders, as well as MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) complications.

After getting a tattoo, healing usually takes several days.  When it becomes itchy, avoid picking at scabs.  It may increase the risk of bacterial infections and can also damage the design.

Some people may decide to have their tattoos removed when the design becomes faded or when the design no longer appeals to them.  However, complete removal may be very difficult as tattoos are intended to be permanent marks.  Though there are many tattoo removal techniques nowadays, scarring and skin discoloration are likely to be left on the skin.

Body Piercing

Body piercing is the insertion of jewelry into any parts of the human body.  Body piercing poses certain risks similar to those when you get a tattoo. However, modern improvements in safety procedures and equipment have made earlobe piercing very popular as it is generally less risky than other body piercings.

Traditional body piercing is done with no anesthesia and, as such, is a painful experience.   But modern techniques in earlobes-piercing makes safe use of ear piercing gun with sterilized, disposable cartridges. This single-use piercing device or gun includes one earring stud and clasp, and comes in individually wrapped sterile packages.

For other body piercings, a hollow needle is pushed through a body part to insert a piece of jewelry into the hole.  The use of a reusable piercing gun for these types of piercings can put a person at risk of bacterial infections.  These devices are difficult to sterilize and can easily damage the skin.

Choosing a reputable piercing and tattoo studio minimizes your chance of getting complications.  These establishments employ trained and licensed tattoo and piercing artists.  You can be assured of quality service as well as a clean environment.  Remember, anytime the skin is punctured, there is a risk of skin infection.  More than just getting an intricately designed tatoo or sporting that diamond-studded nose piercing, it's important to know that it's cool to be safe.





title:Body Building Equipment for the Rest of Us

author:Nicky Pilkington

source_url:http://www.articlecity.com/articles/health/article_2575.shtml

date_saved:2007-07-25 12:30:11

category:health

article:



Large, bulging muscles like those found on the models of body building magazine covers are often what people associate with strength training. Of course, building muscles is part of this type of training program. There are other benefits that even women who don’t want to “bulk up” can appreciate. Stronger muscles can reduce your risk of injury to your back and other parts of your body. Since your metabolism increases when you strength train, you can also maintain a healthy weight. Body building that results in large muscles typically involves long, strenuous workouts. To experience the results just mentioned, you would just need to perform body building exercises for 30 minutes, 3 times a week. What makes the difference in results you experience with strength training exercises is the body building equipment you use.

If you are interested in a moderate workout, you can simply add ankle or wrist weights to your existing low-impact workout. Adding a few extra pounds forces your heart and muscles to work harder. Weight vests are also an option if you are interested in defining your upper body. The key to success with this body building equipment is to make sure you don’t put too much stress on your muscles, which can cause serious injury. Since these types of weights are easily adjustable, you can try out varying weight amounts to find the amount that will give you the best results without undue stress and strain.

A common body building regimen for professional bodybuilders is to focus on one set of muscles each workout. You can choose any order you wish. Since you can work your abdominal muscles on a daily basis, body building equipment that includes a platform for performing abdominal exercises is a good choice. Smith machines is equipment that features stations for performing different exercises. These machines generally feature a bench that you can use to perform bench presses as well as crunches or sit-ups. These machines can cost upwards of $500, but low-end Smith machines such as the Body Solid Powerline that costs less than $500 are perfect for a basic body building program.

For “spot” workouts, bodybuilding exercises that focus on one muscle group, there are numerous types of body building equipment available on the market. Within this market there are numerous kinds of body building equipment for light-to-moderate body building exercises. A good starter piece of equipment that you can purchase anywhere is a chin-up bar. This equipment costs as little as $10 and fits in any doorway of your home. Push ups are perfect for any type of exercise program. Although you can perform pushups without special equipment, purchasing a pair of pushup stands can provide extra support for your wrists. This equipment is also great for traveling. Dip stands may not fit in your suitcase, but you can easily slide them in a corner of a room when they are not in use. Dip stands are used to perform exercises that work the arms and abdominals. If you’re creative you can easily design other upper and lower-body exercises. The equipment listed here is only a percentage of what is available on the market. You can find more detailed information about body building equipment at body-building-equipment.com.

ZZZZZZv

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